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istol un& (^ltsuttBttx»Y xxt 

FOE 1891-92,, 

The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statements made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors alone 
are responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and the 
Editor for the Notices of Books. 

N.B. — It is requested that Authors of Papers will be so good as to carefully 
read through their respective Papers, and communicate to the Editor 
any misprints, or other errors, in order that they be corrected in the 
Addenda or Corrigenda in the same volume or subsequent issues. — J.M. 

Donations of Historical or Antiquarian Books, Tracts, 
Maps, Engravings, &c, are invited to the Society's Library 
at the Museum, Gloucester. Librarian— The Rev. Wm. 
Bazeley, M.A., Hon. Gen. Sec 



Bristol *v <K!our*0t*r${Hrr 

FOE 1891-92. 

J^cftfed % SIM JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., F.E.S.A., Irel 
President of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. 






Transactions at Malmesbury . . • . 1-21 

n Moreton-in-Marsh. . • . 21-46 

„ Gloucester . . . . 163-166 

On the Architecture of Malmesbury Church. By the Rev. 

William Bazeley, M. A., Hon. Secretary . . 6-15 
Ancient Sculptures in the South Porch of Malmesbury Abbey 

Church. By Mary Ellen Bagnall-Oakeley . 16-19 

The President's Inaugural Address . . . 47-51 

The History of Moreton-in-Marsh. By Ernest Belcher . 52-60 

The Last Battle of the First Civil War. By F. A. Hyett . 61-67 

Bourton-on-the-Hill. By the Rev. David Royce, M.A. . 68-95 
Little Compton— its Chui'ch and Manor House. By the Rev. 

John Killick, M.A. .... 96-192 

Worcester College, Oxford. By the Rev. C. H. 0. Daniel, M.A. 

Master of the College . . . . . . 103-110 

Ladies' Costume in the Middle Ages as represented on Monu- 
mental Effigies and Brasses. By Mary Bagnall- 
Oakeley ..... 111-126 

Door-Frame at Ampney St. Mary, co. Gloucester. By Sir 
Henry Dry den, Bart., Hon. Member of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland ; with Observations by Mr. 

Romilly Allen ..... 127-131 

Arnald de Berkeley, Baron of the Exchequer. By Sir Henry 

Barkly, K.CB., G.C.M.G., etc. . . . 167-182 

Pedes Finium, or Excerpts from the Feet of Fines for the County 
of Gloucester, from the 7th John to the 57th Henry III. 

By Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., F.R.S.A. {Irel.), etc. 167-182 
Notes on the Early English Lady Chapel, Gloucester Cathedral, 
built by Ralph and Olympias Wilington, a.d. 1224. By 

the Rev. William Bazeley, M.A. . . 196-200 

The Manor of Clifton. By John Latimer . . . 201-237 
Gloucestershire in the Eighth Contury. By the Rev. C. S. 

Taylor, M.A. , 208-230 


History of the Popes, from the Close of the Middle Ages. From 
the German of Dr. Ludwig Pastor, Professor of History in 
the University of Innsbuck, Vol. II. Edited by Frederick 
Ignatius Antrobus, of the Oratory . . . 133-142 

St. Mark's, or the Mayor's Chapel, Bristol, formerly called " The 
Gaunts." By W. R. Barker, Member of the Council of the 
City and County of Bristol .... 142-146 

Hanging in Chains. By Albert HartshornE, F.S.A. . . 146-148 

Calendar of State Papers ( Domestic Series ) of the reign of Chas. I. 
Edited by William Douglas Hamilton, Esq., of Her 
Majesty's State Paper Office .... 148-152 

Landboc, sive Registrant Beatse Marise Virginis et Sancti Cenhelmi 
de "Winchelcumba in Comitatu Gloucestrensi Ordinis Sancti 
Benedicti. Edited by David Royce, M. A. . - 152-154 

The Register of Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter. By the 
Rev. F. C. Hingeston-Randolph, M.A., Prebendary of 
Exeter ...... 154-157 

The Antiquary— A Magazine devoted to the study of the Past. 

Vol. XXIV. . . . * . 157-161 

Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain 
and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant. 
Edited by G, E. C, Vol. IV. . . .161 

County Folk-Lore. — Printed Extracts No. 1, Gloucestershire. By 

Ed wid Sidney Hartland, F.S.A. - . . 161-162 

Descriptive Catalogue of the Charters and Muniments preserved at 
Berkeley Castle. By I. H. Jeayes, of the Department of 
Manuscripts in the British Museum . . . 231 

Buckfast Abbey. By Dom Adam Hamilton, O.S.B. . . 231-232 

Proceedings of the Cotteswold Field Club, Vol X. . . 232-234 

The Western Antiquary — Note Book for Devon and Cornwall, 

Vol. XI. Edited by W. H. K. Wright . . 235 

Notes and Gleanings. — A Monthly Magazine devoted chiefly to 
subjects connected with the Counties of Devon and Cornwall, 
Vol. IV. Edited by William Cotton, F.S.A., and James 
Dallas, F.L.S. . 237-238 

The Scottish Antiquary, or Northern Notes & Queries (Illustrated) 
Edited by the Rev. A.W. Cornelius Hallen, M.A., F.S.A. 
(Scot.) ...... 238-239 

The Journal of the Ex Libris Society (Illustrated). Edited by 

W.H. K. Wright, F.R.H.S., and Arthur J. Jewers, F.S.A. 239-241 

The Archivist. — A Quarterly Journal devoted to the study of 
Historical Documents, Manuscripts & Autographs [Illustrated) 
Edited by S. Davey, F.R.L.S. , . 241-242 

Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. Vol. V., Parts IV. to VII. 
inclusive, illustrated. Edited by W. P. W. Phillimore, 


Plate I,* Ancient Sculpture in Malmesbury Church . to face p. 17 

*IL,IIL, &IV ., „ „ . „ 19 

fV. Monumental Brass of Philip Warthim, 1485 . ,,29 

fVI. Do. of Master William Neele . . ,,30 

X VII. Plan of St. Lawrence Church, Bourton-on-the-Hill ,, 83 

J VIII. Font and Piscina . . . . ,,84 
*IX. Effigy of Eva de Braose, St. Mary's Church, Abergavenny ,, 112 

*X. Effigy of Eva de Cantelupe, Baroness of Abergavenny 113 

*XI. Effigy in the Church of Tickenham, Somerset ,, 115 
*XIL Margaret, first wife of Thomas III. , 8th Lord Berkeley 

in Bristol Cathedral, ob. 1337 . . . „ 115 

"XIII. Lady Joyce, Newland Church . . ,,116 
*XIV. Katherine, second wife of Thomas III., 8th Lord 

Berkeley, in Berkeley Church, ob. 1385 . ,, 118 
*XV. Katherine, wife of Thomas Berkeley, in St. Mark's 

Chapel, Bristol . . . . . ,,115 

*XVI. Wife of Roger Ligon, in Fairford Church, Glouc. ,, 123 
*XVII. Katherine, first wife of Henry I., 17th Lord Berkeley, 

in Berkeley Church . . . . ,,124 

|| XV III. Door Frame at Ampney St. Mary Church, Glouc. ,, 129 

Fig. 10. § A double Gibbet, formerly on Brandon Sands, Suffolk ,, 147 

Fig. 11. § An Iron Cage from Eastern Bengal . . ,, 148 

Fig. 12.$ A Chi-Rho symbol at Sou thill, Cornwall , ,, 139 
** XIX. Diagram shewing the tracery of the East window of 

Gloucester Cathedral . . . . ,,165 

* The Society is indebted to the author for the drawings of these Plates. 

t To Mr. George Clifford, of Blockley, for the rubbings of these Brasses. 

t To Mr. Guy Dawber, A.R.L, B.A., for the drawing of these Plates. 

\\ To Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., for the drawing of this Plate. 

§ To Mr. F. Fisher Unwin, for the loan of these Blocks. 

$ To Rev. W. Iago for drawing the block of the Chi-Rho symbol, 

** To the Council of the Royal Archaeological Institute for permission to reproduce this 


Page 98, line 28, for " noboby " read nobody. 
,, 100, ,, 7, for " Hardbidle '' read Harbridge. 

,, 20, for " wife " read niece. 
,,115, ,, 32, for " Thomas, sixth Lord Berkeley," read Thomas, eighth 

,,118, ,, 2, for " Thomas, sixth Lord " read Thomas eighth Lord. 
,, 116, ,, 4, for " Maurice, seventh Lord Berkeley," read 9th Lord 

,, 126, ,, 13, for " 16th Century " read \5th Century. 
Plate IV. Title, for " Malmesbury " read Treves. 

Plates XII & XIV., for " wife of Thomas III., 6th Lord," read Thomas III. 
eighth Lord. 

Plate XVI. " Wife of Roger Ligon, Esq." It appears from Bigland's " Ac- 
count of the Parish of Fairford," published in 1791, that this lady was 
Katherine, daughter of William Dennys, of Pucklechurch, and relict 
of Sir Edmund Tame and of Sir Walter Buckley, Knights (? Knight- 
hood of the last). A good engraving of the altar tomb is inserted, on 
which the effigies of Roger Ligon and Katherine lie recumbent, he in 
armour. The side of the tomb is divided into two oblong panels, on 
the most western of which is a shield of arms thus blazoned : — 1. Ar. 
two lions patsant gu. for Lygon ; impaling : — Quarterly, gu. a bend 
engrailed az. betw. three leopards' faces jessant de lys, Dennys ; 2. or, a 
raven pp. within a bordure gu. charged with bezants for Corbet ; 3. ar. 
on a chief gu. three Bezants, for Russel ; 4. Lozengy or and az. a chev. 
gules, De Gorges. 

The tomb appears to have been in good condition when engraved, but 
the side is now concealed by benches, etc. Apparently there was never an 


gttstol mh (ilouccstevshirc Jlwhaotogiral §ocittjj 

IN 1891-92. 

Proceedings at the Spring Meeting at Malmeshury, on Tuesday, 
May, 26th, 1891. 

The Annual Spring Meeting of the Society was held this day at Malmes- 
hury, and, considering the stormy character of the weather, was well at- 
ended by members and visitors. Among those present were the Worshipful 
the Mayor of Malmeshury (Mr. Alderman Poole) ; Sir John Maclean, 
F.S. A., &c, and Mr. W.Leigh ( Vice-Presidents oj the Society), Major Davis ; 
The Revs. G. Windsor Tucker ( Vicar of the Parish), W. T. Allun, John 
Emeris, W. Symonds, D. L. Pitcairne, Pitt Eyken, J. M. Hall, S. E. 
Bartleet ; Messrs. R. Taylor, W. Forester, C. E. Chapman, J. C. S. 
Jennings, E, S. Hartland A. E. D'Akgent, E. P. Little, Stanley 
Marling, A. G. W. Jefferies, J. Platt, A. H. Paul {Local Secretary, 
Tetbury), C. J. Lowe, H. Medland, H. W. Bruton, J. C, Gash, J. W. 
Adams, G. Meadway, and many Ladies ; also Rev. W. Bazeley {Hon. Gen. 
Secretary ), who acted as guide throughout the day. 

The arrangements were made by Mr. A. H. Paul, Local Secretary of the 
Society at Tetbury, who was kindly assisted by Mr. W. Forrester, Local 
Secretary at Malmeshury for the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society, and were excellent. 

It needs somewhat of an explanation why the Bristol & Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society held its Spring Meeting this year at Malmeshury. 
The Society is distinctly a County Society. It was founded specifically to 
explore and illustrate the history and antiquities of the County of Gloucester 
and collect materials for a future history of the County, a work which, not- 
withstanding the labours of Atkyns and Rudder, and Fosbroke, is greatly 
needed. Though Malmeshury, however, is not in the County of Gloucester, 
it, nevertheless, is not beyond the legitimate range of the Society's oper- 
ations, for it is a portion of the Diocese of Bristol. 

On arriving at Malmeshury Mr. Bazeley conducted the members and 
visitors to the ruins of the old Abbey Church, and, making a circuit of the 
venerable edifice, he pointed out, and commented on, the particular features 
to which he should treat later on in the day in a Paper he should read on 
the subject. This Paper will be printed in extenso in the present volume. 

On Leaving the Abbey Church, the party, still under the guidance of the 
General Secretary, made a perambulation of the ancient town. 

Traces of the walls which protected Malmeshury may be seen on every 
side of the town running parallel with the course of the two streams, the 
Avon, formerly the Bladon, and the Newnton Water, formerly the Yngel< 
burn, which almost surround it. 

Vol. XVI. u 

Transactions fob the Year 1891-92. 

The castle built by Roger, Bishop of Salisbury (1130-37) stood near the 
west end of the abbey, and commanded the narrow neck of land which gave 
access from the N.W. to the plateau on which the town stands. 

A modern villa stands on the site of the West Gate ; the site of the North 
Gate is unknown. Beyond the tower on the N.W. Hps the suburb of West- 
port, with its ancient chapel of S. Helen, its Guildhall, and its Horsefair, 

From the site of the Castle the party proceeded by Gloucester Street to 
the ruins of St. Paul's Church, the tower of which still remains, and is used 
as a Campanile for the present parish church. From thence, by passing 
through the churchyard, the 15th century Market Cross, which is remark- 
able for its heavy lantern, was reached. Leland, who visited Malmesbury 
c. 1540, speaks of it as having been built " in hominum memoria." It was 
restored at the commencement of the present century by the Earl of Suffolk 
and Lady Northwick. From thence the party went due west by the way which 
led down through a postern gate in the wall to Burni Vale ; and from the 
summit of the ancient wall the members looked down on the site of Chapel 
House and St Maildulph's Hermitage. St. Maildulph was a Scotch monk 
and philosopher in the seventh century, who, desiring a more solitary life 
than a monastery afforded, made himself a cell under the ancient Roman 
walls of Caer-Bladon, near the junction of the Bladon and the Ingelbourn 
(now the Avon and the Newnton water). Here he preached the Christian 
faith to the Saxons with much success. Aldhelm, one of his converts, 
became a man of greater renown than his master, and, in process of time, 
on account of his holiness of life was venerated as a Saint. He was really 
the founder of the Abbey which was dedicated to SS. Mary and Aldhelm. 

From the Postern Gate a pathway called " the King's Wall," (because 
running parallel with that ancient structure), passes an imposing house of 
about the date of the early part of the 18th century, having its parapet 
adorned with the arms of the town and of the first owner. At the extreme 
S. of the town, not far from the junction of the two streams, the thirteenth 
century archway of the Hospital of St. John stands between the site of the 
South Gate and St. John's Bridge, called in early writings Melebridge. This 
was a Lazar Hospital for men and women, and not, as has been surmised, a 
Priory of the Knight Hospitallers. Another Hospital stood on Burton Hill, 
where the road to Chippenham branches off to the south. This was the 
Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene. Part of the buildings standing on the site 
of St. John's Hospital is used as almshouses, and another part as the court 
hduse of the old corporation, who now only exist for the purpose of managing 
the land, consisting of 700 acres, called King's Heath, granted to the men 
of Malmesbury by King Athelstan for their valour against the Danes. The 
municipal functions of the old corporation have recently been transferred to 
a Town Council, established under the Municipal Corporations' Acts. Here 
the Society was received by Mr. M. H. Chubb, the Deputy High Steward, 
(acting in behalf of Colonel Miles, the High Steward, absent through indis- 
position), who cordially welcomed the Society to the town. 

Several members of the old corporation were present, and two pairs of 
interesting maces and some of the records of the corporation were here ex- 
hibited. A conversation respecting the Maces arose, in which Mr. Bazeley 

Four Incidents of the Civtl War. 


and Major Davis took part, and it was thought that the two larger Maces 
were of the time of Queen Anne, and the smaller ones earlier. It was, 
however, suggested that they should be submitted to Mr. W. H. St. John 
Hope, Assistant Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, who is a well-known 
expert in old Plate, and whose opinion would be accepted as conclusive. 
From St. John's Hospital the party proceeded by St. John Street to Silver 
Street {query meaning because found in so many old towns) and the Cross 
Hayes where the bull fight took place in the good old days, to the Council 
Chamber of the Town Council, where the party was formally received by 
the Mayor, who was accompanied by Mr. Alderman Forrester, the Town 
Clerk (Mr. M. H. Chubb), and other members of the Council. Here some 
interesting objects were exhibited by Mr. B. Hale, among them some can- 
non balls found in the gardens in the town, the result of the hostilities 
during the Civil War. Mr. F. A. Hyett, of Painswick House, then read the 
following Paper . — 

Four Incidents of the Civil War. 
Mr, F. A. Hyett, who was announced to read a short Paper on " The 
History of Malmesbury during the Civil War," said he did not propose to 
attempt a complete or consecutive history of the town during the time 
referred to, but he would call attention to the four most important events 
in Malmesbury during that eventful period. Within sixteen months Malmes- 
bury twice voluntarily surrendered and was twice taken by storm. The first 
surrender was on Feb. 3rd, 1642-3, the first storming on March 20th, the 
second surrender between March 20th and April 5th, in the same year, and 
the second storming on May 24th, 1644. Both surrenders were by the Parlia- 
mentary party to the Royalists, and both of the captures were by the 
Parliamentary forces, under Sir W. Waller and Sir Edward Massey re- 
spectively. He did not think the town changed hands on any other occasion 
during that period, for though it was possible it might have done so, he had 
found no notice of it in contemporary histories. Mr. Ravenshill, in an inter- 
esting Paper in Vol. XXI. of the Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine, says 
that the Royalists took possession of the town in the autumn of 1642, but he 
does not give his authority, and I think he is mistaken in his date, as the 
town was certainly in the hands of the Parliamentary party in the spring of 
1643. Malmesbury, like Bristol, Gloucester, Cirencester, and other towns 
in this part of England, seemed at the outbreak of the war to have dec'ared 
for the Parliament, but Prince Rupert having, on February 2nd, 1642-3, 
stormed and taken Cirencester, under circumstances calculated to spread 
terror far and wide, Malmesbury the next morning sent its submission to the 
King, and Lieut. -Colonel Lunsford was appointed Governor. That was the 
first surrender. The first taking was by Sir William Waller, who early in 
1643 succeeded Lord Stamford as Governor of Gloucester, and determined 
to recover Malmesbury. A detailed account of it is given in a dispatch 
which was printed by order of Parliament on March 28th, 1643, entitled 
" A Letter from Sir William Waller to the Rt. Hon We Robert Earl of Essex 

B 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

of a Great Victory he obtained at Malmesbury 23 Martii in County of Wilts." 
In this letter Waller described the town as the strongest inland situation 
he had seen, and only fairly accessible at one point, the West port (where 
Euclid Villa now stands). On March 22nd, 1642-3, Waller appeared before 
the town, and after a determined attack Colonel Lunsford and his garrison 
surrendered on the following morning. The Parliamentary party did not 
long enjoy the fruits of Waller's victory, for before many days were over 
Sir Edward Hungerford, to whom Malmesbury was entrusted, surrendered 
it, as Waller evidently thought, without very good cause. From this second 
surrender on a summons from the Royal troops it might be inferred either 
that there was in the town a strong party loyal to the King, or else, as was 
found in so many cases, the inhabitants were desirous of peace and comfort, 
and were comparatively indifferent as to the upshot of the war. [Between 
April, 1543, and April, 1644, it is stated in Aubrey & Jackson's Wiltshire 
that Malmesbury changed hands twice, but under what circumstances I 
do not know]. We have, however, several accounts of its being taken by 
General Massey on May 24th in the latter year. On the 23rd he took 
Beverston Castle, and on the 24th he appeared before Malmesbury and 
summoned the Governor, "on behalf of the King and Parliament sitting 
at Westminster," to surrender, threatening the town with fire and sword 
if he refused. The Governor, Colonel Henry Howard, son of Lord Berk- 
shire, made a spirited reply that he would maintain the town "for the 
King and Parliament sitting at Oxford." Within two hours Massey had 
obtained possession of the suburbs and lower town ; the attack then 
langnished, but it was renewed next morning, and the town captured, 
only two of the garrison being killed while Massey lost but one man. 
The Governor had a narrow escape, three musket bails passing through 
his clothes. There are two almost contemporaneous accounts of the taking 
of Malmesbury— the one in a Tract, the short title of which is " Ebenezer," 
printed June 4th, 1644, and the other in Corbet's Military Government of 
Gloucester. The account in Rushworth's collections seems to have been 
derived from these two sources. Mr. Hyett, in conclusion, traced the 
similarity of the two stormings, and showed how curiously alike were the 
careers of the two generals who took the town, Sir W. Waller and Sir E. 

Taking from the table a copy of Jackson's Aubrey, Mr. Hyett said seven 
occasions were there enumerated on which the town changed hands, but he 
had found nothing of the other three there specified, nor were particulars 
given in the book. [We append the quotation from Aubrey and Jackson : 
" Malmesbury was occupied as a military post seven times between the 
summer of 1642 and May, 1644. 1. By Sir Edward Baynton for the Parlia- 
ment. 2. By the Royalists under Lord Digby, or Col. Lunsford, Feb. 1643, 
just after the taking of Cirencester. 3. Re-captured by Sir Wm, Waller 

Four Incidents in the Civil War. 


on 22nd March in the same year. 4. Abandoned by Sir Edward Hungerford 
almost immediately afterwards , and again occupied by the Royalists from 
Cirencester. 5. Re-possessed by the Parliament Forces 20th April, the 
garrison being wanted by the King at Reading. 6. Re-taken by the Royalists 
after the victory of Roundway, July, 1643. 7. Recovered by Massey for the 
Parliament, 25th May, 1644 From this period it remained in the hands of 
the Parliament, being strengthened by an out-post of cavalry at Charlton 
Park. Malmesbury was a position of great importance, as it commanded 
the road between Oxford and Bristol."] 

The party then assembled at the King's Arms Hotel, where lunch had 
been prepared, after which the Abbey Church was again visited. The Rev. 
G. Windsor Tucker made some remarks on the history of the Abbey. After 
which the Rev. W. Bazeley read his Paper on the History and Architecture 
of the sacred structure (which will follow, printed in extenso, and after its 
conclusion he made some further remarks, comparing it with the Cathedral 
of St. Peter at Gloucester. Mr. Kemys Bagnall-Oakeley (then a layman, 
but since admitted to Holy Orders), on behalf of his mother, who was 
unable to be present, read a Paper by her on the ancient and remarkable 
Sculptures which adorn the South Porch of the Church. This Paper is 
also printed and illustrated in the present volume. 

Mr. J. C. S. Jennings afterwards received the members to afternoon tea, 
and shewed them the undercroft of his interesting Elizabethan residence. 
Tradition assigned the site as that of the Abbot's house, but Mr. Bazeley 
thought that it was more probable the site of the abbey infirmary. Mr. 
Jennings also exhibited some objects of interest connected with the town 
and abbey. 

Votes of thanks having been passed to Mr. Jennings for his hospitality ; 
to Mr. Bazeley for acting as guide, and for his interesting Paper ; to Mrs. 
Bagnall-Oakeley for her valuable Paper ; and to the other contributors to 
the Proceedings, the members went by Oxford Street and the old Abbey 
Workhouse to visit the site of the East Gate, which commanded the road 
from Cirencester to London. Traces still remain of the massive walls and 
the exact position of the flanking towers of the gateway are discernible. 
Beyond the East Gate is the Theyn's Bridge, now Holloway Bridge, crossing 
the Newnton Water. The remains of the wall on the East side of the town 
are better preserved than on any other, and are most picturesque. Across 
the water to the East was the Abbey Vineyard and the Vineyard Mill. 

It was now time to return homewards, and the members proceeded to the 
King's Arms Hotel, where carriages were waiting to take them to Tetbury. 


Transactions foii the Year 1891-92. 


By the Rev. WILLIAM BAZELEY, M.A. (Hon. Secretary). 

The present Abbey Church of Malmesbury, when it was com- 
pleted by its Norman builders in the 12th century, consisted 
of a nave with aisles, a lantern tower, the floor of which, together 
with two bays of the nave, formed the choir, north and south 
transepts and a presbytery. 

I am not aware that any excavations have been made with a 
view to discovering the shape of the eastern sides of the transepts 
and the east end of the presbytery ; they were probably similar 
to what we see at Tewkesbury. 

Until the Dissolution the Church was purely conventual. 
In 1541 it was made parochial instead of S. Paul's Church on the 
south side of the churchyard, the chancel of which was destroyed 
some forty years ago, and the tower of which is used as a bell- 
tower for this church. 

Tt has commonly been said that the Abbey Church was built, 
or rebuilt, by Roger, the soldier bishop of Salisbury, whose epis- 
copacy lasted from 1100 to 1 137. It will be well for us to weigh 
the evidence before accepting this statement ; for even the end of 
Bishop Roger's episcopacy, 1137, is certainly very early for the 
Transitional Norman style which we see before us. 

William of Malmesbury, a Benedictine monk, holding the 
offices of Librarian and Precentor of Malmesbury, tells us that 
Bishop Roger seized the abbey about 1130 and attached it to his 

William of Malmesbury says : " He (Bishop Roger) was a pre- 
late of a great mind, and spared no expense towards completing 
his designs especially in buildings, as may be seen in many places, 
but more particularly at Salisbury and at Malmesbury." 

Architecture of Malmesbury Abbey Church. 7 

This may refer to the Abbey Church ; but it is more probable 
that it refers to the castle, which William of Malmesbury says : 
" Roger began even in the churchyard and scarcely a stone's 
throw from the principal church." This castle commanded the 
weakest side of the town, the narrow isthmus between the Avon 
and the Newnton Water, and stood on the site of the Bell Inn 
and Castle House at the west end of the church. 

Surely if the abbey church had been rebuilt in William of 
Malmesbury's time he would have recorded such an important 
event. He certainly lived five years after Bishop Roger's death 
as his Historia Novella is carried down to the year 1142. His 
words, which have led writers to attribute the present church to 
Bishop Roger, seem to me to show that the Saxon church was yet 
standing when William of Malmesbury wrote. They are as follows : 
" The principal church in all its glory, and untouched by the 
restorer's hand, has lasted to our times." He was speaking of the 
church of S. Mary, founded, if not built, by S. Aldhelm, the first 
abbot, at the end of the 7th century. 

The West Front. 
The fragment of the West Front which remains will enable us 
to rebuild in imagination the whole fagade. At first sight we 
might picture to ourselves a central gable rising between two 
towers, like the present west front of Ripon and Canterbury, 
and like Gloucester in the 13th century. But if we look at it 
from any point except exactly in front we shall see that the 
supposed south western tower has no south or east wall. The 
original west end was a facade and nothing more, the prototype 
of the west front of Salisbury. At either end of the facade was a 
turret with arcading in the 2nd and 3rd courses. The connecting 
wall between the turrets and the central gable, as far as we see 
it, consists of four orders. The lowest is an arcade of interlaced 
circular-headed arches with piers and capitals, similar to what 
we find on the south side of the nave and west sides of the two 
transepts. In the second course is a semi-circular window with 
perpendicular tracery inserted ; in the third and fourth are narrow 
round-headed arches, and above these plain masonry. To the 

8 Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

north of this wall is a large buttress pierced with narrow slits, 
but devoid of ornamentation. 

The west end of the nave had a large round-headed window 
which, as we see, was superseded (in the 15th century) by a per- 
pendicular window with four transoms. Below this was a Norman 
doorway with a very rich jamb. Within this doorway are seen 
the remains of a flat-headed perpendicular doorway. 1 

But the general appearance of this facade was completely 
changed in the 15th century by the addition of a central western 
tower, w r hich is thus described by Leland in the 2nd volume of his 
Itinerary : " The other (tower) yet stondith a greate square toure 
at the west end of the church." If we stand on the east side of 
the facade we shall see traces of this tower. In most cases, where 
the builders of the 15th century determined to erect a western 
tower, they destroyed the west end and built beyond it. The 
proximity of the old castle, or the monastic buildings which 
succeeded it, prevented them from doing this at Malmesbury ; so 
they determined to preserve the nave intact as the 14th century 
builders had left it. One of the flying buttresses which they 
constructed (above a 14th century clerestory buttress) in order 
to counteract the thrust of the arch which spanned the nave, 
above the groining of the roof between the 2nd and 3rd bays, 
still remains. We can also detect traces of this arch above the 
springing of the groining. 

When the tower was complete, resting its east wall on the 
new arch, its north and south walls on the clerestory walls, and its 
west wall on the western fagade, no sign of it would be seen from 
within this church. But the external appearance of the west end 
would be altogether changed and rendered as different from what 
it originally was as Hereford is from Salisbury. It was a bold 
attempt ; but it ended in disaster. I know not w T hen the tower 
fell. It was standing, as we have seen, in 1542. But in the view of 
Malmesbury Abbey, given in Dugdale's Monasticon, 1655, Vol. I., 
p. 50, the tower is gone. A traveller, who visited Malmesbury in 
1 634, saw what he believed to be the remains of two towers. The 

1 Buck's view represents the W. doorway as perfect in 1732. — (See also 
Mr. John Carter's Sketches in B.M., Add. MSS. 29938 and 29943.) 

2 See Brayley's Graphic and Historical Illustrations, p. 411. 

Architect tee of Malmesbury Abbey Church. 


people had forgotten whether there were two towers or one ; but 
he probably refers to the two turrets. 1 

I think it probable that the removal of the cloister, which 
acted as a buttress to the north arcade, was the cause of the 
mischief, and that the tower fell in the latter part of the 16th 

The South Porch. 

The Norman West Doorway, with its beautiful series of Bibli- 
cal Sculptures, is probably the best known and most interesting 
feature of Malmesbury Abbey. I hope we may have an oppor- 
tunity, in July, of comparing with it the grand west doorway of 
Iffley, near Oxford. 

The twelve figures on the inner Porch with the angels flying 
over their heads {Plates II. and III.) are, no doubt, relics of an 
earlier church — shall we say the Church of S. Mary, built by S. 
Aldhelm in the 7th century, and restored by ^Elfric in the reign 
of Edgar, late in the 10th century 1 The flying angels must be 
compared with those at S. Lawrence's Church, Bradford-on-Avon, 
built, we are told, by S. Aldhelm soon after S. Mary's, Malmes- 
bury. The church door is of three orders, and the tympanum is 
filled with sculpture representing our Lord and attendant angels. 
On the right side of the entrance to the church is a stoup for 
holy water. In the early part of the 14th century the porch was 
recased, and another arch, with the semi-circular form preserved, 
placed in front of the Norman gateway. Above the porch is a 
parvise, or priest's chamber, with a newel staircase communicating 
with the south aisle of the nave. The outer arch is of eight 
orders, and was probably finished, Mr. J. H. Parker considers, 
about 1170-1180. 

There is a test for distinguishing between early and late 
Norman building. If we find traces of hammer and chisel work 
we may be fairly sure that it is not earlier than 1150. Previously 
to that date the stones were dressed with a sharp axe. 

The tourist of 1634, to whom I have already referred, gives a 
list of the sculptures, and a description of the sacred events he 
supposed them to represent. 2 

1 Lansdown MS. 213. 

2 See the extract from his account in M. E. C. Walcott's Mitred Abbey 
of S. Aldhelm, Malmesbury, 1876, 8° pp. 27-29. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

South Side. 

The south side of the church has been very much changed 
since its completion in the 12th century ; but not so much as to 
render it difficult to imagine what it was. Three of the Norman 
windows remain filled with perpendicular tracery. Below these 
windows ran an ornamented arcade of intersecting semi-circular 
arches with piers and capitals, the counterpart of what we saw on 
the west porch. This arcading has been cut away in the 2nd and 
3rd bays from the east where two interesting windows have been 
inserted in the 14th century. These windows lack the charac- 
teristic ball flower ornament [of the Edwardian style ; and the 
tracery, which was probably designed to suit the subject of the 
painted glass, has an awkward cusp in the middle of the central 

The Decorated parapet with its flowing wavy tracery, divided 
in trefoils by cusps or leaves is exceedingly graceful. 

The present clerestory, with its geometrical tracery, is very 
little loftier than that which preceded it. The Norman Pilasters 
and circular medallion ornaments, called paterce, of the three 
eastern bays clearly show the dimensions and shape of the 
Norman clerestory. 

The flying buttresses and pinnacles deserve attention. The 
pinnacle on the extreme right is different from the rest ; but it 
may have been tampered with. There is an external staircase on 
the west wall of the transept leading to the roof of the nave. 

The Lantern Tower. 
The north and west arches of the great Central Tower alone 
remain. The western arch is blocked by three stages of masonry. 
This tower in the 12th century was low, as all Norman towers 
were, and open to the lantern. This is shown by the diamond- 
shaped ornaments which have been cut through by the 15th century 
groining of the ceiling. Ihe western arch has as little projection 
as possible in the piers and recessed shafts in order that the view of 
the choir and presbytery from the nave may be unimpeded. The 
northern arch has, on the contrary, bold projecting responds to 
form backing for the choir stalls, and is of a horse-shoe or stilted 

Architecture of Malmesbury Abbey Church. 


shape. I need not tell you that when the archivault of a semi- 
circular arch does not spring from the capitals, but the groining 
is carried up some feet higher before it begins to converge, it is 
called a stilted arch. In the absence of a pointed arch this form 
was necessary in order to make the four arches of the lantern tower 
of the same height. In the 13th century a spire was probably 
placed on the Norman work, similar to that which Helias erected 
at Gloucester. In the 15th century the monks constructed a 
groined roof, and, in doing so, enfeebled the whole structure. 
You can see traces of their work. Their object no doubt was to 
make the choir warmer. 

Very soon after this work was finished the tower began to 
show signs of cracking, and it was thought best to desert the 
whole eastern end. The western arch was filled up with masonry 
as far as the springing, with the hope of strengthening the tower 
and putting off the evil day. But early in the reign of Hen. VIII. 
the spire fell down with a mighty crash and destroyed the choir, 
transepts and presbytery, or so damaged them that the monks had 
neither the heart nor the means to rebuild them. They blocked 
up the remainder of the arch and used the first two bays of the 
nave as their choir. We shall have further proofs of all this when 
we go into the church. 

Leland, who visited Malmesbury, as you have heard, in 1542, 
says : " There were two steples, one that had a mightie high 
pyramis, and felle daungerusly in hominum onemeria and sins was 
not re-edified : it stode in the middle of the Transeptum of the 
Chirch, and was a Marke to all the countre about." 1 

The four arches seem to have stood until 1660, though knocked 
about by cannon balls in the Civil War. Aubrey tells us that 
on the 29th May, 1660, there were so many volleys of shot fired 
in honour of the King's restoration that one pi^ar and two parts 
above fell down that night. There is large hole on the outer side 
of the north arch where one of Sir W. Waller's cannon balls 
struck the church in 1643. 

1 Leland, Vol. II., p. 25. Hughes of Wooton Basset saies that the 
Steeple of Malmesbury Abbey was as high almost as Paule's . . . . s great 
Tower was at the end of the Church." — Aubrey's Topographical Collections, 
p. 256. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

The Transepts and Presbytery. 
The greater part of the west wall of the south transept 
still remains projecting two bays beyond the nave. The lower 
windows and arcade are similar to the windows and arcade in the 
nave. A pointed arch connected the transept with the aisle of 
the nave. In the triforium the windows assume, internally, the 
form of a triplet ; but the side arches only open into a passage, 
the actual windows being single, but larger and longer than the 
other Norman windows in the church. We have nothing to guide 
us as to the form of the eastern walls of the transepts. 

To the south transept is said to have been attached a little 
church, in which John Scotus was murdered by his pupils. Leland 
saw the remains of it in 1542. 1 

There is only a small fragment of the presbytery clinging to 
the northern arch of the tower. The general character must have 
resembled that of the nave with a little more ornamentation. 
It was probably a short Norman structure of three or four bays, 
like Peterborough and Romsey, and held the tombs of the founder 
and patron saint. 

Lady Chapel. 

We know there was a chapel of S. Mary ; but we have nothing 
to guide us as to its form of architecture. 

North Side, 

On the north side of the church, as at Gloucester, were the 
cloisters and the conventional buildings. 

There is a small Norman doorway in the north-east bay of the 
nave, leading into the east cloisters, with zig-zag moulding and a 
rich volute ornamentation. Below this, but not in the centre of 
it, has been inserted a perpendicular doorway. The cloisters were 
evidently rebuilt in the 15th century. The groined ceiling of the 
doorway remains and the spring of the cloister roof may be seen 
in the south-east corner, against the north transept. The Norman 
cloister had, no doubt, a wooden lean-to roof, and was much wider 
than the 15th century cloisters which succeeded it 

1 Itinerary, Vol. II., p. 53. 

Architecture of Malmesbury Abbey Church. 13 

The windows on the north side of the church are, of course, 
higher than those on the south. With one exception they are the 
original Norman semi-circular headed windows with perpendicular 
tracery inserted. In the fourth bay the 14th century builders 
destroyed one cell of the Norman groined roof and inserted a larger 
window, carrying it up into a gable. The north wall has been 
recased and two of the Norman buttresses rebuilt. 

The clerestory is Edwardian, and similar to that on the south 
side. There are four flying buttresses and two others which are 
run up solidly against the clerestory wall and crowned with Eliza- 
bethan finials resembling those on Mr. Jennings' house to the 
north-east. These seem to have been built to support the west 
tower or the arcade, when the tower had fallen. The four eastern 
pinnacles are like those on the south side of the church. 

The Interior. 

Of the nine bays of the Norman nave six only remain, and of 
these the fifth is blocked by an unsightly western gallery. 

We are at once struck by the fine proportions of the triforium. 

The cylindrical piers, with their scalloped imposts, are much 
more graceful than those at Gloucester and Tewkesbury. The 
arches are slightly pointed. There is an increase of ornamentation 
in the two eastern bays. The position of the rood screen and loft 
are plainly marked. 

In the triforium we have the unusual arrangement of four 
arches within one. We notice on the string-course, where it has 
not been wilfully defaced, a classic " Tau " shaped ornament, which 
has been reproduced on the organ loft. It has been inferred from 
this ornament that some of the workmen were Byzantine. Possibly 
some English masons who had seen Byzantine work in the East 
during one of the Crusades may have reproduced it so far in their 
own land. 

From the caps of the pillars rise the shafts for supporting 
the original Norman flat roof. These have been cut off and 
crowned with a cluster of foliage in the 14th century. The hood 
mouldings over the arches terminate in monster heads, and there 
is a similar ornament above the apex of each arch* 


Transactions eor the Year 1S91-92. 

The quadrapartite groining of the ceiling of the aisles may be 
compared with the Norman groining in the north aisle of Glou- 
cester Cathedral. The vaulting of the nave is of the same date 
as the clerestory — the 14th century. The bosses are elegantly 
carved, and deserve careful study. 

In the south aisle two decorated windows have been inserted 
in the Norman walls, to the detriment of the arcading. They 
resemble the windows in S. Mary Redcliffe, and the Mayor's 
Chapel, at Bristol. There is no trace within of the Norman 
clerestory. On the north side the remarkable 14th century win- 
dow, which has been carried up through the roof into a gable, 
deserves careful study. 

The present reredos seems to have been constructed for a 
screen in the early part of the reign of Henry VIII., and to have 
been placed against the east wall later on. It does not belong to 
the previous reign, as stated by McKenzie Walcott. The arms 
and supporters 1 and several of the badges are those of Hen. VIII. 
and Katharine of Arragon. There are also the Stafford knot, 
the griffin and the antelope, the badges of great Duke of Buck- 
ingham, who built Thornbury Castle, and was beheaded in 1521. 
And there is a rudder of a ship, which was the device of Lord 
Willoughby de Broke. 2 The central doorway shows that it was a 
screen and not a reredos. As the screen was erected to form a 
temporary choir in the nave, when the great eastern tower had 
fallen, or was in danger of falling, the date I venture to assign 
to it, 1520, may be considered the approximate date of the 

On the south side of the nave is a stone gallery with square 
apertures, which probably formed a watching loft for the sacristan 
who had the care of the lamps in front of the rood and high 

The west window behind the organ gallery is quite modern. 

1 Henry VIII. used his father's supporters, the greyhound and the lion, 
in his first seal, and afterwards adopted the lion and the griffin. This fact 
leads me to think that the date of the screen was nearer 1521 than 1509. 

2 For the connection between the families of Stafford and Willoughby de 
Broke, see Aubrey's account of Brook House. — Topographical Collections. 
Devizes, 1862. 

Architecture of Malmesbury Abbey Church. 


There are some very interesting floor tiles in the vestry worthy 
of greater care. The bordering tiles with a coney, or rabbit, and a 
monkey holding a vase are quite new to me. One tile has the 
De Spencer fret. 

The so-called tomb of Athelstan (which seems to be of 15th 
century sculpture) probably stood on the north side of the high 
altar in the presbytery, the place allotted to royal founders, and 
was removed to its present position after the eastern portion of 
the abbey had fallen into ruins. The head is said to be a res- 
storation of the 17th century. The hands are cased in a falconer's 
gloves with tassels. 

I must express my very great indebtedness to Mr. E. A. Free- 
man without whose Paper, in the eighth volume of the Wilts 
Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, I could not have 
found out the architectural secrets of this church or made these 
notes. 1 

1 The Architecture of Malmesburg Abbey Church. By E. A. Freeman, Esq. 
The Wiltshire Magazine, Vol. VIII., pp. 82-100. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 





On each side of the South Porch of Malmesbury Abbey Church 
are large semi-circular slabs sculptured with rows of seated figures 
in high relief, and these sculptures are so unlike any other carv- 
ing in the church, and have been so much chipped away to fit 
their present position, that there seems little doubt but that they 
belonged to a building anterior to any of the existing remains. 
The present structure was erected early in the 12th century, and 
is a fine specimen of early Transitional Norman work ; but there 
appears to have been two buildings erected in Saxon times. 

Malmesbury was a centre of early Saxon civilization, and may 
be considered as a parent of religion and literature in the West 
of England. It was here that Maildulf established a school in 
the early part of the 7th century, and this school had the honour 
of educating St. Aldhelm, who is described by his contemporary, 
the Ven. Bede, as "a man most learned in all respects," and whose 
name is one of the most distinguished in the early ecclesiastical 
literature of England. He afterwards became the first Bishop of 
Sherborne, a.d. 705, and in later life returned to Malmesbury as 
the first Abbot of the Monastery, which he had founded there. In 
937 King Athelstan adopted Aldhelm as his patron Saint, and 
rebuilt his monastery from the ground, enriching it with large 
grants of lands, and at his death was buried within its sacred 

To this church the sculptures in the porch probably belonged. 
We know that even in those early times churches were decorated 
with carvings and pictures, for in the 7th century Benedict Biscop 

Ancient Sculptures in Malmesbury Abbey Church. 17 

built the Church of St. Peter at Monkwearmouth " in the Roman 
style, which he much admired " ; and he imported his masons 
from Gaul: he also built the Church of Jarrow; the dedication 
stone of which is still to be seen there. In 710 Ceolfrid, Abbot 
of Jarrow, sent an architect, at the request of Nailon, King of 
the Picts, to build a church of stone according to the manner 
of the Romans in his country, on the understanding that it was 
to be dedicated to the " Blessed Chief of the Apostles " ; and we 
have the evidence of a contemporary history, that St. Wilfrid, in 
the latter part of the 7th century, had " erected and finished at 
Ripon a basilica of polished stone from its foundation to the 
top, supported on high by various columns and porticos. 1 

The sculptures at Malmesbury certainly agree in one respect 
with the description of these early Saxon churches, for they are 
carved in the " Roman style," and the dresses of the seated figures, 
and the representation of the angels flying above them, are so 
similar to late Roman work, that it can scarcely be doubted 
that the sculptor who executed them had some ancient work as his 

The figures no doubt represent the Apostles seated on a long 
bench, such as is often seen in Saxon MSS., and the heads of some 
of the figures so awkwardly inclined on one side is also a peculiarity 
noticeable in these MSS. In the Pontifical of Landulphus, 9th 
century, many of the figures are so represented, and this attitude 
seems always to express reverence for some central figure. At 
Malmesbury this central figure, at present, within an aureol 
supported by two flying angels, is the Saviour in Majesty, carved 
in the tympanum of the South door of the Church, but this sculp- 
ture is evidently of later date than the others, and is very similar 
to a larger carving at Ely Cathedral (Plate I.) It was probably 
placed in its present position at the Norman re-building of the 

The earliest representations of the Apostles were purely em- 
blematical, and they were figured as twelve sheep in a line, with 
Christ in the midst. The next step was to represent them as twelve 
1 Edd. II. Veta Wilf. 

Vol. XVI. c 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

men, all alike, often carrying sheep ; again a little later they were 
represented as twelve venerable men bearing scrolls in their hands, 
but with no symbols to distinguish one from the other. They are 
thus represented in the apses of the most ancient of the Churches 
of Rome and Ravenna. St. Peter was the first of the apostles to 
be figured with his symbol of the key, and some time later St. 
Paul is drawn with his sword ; but it was not till the 9th century 
that the other apostles were usually represented with their proper 
symbols. The Malmesbury figures have several peculiarities which 
tend to prove them to be of very early date. They have no nim- 
bus round their heads, and six of them hold books in their left 
hands ; all are without symbols except St. Peter, who carries in 
his right hand a key of very early form. This apostle is repre- 
sented as a beardless man, which is a peculiar feature of Saxon 
art. 1 All the others, except St. John, have beards. 2 Above the 
heads of the figures are flying angels, which are much like late 
Roman " Victories," and also bear a considerable resemblance to 
the carved angels at the Church of St. Laurence, Bradford-on- Avon, 
which are pronounced by Mr. Freeman to be part of the original 
edifice erected by St. Aldhelm at the same time as he founded 
Malmesbury Abbey, and the Abbey of Frome, a.d. 705. The sculp- 
tures at Malmesbury are about 10ft. long by 4ft. 6in. high, they are 
in wonderfully good preservation, except where the arms and feet 
of the angels have been damaged, and repaired with cement, and 
where the lower portion of the figure of St. Peter has been similarly 
treated. The semi-circular arch which encloses them appears to 
have been built when the large slabs were removed to their present 
situation ; they evidently occupied different positions to those they 
are now in. Their shape would suggest that they had been the 
tympanums of gr*eat doors, but their size and excellence do not 
accord with the small and comparatively insignificant buildings of 
early date which remain to us. Whatever was their purpose, they 
were probably imported from the continent, or executed by foreign 

1 See Ethelwald's Benedictional and Guthlac's book, &c. 

2 The order in which the apostles are represented on the west side is SS. 
Peter, Andrew, James, John, Philip and Bartholomew. On the east there 
is nothing to identify the remaining apostles, though St. Matthew is generally 
represented carrying his gospel. 

Ancient Sculptures in Ma lmesbury Abbey Church. 19 

workmen in England, as was the case with the ancient church of 
Monkwear mouth before referred to. 

Over the great south door of the Church of St. Helena, at 
Treves, there is a semi-circular tympanum, almost identical in size 
with the carvings at Malmesbury, but the figures of St. Peter and 
St. Helena are represented standing, one on each side of the 
Saviour {Plate IV), and this, in addition to a key of later form, 
and a certain difference in the folds of their robes, are proofs of 
their later date. This door is part of the alterations in the Church, 
which took place a.d. 1016. 

Report of Council 


At the Summer Meeting held at Moreton-in-Marsh. 

The Annual Summer Meeting of the Society was held at Moreton-in-Marsh, 
on Tuesday and Wednesday, 14th and 15th ; and at Oxford, on Thursday 
and Friday, 16th and 17th July, 1891, the arrangements for which had been 
made by a Local Committee consisting of the following gentlemen : — The 
Rev. Canon G. D. Bourne, M.A., Chairman; Mr. C. Belcher, B.A. ; Rev. 
F. Farrar, M.A.; Rev. H. B. Herberden, M.A.; Rev. Spencer Jones, 
M.A. ; Rev. J. H. Killick, M.A. ; Mr. J. N. Moore ; Rev. D. Royce, 
M.A.; Rev. A.Williams, M.A.; Rev. F. E* Broome Witts, M.A.; and Mr. 
F.V. Witts. The following acted as Local Secretaries : — The Rev. Spencer 
Jones, M.A.; Messrs. Algernon Rushout and C.W. C. Oman, M.A. 

There was a large attendance of Members and their friends, among whom 
were Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S., &c, The President of the Society ; Sir Brook Kay, 
Bart., The President of the Council; Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., F.R.S.A., 
Vice-President and Ex-President ; Mr. Christopher Thomas, Vice-President 
and Ex President ; Rev. Canon Bourne, F.S.A., Vice-President and Ex- 
President ; Mr. William Leigh, V.P.j The Revs. J. W. Callicott, D.D.; 
Canon Cholmondeley ; F. Farrar ; E. J. Houghton ; D. Royce ; Spencer 
Jones ; F. E. Broome Witts ; W. T. Allen ; and others ; A. B. Freeman- 
Mitford, Esq., C.B., President Elect; Messrs. F. A. Hyett ; Messrs. S. H. 
Swayne ; Robert Taylor ; E. A. D'Argent ; C. Bowley ; John Bush ; 
V. R. Perkins ; C. J. Trusted; H. W. Bruton, &c, &c, and many ladies, 

The Society was received at the Redesdale Hall by the Rev. Canon 
Bourne, and Members of the Local Committee. Canon Bourne, on behalf of 
the Committee, cordially welcomed the Society to Moreton-in-Marsh and its 
neighbourhood, observing, that the district possessed much of interest, and 
was not so well known as it ought to be. The whole had been fought over 
from the earliest time down to the modern days of the struggles between 
the King and the Parliament. He hoped, however, that during the Meeting 
we should hear read some carefully prepared and attractive papers which 
would be the means of increasing our knowledge of the local history and 
antiquities of this outlying part of the County of Gloucester. 

The President of the Society (John Beddoe, Esq., M.D., F.R.S.) then 
took the chair, and called upon the Honorary Secretary (the Rev. Wm. 
Bazeley) to read the Annual Report of the Council for the past year. 

The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archa;ological Society 
presents its Sixteenth Annual Report. There are at the piesent 377 Annual 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Members, 77 Life Members and 2 Honorary Members on the Society's List, 
giving a total strength of 456 members. The Income for the Financial Year, 
ending April 21st, 1891, was £286 19s. 9d. ; the Expenditure amounted to 
£278 9s. lOd. ; and a balance remained at the Society's bankers on April 
21st, 1891, of £286 19s. 9d., as against a balance of 278 9s. lOd. at the 
corresponding period in 1890. From this balance must be deducted the cost 
of the Society's Transactions for 1890-1, the first part of which is in the 
Members' hands and the second part is partly in type. The Society has, 
moreover, a funded capital of £432 3s. 8d. in consols, representing the fees 
of Life Members. 

The Society has held two General Meetings during the past year. On 
July 22nd, 1890, the Society visited Bristol, Wells and Glastonbury. A 
detailed account of this Meeting appears in the part of the annual volume 
which has been lately issued ; but the Council would take this opportunity 
of expressing its obligations to all who took part in preparing for the re- 
ception of the Members at Bristol, and in carrying out the arrangements 
which had been made. The special thanks of the Society are due to the 
Master and Wardens of the Company of the Merchant Venturers for their 
splendid hospitality, and to Mr. E. A Freeman, The Rev. Canon Church 
and Mr. St. John Hope for their eloquent and interesting addresses on 
Glastonbury Abbey, Wells Cathedral, and the Insignia of the Bristol Cor- 

On the 26th May, 1891, a Spring Meeting was held at Malmesbury ; and 
the Abbey Church and other objects of interest were visited under the 
guidance of the General Secretary. Thanks are due to the Mayor of Malmes- 
bury, to the old Corporation of Malmesbury, to the Vicar of the Parish, and 
to Dr. Jennings, for their courteous reception of the Members who attended 
the Meeting. 

In August, 1891, the Royal Archaeological Institute held its Annual 
Meeting at Gloucester, the second in that city after an interval of twenty- 
one years. An influential Local Committee, largely composed of Members 
of this Society, prepared for the visit of our distinguished guests. Mr. 
Waller and Mr. Blakeway, Members of Council, acted as Local Secretaries, 
and the General Secretary was appointed conductor of the excursions. 

On the first day of the Meeting, August 12th, the President of this 
Council, Sir Brook Kay, Barb., presented the following address of welcome 
to the Royal Archaeological Institute on behalf of this Society :— 

Sir J ohn Dorington,- 

My Lord Percy, Ladies and Gentlemen, 

As President of the Council of the Bristol and Gloucester- 
shire Archaeological Society, I am desired, in the name of 
the Council and Members, to offer a very hearty welcome to the 
Royal Archaeological Institute op Great Britain & Ireland 
to this County. 

Sir Brook Kay's Address. 


Thirty years have passed since your Society held its first 
Meeting at Gloucester ; but the results of your visit has made 
a lasting impression on our study of Mediaeval Art and History. 
It was in the able address of that learned Antiquary, Professor 
Willis, that our attention was first called to the fact, so clearly 
and undoubtedly written in the MS. History of St. Peter's 
Abbey, that here in our noble Cathedral was originated not only 
the style of Architecture called Perpendicular, but also that form 
of groining known as Fan Tracery which has never been excelled. 

We cannot forget that many residents of this County who 
took part in your reception at that time [I may mention Sir 
William Guise, Mr. Gambier Parry, Mr. John Niblett, and Canon 
Lysons] have been taken from us, and a new generation of stu- 
dents of Archaeology have risen up in their stead. We do not 
doubt, however, that the same interest that was manifested in 
your Proceedings in 1860 will again be taken on the present 
occasion by the inhabitants of this City and County. 

We would gladly show you some of the Roman Camps and 
Norman Churches, in which this County abounds ; but in Glou- 
cester Cathedral and Tewkesbury Abbey you will have excellent 
examples of the many religious houses, that gave rise in this vale 
of the Severn to the ancient adage " as sure as God is in Glou- 

At Sudeley ; sad memories of the closing days of Queen 
Katherine Parr, and of the troublous times in the middle of the 
17th century, of which no other County has a greater share than 
Gloucestershire, will be awakened in your minds ; at Chedworth, 
and at Spoonley, you will have interesting examples of the Roman 
Villas with which the County west of the Cotteswolds is thickly 

An excursion will be made to visit Berkeley with its Baronial 
Castle, dating from the 12th century — still in a perfect condition 
of repair ; and Thornbury, with its fine Church and its Tudor 
Castle, the unfinished conception of the princely but unfortunate 
Buckingham of the reign of Henry VIII. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

We congratulate you on the great work that your Society has 
achieved during the last half century. The Bristol and Glou- 
cestershire Society, with an average membership of well nigh 
500, since its foundation in 1876, has been endeavouring to follow 
in your footsteps, and awaken the interest of our countrymen in 
the monuments and records of the past. 

We venture to hope that our volumes of Transactions, which 
have been edited for fourteen years by a distinguished member 
of the Royal Archaeological Institute, may meet with your 
approval, and assist you in the study of those objects of interest 
which it is your intention to examine. 

B. KAY, 

President of the Council. 

During the last year the Corporation of Gloucester has issued to sub- 
scribers a Rent Roll of Houses in Gloucester in 1455. This work has been 
well edited by Mr. W. H. Stevenson, and the printing by Mr. John Bellows 
is excellent. Three other works of interest relating to this county may be 
expected during the forthcoming year : The Calendar of the Records of the 
Corporation of Gloucester, edited by Mr. W. H. Stevenson ; The Winchcornbe 
Chartulary, edited by the Rev. D. Royce ; and a Descriptive Catalogue of 
Charters at Berkeley Castle, edited by Mr. Jeayes. 

Mr.W.P. W.Philimore has invited subscriptions to a series of Gloucestershire 
Records, and has succeeded the late Rev. B. H. Blacker as editor of Glouces- 
tershire Notes and Queries. The Council. has decided to subscribe for all 
these w orks. The Manual of Gloucestershire Bibliography, which has been 
undertaken by two members of this Council— Mr. F. A. Hyett and the Rev. 
W. Bazeley, has been steadily progressing, and it is hoped that a Prospectus 
of the work may be issued early next year. 

The second Congress of Archaeological Societies, in connection with the 
Society of Antiquaries, was held at Burlington House in July last, at which 
Sir John Maclean and Sir Henry Barkly acted as Delegates from this Society, 
and many subjects of interest relating to the Preservation of Ancient Monu- 
ments and the work of Archaeological Societies was considered. The General 
Secretary and another member of Council will act as delegates on the 23rd 
of this month. 

The Council has during the last year received the Transactions of wenty- 
one kindred societies in exchange for the Transactions of this Society, and 
has added many works to the Society by exchange, donation and purchase. 
A revised list of the Society's books has been printed and will be issued to 
members with the second part of Vol. XV. of the Transactions. 

The Council regrets to record the death of the following members who 
have at various times given valuable help to the Society in its work : — The 
Rev. B. H. Blacker, editor of Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, Mr. W. P. 
Price and Mr. J.W. Hallewell. The Council now nominates for re-election 
the President of Council, the Vice-Presidents of the Society, the General 

Report of Council. 


Treasurer, the General Secretary, and the Secretaries Local and Sectional. 
The Council also nominates as Vice-President of the Society Mr. J. T. Agg- 
Gardner, M.P., who presided over the Society in 1889-90. 

The following members of Council retire by rotation ; but are eligible for 
re-election :— The Rev. S. E. Bartleet, the Rev. Canon Ellacombe, The Rev. 
J. M. Hall, The Rev. H. D'Ombrain, The Rev.W. Bagnall-Oakeley ; Messrs. 
F. A. Hyett, G. S. Blakeway, R. Taylor and H. Medland. 

The Council has held four Meetings during the last year— one at Bristol, 
two at Gloucester, and one at Cheltenham, and begs to express its acknow- 
ledgements to the Mayors and Town Clerks of Gloucester and Cheltenham 
for the accommodation afforded in the Tolsey at Gloucester and the Council 
Chamber at Cheltenham. 

The Rev. A. Silvester Davies moved that the Report of the Council be 
accepted, which was seconded by the Rev.W. Taprell Allen, and unanimously 

The Rev. F. E. Broome Witts proposed, and the Rev. A. Silvester Davies 
seconded, that all members of the Council who retire by rotation, except 
Mr. R. Taylor, who desires to withdraw, be re-elected for the ensuing year, 
which proposal was adopted. The Rev. S. E. Bartleet and the Rev. A. 
Silvester Davis, were also duly elected. 

The President then requested Mr. Hyett to bring before the Meeting 
the Resolution of which he, jointly with Mr. W. C. Lucy and Mr. G. B. 
Witts, had given notice. 

Mr. Hyett read Rule V. of the Society, which provides that " eminence 
in Archaeology " shall be the only qualification for Honorary Membership. 
It is in these words ; "Rule V. The Honorary Members shall be nominated 
by the Council for their eminence in Archaeology, and elected by a Sub- 
scribers' Meeting. In addition to the privileges of General Membership, they 
shall have the right of attending and speaking at Subscribers' meetings." 
And he said that the object of his resolution was slightly to extend the 
qualification within well defined limits, so as to enable the Society, if it 
thought fit, to elect as Hon. Members any Hon. Treasurer or Hon. General 
Secretary who had held office for a given number of years. Mr. Hyett said 
that he had been given to understand that the amendment which he pro- 
posed was objected to by some, on the ground that it would lower the status 
of Honorary Members as originally constituted. He did not believe that it 
would have any such effect. Quite as much was done for the cause of 
Archaeology by Societies such as this, as by individual effort, and these 
Societies could not exist a single day but for the voluntary labour of their 
Executive Officers. Mr. Hyett refused to believe that Archaeologists, how- 
ever eminent, would consider it derogatory to be associated with gentlemen 
who had been working in the same field as themselves. All he asked the 
Society to do was to reserve to itself the power of expressing its appreciation 
of the services rendered to it and to Archaeology by those who had acted for 
a considerable period as its Secretary or Treasurer. This it could do by 
paying them the slight compliment of electing them Honorary Members. 
He believed his amendment would distinctly improve the constitution of the 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Mr. Hyett proposed that the Rules of the Society be amended as 
follows, viz.: Between Rules V. and VI. to insert the following words : — 
" Rule Va. Members who have held the post of Hon. Treasurer or Hon. 
General Secretary to the Society for a period of 5 years, shall be 
eligible, on nomination by the Council, for election as Honorary 

" Rule Yb. The Subscribing Members may at any General or Special 
Meeting, on recommendation by the Council, and by resolution of 
which notice has been given, confer on any |Hon. Member or 
Members all the rights and privileges in the Society which they 
themselves possess, any provisions to the contrary in Rules IV., 
VII., or XIV. notwithstanding." 

Which was seconded by the Rev. Canon Bourne. 

Sir John Maclean, said he was exceedingly sorry to take exception to a 
proposal brought forward by friends for whom he entertained great respect 
and regard, but the interest which he had taken in the welfare of the Society 
from its foundation, and still takes, constrained him to do so. He said he had 
no wish to disparage the services of the ordinary Officers, but he considered 
that the gentlemen making this proposal had overlooked the great distinction 
between Honorary Members and Effective Members and Executive Officers. 
He said an Honorary Membership of a Society was never bestowed upon an 
Executive Officer in recognition of past services as such, but in cases in 
which an Executive Officer had rendered the Society valuable services in the 
execution of his executive duties such special services were often recognised 
by a gift of more or less intrinsic value. Honorary Membership is based 
upon a totally different principle. As the designation implies it is purely 
an Honorary distinction conferred upon a gentleman, not for any services to 
that particular Society but as a recognition of his eminence in literature, in 
science, or in art, in which, usually, the particular Society takes a special 
interest. To elect an eminent antiquary, or historian, or scientist, an 
Honorary Member of such a Society as ours would be the greatest compli- 
ment the Society could offer him, and his acceptance, and the appearance of 
his name on our List of Honorary Members would reflect lustre upon the 
Society itself. He had never said that any gentleman would consider it 
derogatory to be associated with gentlemen elected Honorary Members for 
valuable executive services. Their social status might be higher than that 
of the man elected for scientific eminence. What he did say was that to 
make persons Honorary Members upon any other principle than Scientific 
Eminence would be contrary to recognised principle and derogatory to the 
status of Honorary Members, and he must therefore oppose the resolution. 

Several other Members took part in the discussion. Mr. D'Argent sup- 
ported the resolution, Mr. S. H. Swayne opposed it. Upon the close of 
the discussion the President stated that he had received several letters from 
important Members of the Society who were unable to be present, all of 
whom were opposed to the Resolution, as he was himself. 

The Members then proceeded to a division, it being announced that, 
according to the Regulations, a majority of two-thirds was required to make 
a change in the law of the Society. The voting was taken by show of hands. 
The President declared that the numbers were :— for the Resolution, 19 j 
against it, 6 ; and that the Resolution was carried. 

Alterations in Rules. 


It was proposed by Mr. Christopher Thomas, and seconded by Mr. 
Swayne, and unanimously adopted, " That the thanks of the Society be 
given to Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S., &c, &c, for accepting the Office of President 
during the past year, and for the kind and courteous manner in which he 
had performed the duties." 

Dr. Beddoe, in returning thanks, expressed his regret that his failing 
health and physical weakness had prevented him from taking a more active 
part in the proceedings of the Society, in the formation of which he had 
assisted, and in the welfare of which he took great interest. He then intro- 
duced to the Meeting the new President, A. B. Freeman- Mitford, Esq., C.B., 
and surrendered the Chair. 

The President then delivered his Inaugural Address, which is printed 
post, in extenso. 

On the conclusion of the Address, Dr. Beddoe proposed a vote of thanks 
to the President for his eloquent, interesting and instructive Address, which 
was seconded by Sir John Maclean, and unanimously adopted. This con- 
cluded the morning's proceedings in the Hall, and the Meeting broke up. 

The members afterwards assembled at the Redesdale Hotel, where a 
substantial lunch had been prepared. The President took the chair, and a 
large number of ladies and gentlemen were present at the table. Whilst 
lunch was being partaken of, several brakes and other carriages had drawn 
up in the street for an excursion to 


At Bourton-on-the-Hill the visitors were courteously received by the 
Vicar, the Rev. F. Farrar, M.A., who, with the assistance of his friend, Mr. 
Guy Dawber, acted as guide to the church. It will not be necessary to 
enter into any examination of the architectural features here, as a description 
of the structure, by the Rev. David Royce, M.A., will be printed in extenso. 
There are some interesting seventeenth century houses in the village, and a 
dovecote of the same period. We wish some member, or members, of 
the Society could be induced to write a description of all the Dovecotes in 
the County of Gloucester, whilst they remain, for they are, generally, fast 
disappearing. It is a subject of great interest, and one which has been 
too long neglected. They throw much light on mediaeval tenures, manners 
and customs. 

Leaving Bourton, a very pleasant and picturesque drive through Dove- 
dale brought the excursionists to the pretty rural village of Blockley, in 
Worcestershire. It is, however, far in advance of most places of much 
greater importance, for it is lighted by electricity. The President, who had 
come by a shorter route, was waiting, with the vicar, the Rev. Canon E. J. 
Houghton, at the church to receive the visitors, but it was immediately 
intimated to them that they were overdue at Northwick Park, so that time 
did not admit of the examination of this highly interesting church. 

Blockley Church is dedicated to SS. Peter and Paul, and consists of chan- 
cel, with a chapel on the north side, nave, north aisle, south porch and west 
tower ; and we are obligingly informed by the vicar that the length of the 
church from east to west is 32 ft. 6 ins., and that the breadth is 18 ft. b' ins. 
He states that " the chancel is chiefly of late Norman work, and that it was 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

evidently either vaulted in stone or intended so to be, as appears from the 
clustered corbel shafts remaining in the north and south walls, and corres- 
ponding pillars also remain at the north-east and south-west corners. Above 
the present ceiling are remains of a former open-timbered roof of high pitch. 
One Norman window still exists on the north side, the other two, which 
lighted this side, being closed with masonry. They were of a size correspond- 
ing with the one still existing. The east window is pointed, and clearly a 
later insertion. It is of five lights, with geometric tracery in the head." 

The Chancel Arch is of Perpendicular work, with plain chamfered mould- 
ings springing from the original Norman piers, supporting a former arch. 
The lower portion of these piers has been cut away to widen the aperture, 
in which is a Perpendicular screen of three divisions, the central one being 
open and without any ornament, the side compartments being divided by 
open panel work with pierced tracery in the heads, the lower portions con- 
sisting of solid panels. Access to the rood-loft was gained by a stair in the 
thickness of the south chancel wall, now closed up. The roof is plastered 
internally, and is a plain pointed vault. 

The windows on the south side of the chancel have been altered, retain- 
ing the size of the original Norman openings with their side columns, but 
the heads are converted into pointed arches with geometric tracery. The 
central window on this side has been entirely altered. It is of three lights 
with perpendicular tracery in the head. Underneath is a square-headed 
priest's doorway. Under the south-east window is a handsome piscina and 
sedilia of decorated work, the whole series comprising four ogee openings 
with crockets and h'nials above. The piscina is trefoiled in the head, with 
cuspings. It is divided by a shelf, and has a water receptacle and drain, 
and has lately been restored. The sedilia is a triple one, the shafts dividing 
the series being detached. The mouldings of the arches are continued to the 
base of each division of the sedilia. 

On the north side of the chancel is a pointed doorway leading to an 
Early- English structure (now used as a vestry). It consists of two stories. 
It was anciently used as a chapel of the chantry founded by Ralph de 
Bateson in 1320, and was probably occupied by the chantry priest. 

The ancient South Doorway was of Norman work, within which has been 
inserted a later Perpendicular square frame-work, enclosing a pointed arch, 
the spandrils being filled in with ornament. 

The Font is Decorated in character, octagonal, with quartrefoils on each 
face enhanced with a four-leaved flower. It is raised on one step only. 

The Tower is of four stages, of poor design. Above the west door, on the 
second story, is a round-headed window. On the third story is a clock dial, 
and on the fourth story is a window of two lights on each face of the tower, 
and the tower has a pinnacle on each angle. It was built in 1727 at a cost 
of £500." 

The chapel, before mentioned, as on the north side of the chancel, is now 
a mortuary chapel of the Northwick family. It was divided from the north 
aisle by a screen, and the piscina in the north respond of the easternmost 
column of the arcade shows that there was an altar against this screen at the 
east end of the north aisle. It is probable that the chantry of the Blessed 

inflow MCMtiore info&jfirw jrceCfonu 

Brass in Blockley Church, Worcestershire 

Blockley Church. 


Virgin, founded by John de Blockley in 1375, was at this altar, or at the 
altar in the aforesaid chapel, the piscina of which is of a very ornate charac- 
ter, though now greatly mutilated. The north aisle is of four bays, 
separated from the nave by hexagonal columns supporting plain chamfered 
arches, and lighted by a debased window in each bay, and two similar 
windows, though smaller, above it. 

The Monuments. 
The Church is rich in monuments, though during the last 
century the brasses have greatly suffered. Nash, when he wrote 
in 1781, mentions three Ecclesiastical Brasses as being in the 
chancel : — 1st, "in the north side of the chancel, on a blue marble 
slab, is a priest praying to the Virgin and child. 1 On a scroll over 
his head is the following legend : " S£ntca SpeS btte mtcf)t fctrgO 
feitca paufte/' By his side a chalice," and underneath the 
following verses : 

" Jmstgrtem gratottate btrttm gemmo Becoratum 
Scole gratm, setup* ptetat, atr opera pmum 
$n (meres bersum, Baroque sufc marmore pssum 
piangtte, too* que sonet stt ttfct btta Ueus " 2 

The whole is encompassed by this inscription : 

$tc facet magtster $fnlltpus WL&vfyim in artttms magtster 
guon&am btcarttts eccleste tie iSlocftleg, gut ofctt't tn 
crasttno £tt Bartfiolomet anno tmt McctclxxxiUU "* 

(Plate V.) 

Nash says further : " On the other side of the chancel is a priest 
wearing a cope. 4 On one side of the border are these words : 

3Fesus amor metis, btta mea, justorum tetttta. 

On the other side : |le elOttgertS a me, llettS meUS. Over the 

body: Benetrictus Hetts. 

1 The figures of the Virgin and child have disappeared. 

2 These verses are omitted by Nash. Where the legends remain we have 
followed the spelling. 

2 This marginal inscription, though in existence in 1827, when the Rev. 
T. Eyre wrote his Guide to Blockley, is now lost. And the figure had 
been turned with the face looking towards the north. 

3 He is represented kneeling, and not vested in a cope, but in the usual 
eucharistic vestments, viz : — alb, adorned with apparel both before and 
behind, chasuble, amice, and maniple. The alb and chasuble are unusually 
full. The latter, doubtless, covers the stole, which is not apparent. 

30 Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Underneath : 

©rate pro antma magtstrt WLtlli Neele quonBam btearu 
Ijufus reelesteet Ifteetora eeeleste Be Burton super aquam 
qut oimt fait}' &te &uqustt anno Bonttnt f*t° to c r eujus 
attune proptetetur Hews. ^men 1 (/^e F/.) 

The third Brass mentioned by Nash he describes as being that 
of a priest on a tomb in the middle of the chancel praying, with 
this inscription under his feet : 

(Euttsquts era qut trattstera sta, perIege,plora; 

Sunt quo& erte, ftteramque quoti es : pro me preeor ora. 

On the border of the same stone is an inscription much defaced 
by time, in these words : 

3#te jaeet J&agtster OTtUtelmus Eomfcfiarte fcacalaureus 
utrtusque juris, quontmm reetor eeelest tie [Stretton 2 super] 
cfosse, qut obttt tn totgtlta Stt arrtnttatts, fctBelteet, tmo= 
Beetmo tite ntensts JTuntt 1 %M. [J^Hxxxttj] 3 

The effigy of this Brass was lost before 1827, but all the in- 
inscription then remained except the words enclosed in square 
brackets above. All that now remains are the words : 

2Trtmtatts FtSJellt' Huotfeetmo tite ntewsts .ffttntf " 

There are many other monuments in the church, some of them 
handsome, chiefly to members of the families of Childe, Rushout, 
Carter and Martyn. The earliest is of the date 1601. A very 
handsome mural monument of marble, in the style of the period. 
The effigy of a man in armour kneeling at a desk within Corinthian 
columns supporting a pediment (or cornice). It is adorned with 
three escutcheons of arms : — 

1. Gu. a chev. erm. betw. three eagles} close, arg. for Childe. 

1 This Brass, when Mr. Eyre published his Guide, had been removed into 
the sanctuary with the blue marble slab above described, but when it was 
determined, a few years ago, to pave the sanctuary with tiles the Brass was 
taken up for its preservation, but a portion only of the inscription was pre- 
served. The Brass was set up at the back of the middle seat of the sedilia, 
and the two small scrolls were set in the spandrils of the arch above. 

2 Stretton was formerly, though itself a Rectory, a Chapelry of Blockley, 
and had no right of burial. 

3 In this year Easter fell on 13th April. 

Brass m Blookley Church, - Worcestershire 

Block ley Church. 


2. Childe — impaling : arg. a lion rampant purpure crowned or, for 


3. Childe — impaling : arg., a chev. betw. three scaling ladders sa. 

for Jefferies. 

Crest — An eagle with wings expanded argent, enveloped round the 
neck and body with a snake proper. 1 
On the monument is a long fulsome laudatory inscription, a 
striking contrast to the simple prayer on the Brasses we have 
described above : "Upon whose soul God have mercy" and " Jesus, 
the object of my love, my life, the joy of the just. Be not far from 
me, 0 my God. Blessed be God." 

The above-mentioned monument was piously erected by William 
Childe, son and heir of William Childe, Esq., deceased in 1615. 
There are several monuments with the same type of inscriptions, 
' to other members of the Childe family. On one is the effigy of a 
woman reclining at full length, in the dress of the period. On it 
is a shield of arms : Childe, as before, impaling : azure, on a fess 
wavy arg. a cross pattee gu. in chief two estoiles or, for J enkinson. 

It is stated that she herself wrote the epitaph a short time 
before her death. 

There are some other sumptuous monuments to members of 
the family of Rushout, successors of the Childes, with inscriptions 
in somewhat better taste. 

In the churchyard is a touching one with the following in- 
scription : — 

Near to this place do lye, 
Ten pretty Babes of sweet infancy 
Who only came into the world and cry'd 
To be baptized of their sins and dy'd. 
And Walter Long their father lyeth here 
A Loving Husband and Father dear, 
The Frowns of men he did never fear 
But still a heart of charity did bear. 
He departed this life June 12, 1712, aged 60 years. 

In the Chancel is a bible of the time of James I. ; a remnant of Fox's 
Book of Martyrs ; and a very old edition of Bishop Jewel's Apology. The 
Parish Registers commence from the first institution of such records in 
1538, and are specially interesting, not only for the entries they contain, but 
also for the beauty of the caligraphy. 

From the Church the party proceeded to Northwick Park, where they 
were kindly welcomed by Lady Northwick, and were shewn the splendid 

1 The birds in the Childe coat are blazoned in Eyre's " Guide to Blockley " as Doves, 
but according to the record in the Heralds' College (C. 30, fol. 60) they should be Eagles. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

gallery of pictures, collected by the late John, Baron Northwick, the uncle 
of the present Baron, who was a great lover of Art. Having partaken of 
tea in the orangery, they proceeded to Batsford Park, the seat of the present 
President of the Society. Both Mr. Freeman-Mitford and Lady Clementina 
gave the Society a cordial reception and entertained them with an early 
supper. Before leaving the Rev. Canon Bourne expressed the thanks of the 
Society to Mr. Freeman-Mitford and Lady Clementina for their hospitable 
reception. Mr. Mitford, in acknowledgment, said it had been a great 
pleasure to him to receive the Society at Batsford Park, 

Then departing, the company reached Moreton just in time for the 
which was held in the Redesdale Hall at 8.30. The President occupied the 
chair, and there was a large assemblage present. 

In opening the Meeting the President said he had to express his regret, 
in which he was confident the company would participate, when he told 
them that Mr. Royce, who had kindly prepared a Paper to be read this 
evening, "On the Church and Parish of Bourton-on-the-Hill," had, in 
driving in from Stow, unfortunately lost his manuscript. [N.B. Luckily it 
was afterwards recovered, and will be printed in this volume.] 

The first Paper this evening was then read by Mr. C. Belcher, B.A., on 
the History of M or eton-in- Marsh. This also will be printed in extenso in this 
volume, as will also be the following]: — 

Paper by Mr. F. A. Hyett on Four Incidents in the Civil War, and a 

Paper on The Church and Manor House of Little Compton, by the Rev. 
J. H. Killick, M.A., Vicar of the Parish. 

WEDNESDAY, 15th July. 

On this day an Excursion was arranged to visit certain places of interest 
in the neighbourhood of Moreton, and conclude the day's proceedings at 
Oxford, to which place directions had been given for the conveyance of the 
luggage of such members as purposed going thither. Accordingly, early in 
the morning, brakes were drawn up at the Hotel, but before leaving Moreton 
a very hearty vote of thanks was given to the Rev. Spencer J. Jones, the 
Rector of Moreton, for the valuable assistance he had rendered to the Society 
in making arrangements for the Meeting, and for the efficient manner in 
which they had been subsequently carried into effect. 

The first place in the programme to be visited was Little Compton, upon 
the Manor House and Church of which a very interesting Paper had been 
read on the previous evening at the Converzatione, by the Rev. John H. 
Killick, the Vicar of the Parish, which will be printed post. In driving to 
Compton the party passed the Four-Shire-Stones, at which the four counties 
of Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire conjoin. 
To these the attention of the party was directed. 

Little Compton Church and Manor House. 
On their arrival at Little Compton, during a cheerful peal of the church 
bells in honour of their visit, the excursionists were cordially welcomed by 
the Vicar, the Rev. John H. Killick, who pointed out to them the special 
features of interest in the Church, and then conducted them to the Manor 
House, which manor was purchased by Dr. William Juxon, then Bishop of 

Little Compton Church and Manor House. 


London, circa 1640, to which considerable additions were subsequently- 
made, including the Manor of Lemington near "The Shire Stones." As 
Bishop of London, Dr. Juxton attended the martyred King during his last 
moments on the scaffold, and after the execution took charge of his body 
and accompanied it to Windsor. After the last solemn offices had been done 
there the Bishop retired to his recently purchased estate at Little Compton, 
where he remained in peace during the turbulent times which followed the 
death of the King until the Restoration, when he was preferred to the Archie- 
piscopal throne of Canterbury in 1660. He did not hold it long, however, for 
he died on the 4th June, 1663, aged 81, and by his own desire was buried 
in the chapel of St. John's College, Oxford, of which he had been formerly 
Master, and to which he had bequeathed a munificent legacy (see Will, post 
p. 34). The body of his old friend, patron, and predecessor at Canterbury, 
Archbishop Laud, was afterward laid by his side. The Archbishop's por- 
trait still graces the hall at Little Compton, and many relics of him are 
carefully and reverently preserved in the house, but some articles had been 
removed, e.g. the old blacMcttct bible, now at Chastleton, and a handsome 
old chair, or stool, now in the Cottage Hospital, of a form at present known 
in the trade as a " Curule Stool." Mr. Killick stated that it had been for 
some time missing, but eventually it was found in a laundry, and was pre- 
sented to the Cottage Hospital by Mr. Sands Cox. To it is attached a card 
with the following history, in manuscript : — 

"The Chair in which King Charles the 1st sat during his trial in West- 
minster Hall — and which passed directly to Mr. Sands Cox, who obtained 
it from Lady Fane, of Little Compton, in the County of Warwick, the 
direct descendant of Bishop Juxon." 

The descent is shewn in the annexed pedigree. The bible is said to have 
been used by the King on the scaffold, but it appears to us not at all probable 
that the King used a bible in such circumstances. Another tradition is 
that the King presented it to the Bishop on the eve of his execution as a 
memento of his majesty's esteem and friendship, which we think is much 
more likely. The bible is said to be dated in 1637 (Marah's Life of Archb, 
Juxon). John Juxon, of Londoner 

Richard Juxon, of Chichester. = 


William Juxon, born at Chichester, 1583 ; 
Bishop of London, 1633 ; Lord High Treasurer, 
1635; Archbishop of Canterbury, 1660; died 
4th June, 1663, unm. set. 81. Will dated 20 
Sept. 1662. Prob, 4 July, 1663. 

Sir William Juxon } =pElizabeth, daughter of 

created a Baronet 28 
Dec. 1660 ; Sheriff of 
Gloucester, 1676 ; died 

Sir John Walter, of 
Saresden, co. Oxford, 

Sir William Juxon,=Susanna, yst daughter of John Marriott, of 
of Compton, co. Glouc. Sturton Hall, co. Suffolk, Esq. She surv. 
Bart., son and heir; her husband. Married, 2ndly, 7 June, 1749, 
married 1726 ; died Charles Visc't Fane and Baron Larghguyre, 
3 Feb. 1740, s.p. aged in the Peerage of Ireland, who died 24th 
79, when the title be- Jan. 1766, s.p., when the peerage became 
came extinct. extinct. After his death she succeeded to 

Compton for her life. She died 10th April, 
1796, aged 86. 
Vol. XVI. d 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

The early history of Archbishop Juxon is very obscure. Many 
circumstances, however, tend to shew that his grandfather was a 
certain John Juxon, of London. His will here following throws 
some light upon his family (see Marah's Memoirs of Archbishop 
Juxon, 1869). 

as extracted from the Register of the Prerogative Court of 
Canterbury. Dated 20th Sept. 1662, and published 14th May, 

In Dei Nomine. Amen. I, William Juxon, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, being weak in body, but of good memory and understand- 
ing (I praise God for it), do make and ordain this my last 
will and testament in manner and form following, revoking all 
former wills whatsoever. And first, I bequeath my soul to 
Almighty God, my Creator, Father of mercies, and God of all 
comfort, trusting by the merits and meditation of His dear 
son Jesus Christ, our blessed Lord and Saviour, to obtain 
remission of my sins and all other benefits of His passion. 
My body I commit to the earth, to be decently buried without 
pomp. My worldly goods I thus dispose : — I give unto the poor 
of the parish of St. Peter the Great, alias the Sub-Deanery, 
in the City of Chichester, .£100. To the poor of St. Giles, 
in the suburbs of the City of Oxford, £100. To the poor 
of Somerton, County Oxford, £50. To the poor of Little 
Compton, County Gloucester, £100. To the poor of Leming- 
ton, in the same county, £100. To the poor of Todenham, in 
the same county, £50. To the poor of Lambeth and Croydon, 
in the County of Surrey, I give each £100. To my sister, 
Ann Swayne, I give £1000. To my nephews, Richard Swayne 
and Lawrence Swayne, I give to each of them £500. To my 
nieces, Elizabeth Merlott and Frances Fisher, to each of them 
I give £500. To my cousin, Dr. Robert Pory, 1 give £300. 
To his children, Elizabeth Pory, Thomas Pory, Helen Pory, 
Mary Pory, and Robert Pory, to each of them I give £200. 
To my cousin, John Pory, I give £500. To each of his chil- 
dren, £200. To my cousin, Henry Fisher, I give £300. To 
my cousin, John Meeres, of Petersfield, I give £100. To 
my cousin, Thomas Juxon, of Mortlake, I give £200. To my 
cousin, John Palmer, merchant, I give £50. To his sister, 

Palmer, of Chichester, I give £50. To Doctor Bra- 

burne, my Chaplain, I give £10 to buy a ring. To Sir Philip 
Warwick, I give my silver standish with the watch and coun- 
ters. To Doctor Bayley, Dean of , I give £20 to buy 


Archbishop Juxon's Will. 35 

him a ring. To the president and scholars of St. John's College, 
Oxford, I give £7000 to be disposed of for the increase of the 
yearly stipends of the fellows and scholars of that College, by 
purchase of lands for that purpose, whereof the fellows and 
scholars to have equal shares. To the repair of the church of 
St. Paul's, if it proceed, I give £2000. To my menial servants 
which shall be in my house at the time of my death, I give 
£1200, to be distributed to them as my executor and overseer 
herein named shall think meet, with regard had to the quality 
of their places and time of their abode with me. To my 
reverend brother Gilbert, Lord Bishop of London [Bishop 
Shildon], T give my Barge, with the furniture thereto belong- 
ing. All the rest of my goods, cattels, and chattels whatsoever, 
my debts first paid and my funeral expenses discharged, I 
give to my nephew, Sir William Juxon, whom I make sole 
executor of this my last will, and do entrust my good friend, 
Sir Philip Warwicke, overseer of this my Will, and do give 
to each of them, for their pains herein to be taken, £100. My 
desire and will is, if I happen to die before the hall at Lam- 
beth be finished, that my executor be at the charge of finishing 
it according to the modell made of it, if my successor shall 
give leave. In witness whereof I have written this with my 
own hand, and thereunto set my sign and seal this twentieth 
day of September, 1662. 

W. Cant. 

Declared to be my last will and testament this 14th May, 1663, in 
the presence of us Richard Manning 

Paul Widdopp 
Robert Carllis 

Codicil to he annexed. I give to the Cathedral Church of Can- 
terbury £500, to be disposed of as the now present dean, 
Doctor Turnor, shall think fit. I give to Mr. George Juxon, of 
Canterbury, £100. I give to Doctor Turnor, Dean of Can- 
terbury, £20 to buy him a ring. I give to each of my poor 
kindred as are not mentioned in my will the sum of £500, to 
be distributed among them as my executor and overseer shall 
find cause. I give to Mr. Daniel Nicholl to buy a ring, £10. 
I give to Richard Barnes, £20. 

W. Cant. 

I give to my nephews and nieces, to every of them, £100. 

W. Cant. 

Probatum fuit testamentum suprascriptum cum codicillo eidem 
annexo apud London eoram venerabili viro Domino Willielmo 
Merrick, Milite, Legum Doctore, quarto die mensis Julij, Anno 
Dom. 1663. 

T> 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

From Little Compton the party proceeded to 

Chastleton Church and Manor House. 

The Vicar said the church, which is dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin, is 
replete with interest, dating back, as it does, nearly eight centuries, and is 
associated with many distinguished names in Oxfordshire history. Robert 
D'Oiley, nephew of the Robert mentioned in Doomsday — and from both of 
whose two sons he claimed descent in the female line— gave that church of 
Cesterton Henmershe to the Abbey of Osney, in 1130, to which period the 
north door belonged. It is a matter, he said, in which he is considerably 
interested, because, he said, he is descended in the male line from the first 
Saxon Earl of Mercia, Leo. In 1190 the western portion of the south arcade 
was built, being in the Transitional Norman style. There was a re-dedication 
in the time of Bardolf de Cesterton, from whom the village derived its name 
of Cesterton Bardolf. In the next century his grandson, Bardolf, added the 
early English portion of the south arcade and the chancel arch. The small 
north chantry, 1 judging from the former east window, was built at that 
time. In 1336 the south chantry was endowed by Sir John Trillow, Knt., 
then Lord of the Manor — for the souls of John Trillow, a clerk, his 
uncle, Isabel his mother, Isabel his wife, and Roger Beaufoy, which was 
confirmed by the Bishop of Lincoln on 13th Sept. in the following year. The 
Trillows were succeeded by the families of Wilcotes, Bishopdene, and 
Catesby — the latter family holding the manor for several generations until 
the time of Robert Catesby, the conspirator, whose infant son was buried in 
the church. In the churchyard was an ancient stone with a crown [? cross] 
upon it, but no inscription. 2 It was found about 3 feet below the surface of 
the ground when the vestry was built a few years ago. There was also a 
calvary — socket and shaft — both of which were old. The chancel and tower 
were comparatively modern — the latter having been destroyed by lightning 
and rebuilt in 1689. 

The following is gathered from the original record :— 

2 [After an Inq. ad quod damnum, 8th Edward III. , Robert de Trillowe 
obtained licence to give certain messuages and lands, which he held of Hugh 
de Plessetes in Chastelton, for the support of a priest to celebrate Divine 
Service daily in the Church of the Blessed Mary of Chastelton for the benefit 
of his soul, and of the souls of John de Trillow, Roger de Bella Fago (Beau- 
foy) Knt., and for the souls of his (Robert's) ancestors, Isabella his wife, 
and Isabella his mother ; and of all benefactors and all the faithful departed, 
and for the increase of Divine worship. And this charter was confirmed to 
Sir Thomas Finoble, the chaplain, and to his successors in honour of the 
Blessed Virgin in the Parish Church of Chastelton ; the said chaplain to 
pray for the health and good estate of the said Robert whilst he lives, and 
for his soul after his departure. The chantry was ordained by Robert 
Trillowe on Saturday before the feast of St. Mark, 10th Edward III., 21st 
April, 1336, and confirmed by the Bishop of Lincoln on the Ides of Sept. 
1337, Chastleton being then within that diocese.] — Ed. 

Miss Whitmore Jones then exhibited various objects of interest in the 
church, among them some 12th cent, tiles, and an old prayer book illustrated 

1 There is a very common confusion here between a chapel and a chantry. A chantry 
was not a structure but a service.— Ed. 

2 Inscriptions were never used at this early date. 

Chastleton Church and Manor House. 


with old Dutch prints representing the eye of God looking down upon Guy 
Fawkes in the cellars of parliament house and the execution of the King, in 
which, according to the print, a stool was used. From the church the visitors 
proceeded to the old manor house of Chastleton, so rich in the recollections 
of the reigns of the Stuarts, recalling every period in the history of those 
unfortunate Kings. The residence of Catesby, the conspirator, who would 
have ended, if his designs had succeeded, the career of the first English King 
of that line, it was later on occupied by loyal adherents of Charles I. and II. , 
and was eventually a great Jacobite stronghold, its owners striving for the 
restoration to the crown of the descendants of that king whom their pre- 
decessor would have destroyed. For seven generations the house has been 
occupied by the Jones family, and their descendant, Miss Whitmore Jones, 
the present owner, takes the greatest interest in it, and is remarkably well 
versed, in the history of the historical house which has descended to her, 
and the records of those disturbed periods in which its inhabitants played 
so prominent a part. 

Inside, the house, besides being a beautiful example of an English country 
home, is literary a museum of Stuart relics. By the kindness of Mrs. 
Condell, the present occupier, Miss Whitmore Jones showed the visitors 
over the old house, and exhibited and explained to them many of her his- 
torical treasures. Amongst these were the old Bible, an almost complete 
and the most perfect existing set of Jacobite glass, with the rose and the 
thorn, the star and the compass, and the word " fiat," made for the Glou- 
cestershire Jacobite Club, of which Henry Jones, of Chastleton House, was 
a member. There was a deed signed by Catesby in 1601 relating to the 
sale of the house, old tapestries, furniture, and garments, wonderful old 
lace and ancient pictures, and a much prized miniature of the martyr King. 
The little picture is accompanied by a series of painted transparencies which, 
applied to the miniature, illustrate the whole history of the unhappy King 
and his misfortunes, from the first where he is represented in full possession 
of the crown and sceptre to the last in which his head is being held up 
triumphantly by the executioner. Four pictures like this were painted at 
the Restoration, and the three others are carefully preserved in different 
parts of the country. The members ascended the tower, saw other objects 
of interest in the great hall, and after expressing their thanks to Mrs. 
Condell and Miss Whitmore-Jones, took their departure for 


where the ancient camp was visited and explained by Miss Whitmore-Jones, 
who pointed out that it was square in plan, but rounded at the corners, and 
had two entrances. The camp was a Roman one, being close to two Roman 
roads, Acemen Street and another, though it was doubtful whether it had 
not previously been occupied by the Britons. A party of archaeologists 
came to excavate here some time ago, and came upon bones"at the cooking 
place. The embankment, which has not been interfered with, was found to 
be of rough masonry below the earth which covered it, This Society visited 
the camp in 18/3, when some remarks were made upon it by Rev. D. 
Royce, and after a discussion the party came to the conclusion that the 
structure was originally a British circular camp, but that it has been con- 
siderably altered by Roman and other occupants (Trans., Vol. VII., 21). 

Transactions for the Year 1801-92. 

With the obliging permission of Miss Whitmore-Jones this Society 
visited the Manor House and Church of Chastleton in 1875. The Rev. D. 
Royce read in the hall a Paper shewing the devolution of the manor, but 
Chastleton being beyond the sphere of the Society's labours, a very brief 
abstract only is recorded in our Transactions, see Vol. VII. p. 21 : — 

It appears that Robert Catesby for the purpose of carrying out his diabolical 
designs borrowed sums of money from Walter Jones, of Lincoln's Inn, 
amounting in the whole to £6000, and the 25th June, 44 Eliz. (1602), the 
Manor of Chastleton was conveyed to the said Walter Jones and Henry 
Jones, his son. 

Walter Jones was the builder of the present Manor House in 1632, so it can 
scarcely be said to be an Elizabethan house. 

In 1609 Walter Jones obtained the Royal licence to alienate a moiety to cer- 
tain persons, one of whom was Sir Edmund Fetttiplace, to hold to the use 
of the aforesaid trustees until the marriage of the said Henry Jones and 
Anne Fettiplace, then to the use of the said Henrjr and Anne and their 
heirs, so that the estate became divided into moieties until 17S9, when 
the outlying portions were purchased by John Jones, Esq., ancestor of 
the present proprietor. 

The party then visited the camp, which the Rev. G. Sneyd thought 
was certainly British, as it was so near to the ancient British road leading 
to the Rollright Stones. Leaving the camp, a few minutes' walk brought 
them to the summer-house at Adlestrop Hill, where, by the kind permission 
of Lord Leigh, luncheon was spread. Shortly after two o'clock the brakes 
were again mounted, and the party proceeded to the 

Here the party was met by Mr. Freeman-Mitford, Lady Clementina Mitford, 
and the Misses Mitford, and by 

Mr. A. J. Evans, F.S.A., Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 
who gave an interesting Address on the subject of the Stones. He said he 
proposed to give a few general remarks that day on the class of monument 
to which the stones belonged, and if anyone cared to listen he would, with 
the aid of plans, give a more detailed account when the Society visited the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford on Friday. Rollright, after all, was an 
extremely insignificant monument of its class, and would be disappointing to 
those who had seen Stonehenge or the monuments of Brittany. They would 
wonder that such small stones as were used at Rollright should have been 
preserved so long in situ ; but they must remember that that spot was, till 
the beginning of the century, part of a wild heath country, and was con- 
tiguous to a great forest, so that there were few inhabitants and little 
cultivation. Happily during the last few years the owner of the stones, 
availing himself of the Monument Act, had enclosed those stones and the 
" Whispering Knights." Some years ago the whole site was planted with 
trees, which had destroyed any but fragmentary records of the old inter- 
ments that probably existed within the circle. These stones were connected 

Rollright Stones. 


with a group of monuments extending over the whole of that district, and 
had special connection with the long mound or barrow on the other side of 
the road. Coming from Chastleton that day he had observed for the first 
time at intervals along the road, probably a British trackway, leading up from 
Chastleton. Some very ancient blocks of about the same period as those of 
Rollright, shewing that some kind of avenue probably existed along the 
roadside, and remains of the same kind might be traced in the other 
direction. Here and there on the ground at the side of the road were some 
larger blocks, and at one point he observed what appeared to be the remains 
of a small round dolmen with four or five stones, indicating the existence 
of some rude kind of circle. As to the class of monuments to which Roll- 
right belonged, it was formerly sufficient to say that a monument of that 
kind was built by the Druids, and to trace a connection between it and some 
kind of solar worship. Very accurate astronomical observations would be 
made with regard to some of the blocks, and elaborate theories would be 
turned out. He thought, however, that anyone who looked at the irregular 
character of the blocks and their distribution — there was no real centre to 
the circle at all — would see that those who erected those stones did not do 
so with the aid of measuring rod, nor did they set up the stones at regular 
intervals. The diameter of the circle was about 100 feet, and that measure- 
ment was interesting because it connected the circle with a large class of 
circles of the same kind of about the same approximate diameter, and with 
a class of monument often found to contain sepulchral remains. In the 
present day, to understand the meaning of those stones, it was necessary 
to take a wider survey, and have regard to monuments of the same kind, 
existing not only in the same county or country, but in various parts of 
Europe and, indeed, the most distant quarters of the globe. In modern 
India they had examples of the same rude kind of architecture that existed 
in Britain in pre-historic times, which were still being executed by some of 
the barbarous hill tribes, and they could see the way in which those huge 
blocks were built up, one over the other, and could trace the ideas which 
underlay that kind of monument. They might wonder, for instance, how 
the great cap-stone in the dolmen below was originally set up. It had now 
fallen down, though it was in the right position in Elizabeth's reign. Among 
the Himilayan tribes great dolmens were set up at the present day, and in the 
way they set them up they might find the key to the method in which they 
were set up by the ancient Britons. The stones were broken from the rock 
by placing firewood along a certain line, great fragments of rock being thus 
cracked off. By the aid of ropes and rollers they were then dragged to their 
positions and tilted over into sockets already prepared. The uprights being 
thus set in their places, the cap-stones were fitted on to them by building up 
a hard earthen slope to the level of their upper surface, and then, by the aid 
of ropes and levers, the cap-stone was rolled up the slope till it rested on 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

the uprights, and the earth around was then removed. They found that 
Indian tribes erected these circles, — the size of which, so far as the blocks 
went, might compare with Stonehenge — in memory of departed spirits, and 
in some cases the great circles were not erected all at once. There was one 
interesting case in which the stones were said to be erected to an old woman 
who had recently died, and whose spirit was supposed to be the cause of a 
large harvest which came after her death. In various years afterwards 
there were doubts as to the harvest prospects, and more stones were set up to 
the spirit of the old woman in the hope that she would again bring a good 
harvest. In this connection it was noteworthy that at Stonehenge and at 
Rollright the stones were set in groups. There were other forms in which 
this particular cult was connected with those great stone monuments. The 
idea of setting up an inner stone circle and avenue arose in the earliest days 
of the Neolithic oociipation of Britain. " Long Barrows " belonging to this 
period were to be seen — especially in the South of England and Gloucester- 
shire — with a large stone chamber and a circle of stones around the edges of 
the mound, and fitted on to a wide spread set of barrows in North and 
Western Europe. Some of these stone barrows were exactly analogous to 
the existing huts of the Esquimaux and the people of the extreme North. 
That was to say the primitive huts of the living as still found in Northern 
Europe were reproduced and perpetuated in the houses of the dead, and the 
entrance gallery which w r as usually found to these huts was represented by 
the stone avenue. Mr. Evans then told the old legend of the stones, which 
was to the effect that a king was going up the hill at that place with the 
object of conquering all England, when he met with a witch who said, "If 
Long Compton you shall see, King of England you shall be." He reached 
the top of the hill from which Long Compton could usually be seen, but the 
witch caused a mound to rise up and obstruct the view. The King was 
turned into the " King's stone," and the stones known as the " Whispering 
Knights " were said to have been traitors plotting against the King, who 
were also turned into stone. An old elder tree used to stand among the 
stones, and was called " the witch." When cut down it was said to bleed. 
A whole cycle of folk-lore clustered round these stones, and it was a remark- 
able fact that many of the stories recurred in an almost identical form in 
Brittany, The fact that on that spot there was such continuity of tradition 
analogous to that prevailing through a large Celtic tract, and which must 
have been handed down from father to son, tended to shew that there was 
still Celtic blood in the inhabitants of that part of the country. 

On the conclusion of Mr. Evans' address the party proceeded to the 
Church of Chipping Norton, where, in the unavoidable absence of the Vicar, 
the members were received by the Churchwardens. The Rev. W. Bazeley 
read some notes on the Connection between the Church of Chipping Norton, 
the Abbey, and the Cathedral of St. Peter's, of Gloucester, and Gloucester 
Hall, now Worcester College, Oxford, It is hoped that these notes will be 

Bodleian Library. 


amplified and printed hereafter in the Transactions. Those members who 
desired to return to Moreton now proceeded thither by the return brakes 
and others went to Oxford. 


On Thursday, July 16th, at 11 a.m., after the conclusion of Morning 
Prayer at Magdalen Chapel, the Members of the Society were received by 
the President of Magdalen, Mr. T. H. Warren, M.A., who had most cour- 
teously came up to Oxford for that purpose. 

The President gave a most interesting account of the rise and growth 
of the College, and pointed out the objects of special interest : — 

The Chapel was built a.d. 1474-1480 by William of Waynflete, whose 
effigy appears over the west window, together with the effigies of St. John 
the Baptist, Edward IV., St. Mary Magdalen, and St. Swithin. In the 
angle of the great quadrangle is a curious pulpit of stone, from which 
sermons were preached on St. John the Baptist's Day, until John Wesley's 
mission work made open-air preaching unfashionable. In the small chapel 
on the north side of the altar lies the tomb of the founder's father, Richard 
Patton, with the head of the recumbent figure supported by the hands of 
his two sons. This tomb was brought from the church of All Saints at 

In the hall of the College are portraits of former members and bene- 
factors — William of Weynfiete, Cardinals Pole and Wolsey, Prince Henry 
(son of James I.), Prince Rupert, Addison, Dr. Sacheverell, Dean Colet, &c, 

The President referred to the custom still observed of the Choristers 
assembling at 5 o'clock in the morning on May Day (the feast of St. Philip 
and St. James) on the top of the Tower and singing the following Hymn : — 

Te Deum Patrem colimus, 
Te laudibus prosequimur : 
Qui corpus cibo reficis 
Ccelesti mentem gratia. 

Te adoramus, oh Jesu, 
Te Fili unigenite, 
Te qui non dedignatus es 
Subire claustra virginis. 

Actus in crucem, factus es 
Irato Deo, Victima : 
Per te, Salvator unice, 
Vitas spes nobis rediit. 
Tibi, iEterne Spiritus, 
Cujus afflatu peperit 
Infantem Deum Maria, 
^Eternum benedicimus. 

Triune Deus, hominum 
Salutis auctor optime, 
Immensum hoc mysterium 
Ovante lingua canimus. 1 
1 Privately printed by John Bloxam, D.D., of Magdalen Coll., Oxford, before 1848. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

The President said this custom originated after the death of Henry VII. , 
and grew out of a requiem mass said annually on St. John's day for the 
repose of that King's soul. He added that it was a mistake to suppose that 
the expenses on the occasion were met by a charge on the endowment of 
Slimbridge Church. But, query, see Carter's History of Slymbridge, p. 19, 

After a vote of thanks had been unanimously given to the President for 
his courteous reception and most interesting address the members proceeded 
to Merton by Rose Lane, and entered the College by the garden gate. Here 
they were received by Canon Freeling, who has since, to the great grief of 
his many friends, fallen a victim to Influenza. Canon Freeling claimed for 
Merton College a priority in respect to its foundation over all other collegiate 
establishments at the two great Universities. The date of the first charter 
is 1264, and the choir of the chapel dates from 1277. The transepts were 
commenced in 1330. The date of the beautiful glass in the choir windows, 
the gift of Henry de Mannesfield, then a Fellow of the College and after- 
wards Dean of Lincoln, is fortunately known as 1283. The Treasury, or 
Archive room, with its high pitched ashlar roof of the 13th century, and 
the Library, founded and built at the close of the 17th century, are especially 
interesting. The College is enclosed on the side by the ancient walls of the 
city, the garden occupying the S.E. angle of the original fortifications. 

After lunch the members met at the Bodleian Library, and examined 
many of its priceless treasures, under the most able guidance of Mr. F. 
Madan, M.A., Assistant Librarian. Mr. Madan is a son of the late Canon 
Madan, Rector of Dursley. We regret that we are unable to give a sum- 
mary of his interesting address on the foundation, growth and present 
condition of this great Library. 

From the Bodleian the members crossed over to the Radcliffe, from the 
roof of which they enjoyed the splendid view of the city with its almost 
countless churches and colleges. Mr. James Parker, M.A., F.S.A., acted 
as cicerone and described the buildings in succession. 

At 4 p.m. the members were most courteously received at Christ Church 
by Canon Bright, D.D., Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History, who led 
them into the Cathedral, and told them its history. This noble church was 
originally the Chapel of St. Frideswide's Priory, the western end of which, 
and the whole western side of the cloister, were destroyed by Cardinal 
Wolsey when he founded Christ Church College. The part which remains 
is certainly as old as the 12th century, and much of the sculptured foliage 
has Saxon characteristics, from which we may infer that pre-Norman work 
still exists. Mr. J. Parker again acted as guide, and with the help of 
excellent plans explained the architectural mysteries of the church. 

After a visit to the Great Hall, with its 17th century staircase and 
splendid collection of portraits, the members proceeded to All Souls College, 
where they were received by one of the Fellows, Mr. C. W. C. Oman, M.A., 
who gave a graphic sketch of the history of the College. Under his guidance 
the Chapel, with its reredos, restored by the late Lord Bathurst, and the 
Library, the finest private one in Oxford. The Hall and the old Library, 
with its curious ceiling of the date of Queen Elizabeth's reign, were visited 

Concluding Meeting. 


in succession. Mr. Oman very courteously entertained the members at 
afternoon tea. 

In the evening the members assembled in the Hall of Brasenose College, 
where they were hospitably received by Mr. F. Madan, one of the Fellows, 
and they listened with the greatest pleasure and interest to a lecture by that 
gentleman on the history of the City and University of Oxford. 

FRIDAY, 17th July. 
The concluding Meeting of the Society was held at the Clarendon Hotel, 
Oxford, at 9.30 a.m. In the absence of the President, Mr. William Leigh, 
Vice-President, occupied the chair. The following Resolutions were pro- 
posed by the Chairman and unanimously carried : — 

That the next Annual Summer Meeting of the Society be held at Cirences- 
ter, and that the selection of the President be left to the Council. 

That the thanks of the Society be given to : — 

1. The Chairman and Local Committee at Moreton-in-Marsh, to the Rev. J. 

Spencer Jones, Local Secretary at Moreton, and to Mr. F. Madan, and 
Mr. C. W. Oman, Local Secretaries at Oxford, for the very able assis- 
tance they have rendered to the General Secretary in making and 
carrying out the arrangements for the Meeting. 

2. To the Rector of Bourton-on-the-Hill, the Vicar of Blockley, the Vicar 

of Little Compton, the Vicar of Chastleton, and the Vicar of Chipping 
Norton for their reception of the Members at their respective Churches, 
and for the information they have afforded concerning them. 

3. To Lady Northwick and to Mrs. Condell for the permission granted by 

them to the Society to visit Northwick House, with its magnificent 
Picture Gallery, and Chastleton House respectively. 

4. To Lady Northwick, Mrs. Condell, the President of Magdalen, the Rev. 

Canon Bright, Mr. C. W. C. Oman, Mr. F. Madan, the Rev. C. H. 0. 
Daniel, and Mr. A. H. Evans, for their courteous reception of the 
members at Northwick Park, Chastleton House, at Magdalen, Merton, 
Christ Church, All Souls, Brasenose, and Worcester Colleges, at the 
Bodleian, and at the Radcliffe Libraries, and Ashmole Museum re- 

5. To Lady Northwick, the President of the Society and Lady Clementina 

Mitford, Major and Mrs. Wilkins, Mr. C. W. C. Oman, and to Mr. and 
Mrs. F. Madan, for their generous hospitality at Northwick Park, 
Batsford Park, Chipping Norton, All Souls College and Brasenose 
College respectively, 

6. To Mr. C. Belcher, the Rev. D. Royce, Mr. F. A. Hyett, the Rev. J. H. 

Killick, the President of Magdalen, Canon Freeling, Canon Bright, 
Mr. J. Parker, Mr. C. W. C. Oman, Mr. F. Madan, the Rev. C. H. 0. 
Daniel, and the General Secretary for the very interesting Papers they 
have prepared and read, or for the very able addresses they have 
delivered at Moreton-in-Marsh, the Rollright Stones, Chipping Norton, 
and at Oxford. 

7. To Miss Whitmore-Jones for her great kindness in showing and explain- 

ing to the Members the many objects of historical interest at Chastleton. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

8. To the Trustees of the Redesdale Memorial Hall for their kind permission 

to hold the Society's Meeting in that commodious and beautiful edifice. 

9. To Mr. Freeman-Mitford for his excellent Presidential Address. 

A vote of thanks was then unanimously given to Mr. W. Leigh for so 
kindly accepting the leadership of the Society during the President's 

The Members then visited Worcester College, where they were received 
by the Rev. C. H. 0. Daniel, M.A., who read a Paper on the History of 
the College, referring to its foundation as Gloucester Hall by Sir John Gifford, 
a.d. 1283, and its connection with the Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester, and 
other Benedictine Monasteries, which will be printed in extenso post. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Daniel's very interesting and instructing Paper, 
a vote of thanks to him was proposed by Mr. W. Leigh, one of the Vice- 
Presidents of the Society, and was carried by acclamation. 

The members then proceeded to inspect the College Chapel under the 
guidance of Mr. Daniel. The decorations of the roof, pavement, walls and 
windows are intended to represent the adoration of the Supreme Being by 
Man in the Te Deum, and by Nature in the Benedicite, and were executed 
by Mr. W. Burges in 1864. There is nothing of Archaeological interest 
here. The Hall contains portraits of Sir Thomas Cooke the refounder of 
the College at the commencement of the 18th century, by Kneller ; and 
other ladies and gentlemen connected with the College. There is also a 
Magdalen after Guido, and a Fish Picture by Snyders. The Library con- 
tains some architectural works by Inigo Jones, and some good pictures 
bequeathed by Nash, the Historian of Worcestershire, a member of this 

The party then visited the Gardens ; and the General Secretary pointed 
out on a doorway of the old buildings on the south side of the College a 
rebus of W. Coinpton, similar to that which may be seen in the E. window 
of the Lady Chapel of Gloucester Cathedral — the letter " W " with a comb 
and a tun surmounted by a mitre. Mr. Bazeley said that there was no 
Abbot of Gloucester of the name of Compton, but W. Compton was ap- 
pointed Chief Steward of St. Peter's Abbey, Gloucester, in 1512. Side by 
side with this device there is another of three cups, which may be assigned 
to Richard Boteler, or Butler, Abbot of Gloucester, and afterwards Bishop 
of Hereford, and Ambassador to Rome for Henry VI. The same device, and 
the heraldic bearings of various members of his family may be seen in the 
chapel that he adorned, the north chapel of the Ambulatory of Gloucester 

The Ashmolean Museum was next visited, the Members being received 
by Mr. A. J. Evans, M.A., F.S.A., the Keeper of the Museum. Mr. Evans 
escorted the party round the building, pointing out the principal objects of 
interest. Among these may be mentioned the jewel which adorned the 
front of King Alfred's crown (?the top of King Alfred's staff). The lower 
end is in the shape of a boar's head, and the sloping sides have an inscription 
in Anglo-Saxon, the translation of which is: "Alfred me ordered to be 
worked." It was ploughed up at Athelney, where Alfred took refuge during 
the Danish troubles. Another object of interest is a pair of white gloves 

Concluding Meeting. 


with ornamental cuffs, presented to Queen Elizabeth on her visit to the 
University in 1566 ; a splendid wax bust of King James II. (contemporary- 
work) presented to the Museum by the Rev. John Rigaud, of Magdalen 
College, and formerly in the possession of Dr. Routh, of that College ; 
and the sword given to Henry VIII. by Pope Leo X., with the title of 
"Defender of the Faith." This sword was a principal object in Ashmole's 
collection, when the Museum was opened in Oxford in 1633. The lantern 
used by Guy Fawkes on the memorable 5th of November, and a facsimile 
of the letter addressed to Lord Montague disclosing the diabolical plot 
(the original of which is in the State Paper Office) were the objects of much 
attention. The steel band which confined Cranrner to the stake, the hat 
which Bradshaw wore when he signed the death warrant of Charles I., 
a piece of an oak post found under the stone cross in Broad Street, which 
marks the spot where Latimer, Cranrner, and Ridley suffered, Henry VI.'s 
iron cradle, shoes of the time of Charles II. , Henry VIII. 's stirrup irons, 
and many other relics of that monarch, with the copper lantern which 
Holman Hunt took as his model in his famous painting, " The Light 
of the World," where among the many objects of interest which were 
inspected with keen curiosity. There is one exhibit just inside the entrance 
to the Museum which also deserves a passing notice. It is a model of a 
British Village of some very remote period, before C*esar came, saw, and 
conquered this country. It represents a bed of gravel into which pits have 
been sunk, which were probably thatched or covered in some way ; the 
original was discovered at Standlake, Oxfordshire, in 1857, some of the pits 
containing urns in which reposed the burnt bones of the former inhabitants. 
Mr. Evans also pointed out the British, Roman and Saxon antiquities found 
at Kingsholm, Cirencester, and Fairford, and the Odda stone from Deer- 

On Saturday there was was no organised programme, the movements of 
the Members being left to their own discretion. A good many Members 
took advantage of the opportunity of visiting places of interest not previously 
inspected, taking their leave of the City in the afternoon, well pleased with 
their visit. 

Annual Account to follow later. 

President's Address. 


The new President, who was heartily applauded on taking the 
chair, said : Let me thank you, Sir, very sincerely for the more 
than kind way in which you have introduced me to the Society. 
I can assure you that I feel very deeply how impossible it is for 
me to fill worthily the place of a gentleman who is one of those 
who has made the science, which it is the joy of this Society to 
honour, so specially his own. 

Ladies and gentlemen, it is frequently a matter of reproach to 
us Englishmen that we are in the habit of spending any amount 
of time and money in visiting the beautiful and curious monu- 
ments which lie outside our country, whilst we too often neglect 
equally interesting features which lie at our own doors. If this 
were a true bill, I think it would be a great national disgrace, for 
where can we find a country in which there is a more varied 
or a more productive field for investigation by the curious and 
ingenious than is to be found in this old country of ours 1 There 
is no branch of science and no branch of knowledge in which we 
cannot shew as great and as honourable a record as any country 
in the world. If natural science be the subject of our investi- 
gations, we have in the geology of England what has been called 
the geologist's paradise. With almost every European formation 
and record of those of Asia and America represented, we have 
here an epitome of the whole work of creation which we can 
trace through all its stages back to those igneous rocks, and to that 
mysterious Laurentian formation which has been found in America, 
and which takes its name from the great St. Lawrence, which is lost 
in the Atlantic, but found again at Cape Wrath. If again we care 
to investigate the beauties of botany, we have not only a very rich 
flora of our own, a wealth of exceptional beauty, but such is the 
reproductive nature of our soil, and such is the bountiful character 
of our much-abused climate, that there is hardly any quarter — 
hardly any part of any quarter — of the known world which has 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

not enriched our parks and gardens. Here, in this cold and often 
ungenial climate we can see the great 'conifers of the North 
American Continent, we can see some of the Mexican pines, we 
can see the gum trees of Australia, we can see the bamboos of 
China, and we can see the Alpine flora of Europe, side by side 
with the lovely bulbs of the Cape of Good Hope. There is no 
specimen, no type of vegetation almost that is not here represented. 
Again, if you care not so much for the works of nature as for 
those of art, we have museums and galleries in which are gathered 
together the master-pieces of the world. And indeed we have no 
reason to feel ashamed of the great works which our own artists 
have added to those collections. We may not be able to boast of 
the Titanic conceptions of a Michael Angelo nor the inspired sacred 
pictures of a Raphael ; but in landscape and portraiture we certain- 
ly are second to none, whilst in the school of satirical painting we 
certainly stand unrivalled by the great gifts of him who was once a 
humble apprentice to a silversmith's engraver — William Hogarth 
— whose work has never, in that particular line, been excelled by 
any other artist of any other country. In architecture it is the 
same. If we look at the architecture of our own country from the 
day when William the Conqueror called over the Weeping Monk, 
Gundulf, from Bee, in Normandy, to erect fortresses for his mili- 
tary purposes down to the present day it is the same. From the 
days when the Weeping Monk erected the Tower of London and 
built Rochester Castle, we can trace through a whole series of 
monkish works a school of architecture which could hardly be sur- 
passed in the world. We can boast of that still mysterious John of 
Padua, whom Canon Jackson, a man of learning, whose loss the 
neighbouring county of Wiltshire still deplores, identified with 
plain John Smith. We have still his great works, which are the 
admiration of all those who study this art. Then follow Inigo 
Jones, Christopher Wren and Chambers ; so that in architecture 
also we are nulli secundus. But perhaps you will say those subjects 
are outside the province of your Society. You are an Archseo- 
logical Society above all things. But even in Archaeology I 
venture to think that these islands oner a rich field for research. 
We have such monuments as Stonehenge and the Rollright Stones, 

President's Address. 


which you are going to visit to-morrow, where there are traces of 
the earliest architectural achievements of mankind, and you have 
traces of their handiwork in their ancient weapons and utensils. 
You can even find in places the very workshops in which they 
worked, for you can see alongside the arrow-heads and other 
weapons pieces of flint chippings, which must have been brought 
many hundreds of miles from where they were found. There are 
few countries in which the power of research has been exercised 
with greater benefit than it has in England, and I know of no 
country where you can see such faithful, laborious, and accurate 
records of the past as you find here. It has given rise to a 
whole literature — it has given rise to those county histories 
which are monuments of learning and of patient investigation, 
and which are daily becoming more and more appreciated, not only 
here, but even across the Atlantic, where one of the first desires 
of an American cousin is to have in his library a copy of the 
history of the county to which he traces the origin of his family. 
That literature alone is enough to obliterate for ever the charge 
brought against Englishmen of being indifferent to the beauties 
and curiosities of their own country. But there is a second class 
of institution which entirely frees us from that charge of indif- 
ference, and this is the Archaeological Societies which exist in the 
various counties and districts in England. There you have a 
number of men of great learning and accurate information who 
pass their lives in exploring and investigating those very secrets 
which lie nearest our own doors, and it is to their learning and 
diligence that we owe the clearing up of many mysteries and the 
lifting of many veils. It is one of these Societies I am very 
humbly addressing to-day. I don't propose to detain you longer. 

We are delighted to welcome you to our poor county. I 
believe it is the first time you have visited this part of the county. 
You will find in it many objects of interest, and of the greatest 
beauty, for no part of the Cotswold Hills is more beautiful than 
that which lies around Moreton-in-Marsh. To-day you will 
visit Bourton-on-the-Hill. Bourton is the most beautiful little 
village, full of traces of ancient masonry. It is known to have 

Vol. XVI, e 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

been the birthplace of Sir Thomas Overbury. It contains a 
church, the beauties of which will be adequately explained by the 
Rector. From Bourton you will go to Northwick Park, and you 
must not forget the ancient Bourton quarries, made famous by 
every book on geology. There can be read a page of the world's 
history beside which the famous graven Mammoth Tusk of the 
Cave of Dordogne, the oldest work of human art in the world, 
seems but a thing of yesterday. At Northwick you will inspect 
a collection of pictures which has gained a great name. You will 
find a most beautiful park, and you will receive a most hearty 
welcome from a most kindly hostess. Then passing my home you 
will return to Moreton. To-morrow you will have even a richer 
treat. You are going to Chastleton, with its Jacobean house of 
great interest, built as it was shortly after the Gunpowder Plot. 
You will also visit Little Compton and the Poll right Stones, and 
at the Pollright Stones you will hear delivered an explanatory 
lecture by a gentleman of European fame, who will explain the 
mysteries of that extraordinary monument. I only hope that 
gentleman will be a little more merciful, and not altogether dis- 
establish Mother Shipton, the Whispering Knights, and the King. 
From the Pollright Stones you will visit Chipping Norton, and 
the next day takes you to the neighbouring county and the great 
University of Oxford. Upon that subject you will not expect me 
to speak to you. I again thank you for coming here, and I hope 
you will enjoy the Meeting, and that the learning and knowledge 
of the Society will result in a great advantage to us all. There 
is a one solid advantage which might possibly accrue from the 
visit. There is an old adage to "give a dog a bad name " is as 
bad a service as can be done to him. We in Moreton have had 
a very bad name given us. We have been called Moreton-in- 
Marsh, but the Great Western Pailway Company has accentuated 
that bad name by the final and crushing insult of the definite 
article. They call us Moreton-in-^-Marsh. Now, gentlemen, 
there is no marsh at all ; if there is I have never seen it, and I 
have known the country almost all my life. The truth of the 
matter is we are Moreton- Hen-Marsh, that is to say "Moreton 
old Boundary." You will see when you come to visit the Four 

President's Address. 51 

Shires Stones which commemorates the great battles between the 
Danes and the Saxons, that the real meaning is that we are 
actually on the borders of four counties. I hope that the Society, 
in consideration of the hospitality which the Moreton people has 
shewn them, will try and get the name restored to us. I have 
one more word to say to you. If there be any here who thinks 
he is too old to learn, let him remember an incident in Cardinal 
Gonsalvi's life. One bitter winter's day, when the snow was 
falling fast, he was driving into Rome, and struggling through 
the storm he saw an old and decrepit figure making its way to- 
wards the Coliseum. Stopping his carriage, he asked the man 
whither he was going. "I am going to school to try and learn 
something " was the answer. The name of that man was Michael 
Angelo Burnarotti : for fifty years as painter, sculptor, architect, 
engineer and poet, he had been the wonder and the glory of the 
age in which he lived. But he was not too old to go to school 
once more and learn. And for his school he chose the same 
subject-matter you have chosen — he went to the great works of 
those who had gone on before him. 

E 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 



Like most of the towns in the north of Gloucestershire, Moreton 
has been very inadequately treated by the county historians, and 
this is all the more a matter for regret since the local records of its 
history are so scanty as almost to amount to a negative quantity, 
and thus everything approaching a full and complete account of 
the town is rendered not only extremely difficult, but also prac- 
tically impossible ; at the same time the fragmentary records 
which have been discovered from time to time possess so much 
interest as to entitle the little Ootteswold town to a fair share 
of our attention. 

Moreton lies in the valley of the Evenlode, and is sheltered by 
the last ridges of the Cotteswold Hills. Two important roads run 
through the town ; the more ancient one is the old Roman Fosse- 
way from Cirencester (Cyrenceaster) northwards, and the later 
one is the main road from Oxford to Worcester. Although not 
in Moreton itself, yet in the hamlet of Dorn, some two miles oft* 
very extensive Roman remains have been found, and this coupled 
with the fact that coins (chiefly of the reign of Maximilian) are 
constantly turned up on either side of the fosse-way, suggests the 
existence of a Roman station in the neighbourhood. 

Between Moreton and Blockley may be seen a rectangular 
embankment and foss. This seems to have entirely escaped the 
notice of local antiquaries, and yet, although much defaced by the 
plough, and partly hidden by a wood, it is evident that, if not a 
camp, it is at all events the remains of a fortified post of obser- 
vation ; whether of Roman times is not quite so certain. 

1 By the kindness of the Editor I have been enabled to very thoroughly 
revise this Paper, and several important additions have been made to it as 
read at the Meeting in July. 

History of Moreton-in-Marsh. 


About the time of the Saxon invasion Moreton was very nearly 
the boundary between the British tribes, the Dobuni and the 
Carnabii. Both these tribes' lands were of much more considerable 
extent than is usually supposed. The Carnabii stretched as far as 
Shropshire, and the Dobuni held sway to the borders of Wilts. The 
latter, who derived their name from the British Dwfn low, near, 
always were found on marshy ground, and this is some argument 
for those who would still support the marsh theory as regards the 
name of the above town. 

Doubtless, in the course of their wanderings the new invaders 
reached this portion of the country, and first gave the present 
name, or rather part of the present name, to the town. The 
meaning of Moreton presents, of course, absolutely no difficulty 
to any one ; probably no suffix in the English language is more 
common as a place name than the particle ton or tun. It is a 
Saxon word meaning an enclosure, or, in its older German form 
(ein zaun) a hedge, and thus it will be readily noticed that 
Moreton signifies "the town on the moor." It might be added 
that ton is especially common in this neighbourhood. The follow- 
ing are only a few instances in the immediate vicinity of Moreton. 
Aston (i.e. East town), Weston (i.e. West town), Norton (i.e. 
North town), Berrington (marking a burial-place), Lemington (a 
family name), Ebrington (Ethelburga's town), Mickelton (great 
town), &c, &c. 

Originally, then, Moreton meant the £ ton ' on the moor, and 
there is ample evidence to shew that this was by no means a mis- 
nomer. Not only do such names as Stow- on- the- Wold shew the 
nature of the district, but even at the present day a walk along 
the edge of the hills cannot but reveal its rugged and even wild 
aspect. But while the former portion of the name of the town 
has never caused discussion, the present termination in marsh or 
in the marsh has evoked endless criticism and doubt. Into the 
derivation of this suffix I do not propose to go. I have consulted 
endless authorities on the subject, from a Professor of Anglo- 
Saxon down to the oldest inhabitant in Moreton ; I have referred 
to a perfect library of books, and received almost a shoal of 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

letters, and the result is that I find that no two persons can 
reach the same conclusion, and that there are far more explan- 
ations to the question than there are letters in the words. A list, 
however, of the various spellings, in chronological order, may 
assist those who feel inclined to pursue the subject further : — 

Domesday Book . . Mortune (no suffix) 

c. 13th century . . Moreton or Morton Henmersche 

1375 .... Moreton Hennemers 
c. 14th century Moreton or Morton Henmerse, or 

Enmerse (indifferently) 
c. 15th century . ,, ,, Henmarsh, Enmarsh 

1569-70. Fed. S, Trin. Term . Morton en le Merche 1 

1570 (Communion Plate) . Morton Hinmarsh, Hindmarsh 
c. 17th century (Worcester Registry) . Morton March 

1650 (Chipping Campden Registers) . Morton-in-the-Marsh 
18 th century (maps, &c.) Moreton or Morton-in-Marsh, or 


19th century (Local) . . Moreton-in-Marsh 

in ,, I /T> "i \ ( Moreton-in-the-Marsh 

19th century (Railway) . _ j Moreton-on-Marsh 

I may add the following notes : — 

(1) The Welsh word hen (old) existed only in the form sen until 
c. 1100. 

(2) Marsh does not of necessity mean marsh in our modern sense, 
but might mean moor. 

(3) In time of heavy rains Moreton gets easily flooded, and in 
digging graves water is soon reached, but at the same time 
the town lies high and is not unhealthy. 

(4) Marsh is used in some other sense to our modern one in the 
following places in the neighbourhood of Moreton : — 

Bick marsh (near Honey bourne). 

Barton-on-the-Heath (16th century). 

Bourton-on-the-Hill (16th century), &c, &c. 

Before the Conquest Moreton was part of the possessions of 
the Earls of Mercia. Curiously enough, the Rev. G. Sneyd, Rector 
of Chastleton (called Cestreton Henmersh in Domesday Book) at 
1 .Sec Bourton-on-the-Hill, p. 3. 

History of Moreton-in-Marsh. 


the present time, claims descent from these Earls. In the Domes- 
day Survey Moreton appears under the lands of St. Peter of West- 
minster. It was in the Hundred of Deerherst, and could only have 
been a hamlet 1 since its extent was but half a hide. It was held by 
Elfrid (a Saxon thane), both at the Conquest and for some years 
subsequently. The town (or village as it was then) however seems 
to have given a name to the Norman Earl who possessed the neigh- 
bouring village of Longborough, and possibly part of the manor 
may have been included in the possession of Ansfried of Cormeiles 
who held Beceshore (Batsford). This Norman Earl belonged to a 
powerful local family, the only other interesting member of which 
was Lucian de Cormelies who was Rector of Blockley in 1270. 
The " Church of St. Peter" leased the land out to various owners 
for many centuries, and at the same time took much interest in 
the progress in the town, for in 1227 Moreton obtained her first 
charter for a "weekly mercate " and in 1269 a further charter 
was granted her for a fair. A market cross was said to have been 
erected about this time on the site of the present Town Hall ; but, 
if this is so, all traces of it have long since disappeared. In the 
reign of Henry IV. the abbots of Westminster gained from the 
King exemption from tolls, and Moreton in common with other 
towns enjoyed this much coveted privilege. I have not found 
that any of those to whom the manor was leased were of great 
importance, and nothing of further moment in the history of 
Moreton seems to have occurred until the Dissolution of the 
Monasteries in 1539, when King Henry VIII. granted the manor 
to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. On the restoration of 
Roman Catholicism in Mary's reign, it was vested in its former 
owners, and when Elizabeth came to the throne it once more 
changed hands, returning to the Dean and Chapter. They leased 
it in the following reign to Mr. Batson, or Bateson, of Bourton- 
on-the-Hill, and previously of Witney, in Oxfordshire. After re- 
maining in that family for some years, the lease of the manor 
passed to the Creswykes, and, finally, in 1821, to John Ereeman, 

1 In 1712 Moreton had again dwindled down to a village, for in that year 
a published list of Gloucestershire market towns omits all mention of Col- 
ford, Moreton and Northleehe. In 1779 the population was only 579. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Baron Redesdale, in the county of Northumberland. The late 
Lord Redesdale purchased all manorial rights from the Dean 
and Chapter of Westminster, and on his death in 1885 Mr. A. B. 
Freeman-Mitford, C.B., became Lord of Manor. Where the old 
Manor House stood is difficult to say. Possibly none existed 
in early times, for, generally speaking, the Lord of the Manor 
of Moreton was also Lord of the Manor of Bourton-on-the- 
Hill, and the latter was the more important place. The manor 
house of later times stands in the High Street, and is the present 
residence of Mr. Wadley. It is a curious old building of very 
mixed architecture — owing to its piece-meal erection — and bears 
old inscriptions upon it. Unfortunately, most of these are inde- 
cipherable ; but, according to one, part of the house was built by 
Lord Saye and Sele in 1688. This nobleman then lived at Norton 
House, near Weston-sub-Edge, but does not appear to have had 
any other connection with Moreton. In the early part of the 
18th century the Creswykes were living in Moreton, but this 
family died out, and about 1750 the house was sold to a Mr. 
Busby, who founded a linen cloth manufactory in the town. 
Mr. Busby bought the house very cheaply because, as it was 
solemnly averred, the ghost of Dame Creswyke haunted the 
house, and to this day a thrilling story is related of the unhappy 
end of that lady, and how on certain nights of the year strange 
shadows can be seen through the cracks in one of the doors 
re-enacting that terrible scene which led to the untimely end of 
the good lady. 

Among the decorations of the manor house are some curious 
old gurgoyles, taken by Mr. Busby from the old Moreton Church, 
about which church I have noted some few particulars. 

The wills of Moreton people seem very few at Worcester, but 
there is one at Gloucester in which the church is mentioned as 
being dedicated to St. David. The date of the will is circa 1560, 
and thus the question of the church dedication is not cleared up. 
In any case, however, it is some small argument in favour of the 
Welsh name theory, that the church should have been dedicated 
to the great Welsh saint. 

History of Moreton-in-Marsh. 


The earliest church at Moreton was built in the 13th century, 
but, unfortunately, nothing but a few windows and the gurgoyles 
already referred to, remain of this structure. The windows have 
been discovered adorning the lodge of the manor house, and were 
placed there in the last century by Mr. Busby. Local tradition 
assigns the Congregational cemetery as the site of the old church, 
and in favour of the assertion it may be mentioned that a field 
adjoining the cemetery still bears the name of Church Close. 1 Not- 
withstanding the most careful search, I have been unable to find 
out anything further concerning this earlier church, although I am 
inclined to think it was in public use up to the time of the 
Dissolution, for at the last restoration (1861) of the present build- 
ing a coin of the year 1561 was found underneath the tower. 

In 1512 Pope Julius II. (the founder of the Holy League) 
issued a bull, granting right of burial to the Moreton people who 
had formerly, in common with many other parishes, paid mortuary 
fees to Blockley. 2 In 1513, according to the registers (at Wor- 
cester) of Bishop Silvester de Gigliis, Sir Nicholas Langleye was 
abbot's vicar at Moreton, and was taxed yj s viij d . A clerical tax 
in the Worcester Registry about the year 1538 mentions Sir 
Richard Godwyn as abbot's vicar of " Morton Henmershe " : he 
was also taxed vj s viij d . The earliest entry at Worcester of any 
kind relating to Moreton is recorded in 1375 by the Priors (during 
the vacancy of the See) and only refers to the ordination as priest 
of William Prodomme, of " Moreton Hennemers," in the cathedral 
at Worcester. 

The present church of St. David stands on the east quarter 
of the town, and presents, it is to be feared, small interest for the 
archaeologist. It was mainly built in 1858, the nave now consti- 
tuting the only part of the older church. Previous to 1858 the 
church possessed a small tower of Elizabethan architecture, but 
in that year, when, after side aisles had been thrown out to 

1 Quite recently some workmen dug up the foundations, apparently of 
Norman architecture, in the same place. 

2 The reason for so doing is explained in the following sentence in the 
original document: — "propter interposita montium juga praecipse brumali 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

flank the nave, it was proposed to add a steeple to the tower, 
this was found impracticable, the tower was demolished. On 
the 23rd June, 1860, the stone-laying took place, the ceremony 
being performed by the Hon. Miss Mitford. An address was 
delivered by the Rev. J. N. Chase (curate-in charge of the parish), 
after which a silver trowel was presented to Miss Mitford, with 
which she laid the corner-stone. At the same time a bottle was 
deposited in a hole cut in the under-stone for its reception. This 
bottle contained a number of silver and copper pieces of money, 
mostly of that year's coinage, together with a scroll of parchment 
on which was written the fact that the corner-stone was laid by 
the Honourable Frances Mitford, of Batsford Park, this 23rd day 
of June, 1860. 

The Church Registers date from 1643, but there are transcripts 
from this parish only for the years 1621, 1622, 1626, 1628, 1637, 
1638, and 1640, until the restoration of Charles II. Not many 
curates of Moreton gained celebrity; in 1705 Jeremy Taylor, 
grandson of the great Jeremy Taylor, was curate; and in 1780 
the incumbent was the Rev. Richard Morgan Graves, D.D. Dr. 
Graves came of an old county family, at one time resident in 
Middlesex, but which settled at Mickleton, in Gloucestershire 
in 1656, the manor of that place being bought in the same year 
by Richard Graves. Perhaps the most celebrated member of 
the family was the great-uncle of Dr. Graves, Richard Graves 
by name. He was the author of the Spiritual Quixote, a book 
which fifty years ago was supposed to have taken permanent 
rank as an English classic, but which now-a-days is seldom met 
with. Within our own times Mickleton has produced a no less 
distinguished ornament of English literature than Mrs. Bowen- 
Graves, the great-grand-daughter of Dr. Graves, and the gifted 
authoress of the well-known poem, My Queen. Dr. Graves died 
at Batsford in 1815. 

. Another Moreton curate, famous from his connections was 
the Rev, Richard Collier, who was descended from Giles Collier, 
sometime vicar of Blockley, and an ancestor of the late Admiral 
Sir Edward Collier, K.C.B. Giles Collier, who was a zealous 

History of Moreton-in -Marsh. 


Puritan, attained some reputation as a controversial writer, his 
greatest work being a reply to a pamphlet written in 1650 by- 
Edward Fisher (the last owner of Mickleton of that name) and 
entitled A Christian Caveat to the Old and New Sabbatarians. 

I promised some further reference to the Cresswyke or Cress- 
wick family. They originally came from Hanham Abbots, near 
Bristol. Francis Creswyke married Anne, daughter of Anthony 
Nicholls, of Moreton Hindmarsh, Esq., and had issue Sir Henry 
Creswyke, of Hanham Abbots, Knighted 5th September, 1663. 1 
In the pedigree of Hastings, of Daylesford, Peneston Hastings 
is stated to have married Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel Creswyke, 
of Moreton-in-the-Marsh, Esq. 2 

The Nicholls family also was connected with those of the 
Keyts and Hastings, for in 1682 Theophilus Nicholls married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Keyt, of Hidcote Bartrum, Esq., 
and a brother of this Francis Keyt, Hastings Keyt by name, 
who was a relative of the Daylesford Hastings, became a captain 
in the service of King Charles I., and was slain at Stow, and 
there buried in 1645. 3 

Charles I. himself had some connection with Moreton, for on 

his way to Evesham in 1643 he slept at the White Hart Hotel 

in Moreton in a room still proudly shewn by the proprietors of 

that ancient hostlery and containing the following couplet hung 

upon its walls : — 

" When friends were few and dangers near 
King Charles found rest and safety here." 

From the earliest times I have found entries in the Moreton 
registers of the burials of weavers, and it may therefore be sup- 
posed that Moreton did some trade in woollen goods, seeing how 
famous the Cotteswold sheep were for their wool. In 1742 Mr. 
Busby established a large linen cloth business there, and this was 
carried on until recently by Mr. Edward Epps. At the time of 
the opening of the railway, when Mr. Brunei drove the first 
engine down the line, the directors were each presented with a 
very beautiful table-cloth made at Moreton. 

1 Harleian Soe. publications, Vol. VIII. 

2 In the Moreton registers I find that Samuel Creswyke died April 24th, 

60 Transactions for the Year 1890-91. 

Two inscriptions are worthy of note in Moreton. The one is 
over the grave of a barber named Richard Law ton, and runs as 
follows : — 

" Here lie the bones of Richard Lawton, 
Whose death, alas, was strangely brought on 
Trying one day his corns to mow off, 
The razor slipped and cut his toe off." 

" The toe, or rather what it grew to, 
An inflammation quickly flew to, 
Which took, alas, to mortifying, 
And was the cause of Richard's dying." 

The other, more interesting perhaps from an archaeological 
point of view, belongs to the old curfew bell and clock tower in 
the town, and is headed by the two dates 1648 and 1663 : — 

" Sir Robert Fry, Gent. 

****** l 

Gave 20s. a year to keep this clock in order. " 
The story goes that when Sir Robert Fry was one night 
returning from London he got lost in the fog on, what used to 
be called, Moreton Common. In gratitude to the curfew bell, 
whose notes led him safely home, he left this benefaction to the 
town • unfortunately, however, the money has been entirely lost 
sight of. It is to be feared, however, that this story is not con- 
fined to Moreton alone, and it would, perhaps, be well to receive 
it cum grano salis. 

Such are the few notes I have collected concerning this little 
Cotteswold town, and though, perhaps, its path in life has been 
calm and uneventful, none the less it forms a pleasing page in 
history of a district rich in historical interests and replete with 
antiquarian lore. 

1 This line is quite obliterated. 

Last Battle of the First Civil War. 



By F. A. HYETT. 

The encounter, which is the subject of this Paper, owes its im- 
importance rather to its political consequence than to the number 
of its combatants. The battle was fought on March 21st, 1645, 
between 3000 cavaliers under Sir Jacob Astley, and 3500 round- 
heads under Colonel Morgan. Apart from any local interest 
it may possess, it has an interest of a wider character, for it 
extinguished Charles's final attempt to bring an army into the 
field. For many months before the engagement, the tide of for- 
tune had been setting steadily against the Royalists, but the King 
had not given up hope, and he made one expiring effort to get 
together an army of sufficient strength to meet his opponents. 
With this object he sent Sir Jacob Astley and the ill-fated Sir 
Charles Lucas from Oxford to collect all the forces that could be 
spared from the Royalist garrisons in Shropshire. Staffordshire, and 
Worcestershire, and he thought that with help which he expected 
from France, and troops from Ireland, he would have sufficient force 
to cope with the Parliamentary army in the field. It was on the 
success of Sir Jacob Astley's enterprise, Rushworth tells us, that 
" they at Oxford built all their hopes." Such was the state of 
affairs in the nation on the eve of the battle of Stow -on-the- Wold. 
Of that battle and of the preliminary movements of the two 
armies we have several accounts by eye witnesses. The first in 
date is a letter addressed to Lenthall. the Speaker of the House 
of Commons, and signed by three of the Parliamentary Command- 
ing Officers — Brereton, Morgan and Birch — and dated from "Stow- 
on-the- Wolds, March 21, about six in the morning, 1645." The 
fighting could not have been over many minutes before this letter 
was penned. The original is still preserved in the Bodleian 
Library. It is very short, and does little more than announce 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

the defeat of the Royalists. A fuller account will he found in a 
letter addressed to Lenthall, written from Campden the day after 
the battle, which commences as follows : — " Col. Morgan, Governor 
of Gloucester's letter to the Honourable William Lenthall, Esq., 
Speaker to the Honourable House of Commons, concerning the 
total Rovting and Taking of Sir Jacob Astley and his Army at 
Stowe upon the Wold." This letter was printed by Ed. Husband 
(Printer to the House of Commons) on March 24th, and it. was 
also printed on the same day by Mathew Walbanke (the printer 
of the Annalia Dubrensia) with some slight alterations and a 
different title. It was also reprinted by Rushworth in his Col- 
lections in 1722. Another account is given entitled "A true 
and fuller relation of the Battell fought at Stow in the Would, 
March 21, 1645, in a Tract sent by a gentleman of Credit under 
Sir William Brereton to some Members of the Honourable House 
of Commons, and by them desired to be published." This was 
evidently written to aggrandise Brereton's share in the per- 
formance. It will be found printed at pp. 397-9 of Vicars' 
Burning Bush. But the most interesting narrative is to be found 
in " Memoirs of Some Actions in which Colonel John Birch was 
engaged, written by one Roe, his Secretary." The original MS. 
which is in the British Museum, has been printed by the Camden 
Society. According to this account Birch was the hero of the 
day, but then Roe's admiration for Birch was inordinate. There 
was also many notices of the fight in the Parliamentary news- 
papers of the day. 

The following narrative is drawn from all of the above 
sources : — When Sir J acob Astley was despatched from Oxford 
he had a hard task to perform. He found Bridgnorth abandoned 
and in disorder, and in the surrounding districts only scattered 
remnants of disbanded regiments and garrisons mutinous for 
want of pay. But by dint of much diligence he collected 3000 men 
" desperate and valiant, wrought up to the resolution of venturing 
their last stake in the field." All might have gone well had the J 
King's party been able to keep their own counsel, but long before 
Astley left Bridgnorth the design in all its details was known to 
Parliament, who promptly took measures to frustrate it. Colonels 

Last Battle of the First Civil War. 


Fleetwood and Waller, with 1000 horse, were sent to the west of 
Oxfordshire. Colonel Morgan was ordered to intercept Astley 
on his way through Gloucestershire, and Colonel Birch, the 
Governor of Hereford, and Sir William Brereton, who commanded 
the Parliamentary forces in Cheshire, were ordered to march to 
Morgan's assistance. Birch joined Morgan at Gloucester, on or 
about March 15th, with nearly 1060 men. Morgan's force num- 
bered 1100, and they were reinforced with 600 men from the 
Evesham garrison. They then marched towards Warwickshire, 
and Astley, at the head of 3000 men, found Morgan with 2700 
men awaiting him on the opposite bank of the river. Some days 
were spent in marches and counter-marches. Astley endeavouring 
to evade Morgan and cross the river, only to find that wary Welsh- 
man near the spot which he had selected for his crossing. Morgan 
seems to have wearied of these tactics, and thinking Astley would 
never cross while he was so near the river, he withdrew to Camp- 
den on March 19th. On the evening of that day he received 
intelligence that Sir Jacob was near " Bedford, three miles from 
Evishalm " (evidently Bidford was meant), and he at once sent 
messengers to Fleetwood and Brereton, informing them of Astley 's 
movements, and begging the latter for assistance. Astley's force 
crossed the river (probably at Bidford) on Friday, March 20th, 
and from the top of the hills, near Campden, Morgan watched them 
approaching through the vale. Though his men were fresh, and 
he had choice of ground, he hesitated to give them battle, and 
contented himself with skirmishing with them as they ascended 
Broadway hill, in order to delay their progress till Brereton's 
arrival. The account of these somewhat strange tactics shall be 
given in Morgan's own words : ' ' But upon Friday, the Lord Astley 
still continuing his march, and Sir W. Brereton not come up, was 
forced to hold him in Action for the space of four Hours, Skir- 
mishing with parties, and keeping my body drawn up in a most 
advantageous Place for Pursuit in Case he should pass me by before 
Sir Will. Brereton came up, which about Nine a clock that Night 
he did, whereupon I resolved to pursue, thinking it more advan- 
tageous to fall upon his rear, than at that time to draw out and 
meet him in the field, and in my pursuit Sir W. Brereton came 


Transactions for the Year 1890-91. 

up with 800 horse." These cautious tactics seemed to have been 
suggested by Birch, who advised Morgan " not to tempt God by- 
fighting overmuch, but to vex them with 500 horse and some 
foot," while the rest of the army fed and refreshed themselves 
"at Cambdin," which, according to Roe, they did abundantly. 
These skirmishes did not materially impede Astley's progress, for 
in four hours he and his little army had gained the top of Broad- 
way Hill. His aim was not to fight, but to bring his force intact 
to Oxford, so at 9 p.m. he marched " very quietly " past the body 
of Morgan's force. The skirmishing then ceased, and Morgan 
seems to have allowed an hour or two to have elapsed before he 
commenced following him. According to Roe's account, Morgan 
was preparing to attack the Boyalisfcs in the rear with his whole 
force at 3 p.m., when Sir William Brereton most opportunely 
came up ; but Morgan says, (and his narrative is probably the 
most reliable), that Sir Wm. Brereton arrived with his 800 horse 
between one and two o'clock while Morgan was still in pursuit. 
Brereton's men must have been well nigh exhausted, for they had 
been on the march for the greater part of the two. preceding days, 
first in one direction and then in another, apparently put on the 
wrong scent by false intelligence. When the officers met, a friendly 
dispute took place between them, each desiring that the other 
should take command of the combined forces. It was finally 
arranged that the post should be held by Morgan, and he proceeded 
to draw up his little army (as the pamphleteers had it) ' in battalia.' 
He himself led the central division ; the right wing consisted of 
Brereton's 800 horse, and the left wing was composed of Glouces- 
tershire men. Morgan was now desirous that the engagement 
should commence at once, as he had received information that 
Astley was to be joined seven miles on the other side of Stow by 
some of the King's horse from Oxford, he therefore hastened after 
Astley, intending to attack him in the rear. But he found Sir 
Jacob ready for him, with his forces in battle array on some 
unenclosed land between the village of Donnington and Stow. 
The opposing forces remained within a short distance of each 
other for half an hour, awaiting daylight. Morgan, in his report 
to Parliament, written the day after the battle, merely says that 

Last Battle of the First Civil War. 


he " drew up and charged " Astley, "whom half an hour before 
day on Saturday morning I put to a total rout." There is, how- 
ever, a more detailed account of the fight in No. 55 of the 
" Moderate Intelligencer," a Parliamentary newsbook, which ap- 
peared about March 26th, which may, perhaps, be accepted as 
reliable : — " Early in the morning, and, says the letters, an hour 
before day, we charged them in a plain near Stow, the dispute 
was hot, and the Parliament's forces were worsted twice, yet so 
as some maintained the fight, while others rallied ; at last a party, 
not very numerous, took courage, charged home and routed the 
enemy, yea overcome them all, and in a very strange manner, 
some affirming there are not 300 that escaped, all the officers of 
Foot taken, many gentlemen and other of quality slain, divers of 
like rank taken prisoners, divers wounded, which, they might not 
perish, were dismissed to their homes with the last Oath, the 
Colonel not being willing they perish for want of chirugions, 200 
were slain upon the place, 200 arms taken, 12 carriages, 1600 
others, say 1700 Prisoners." This report certainly reads as if 200 
of the wounded were mercilessly butchered. The war at this time 
seems to have been waged with much more cruelty, especially by 
the Parliamentary army, than at the commencement. 

In a tract entitled " A True and Fuller Relation of the 
Battell," &c, which was written by one of Brere ton's men, it was 
stated that it was the Gloucestershire men who gave way on the 
first charge, and that they were driven into a disorderly retreat. 
1 'But," he adds, " Sir Will. Brereton with our Right Wing of 
Horse charged their left both of Horse and Foot and totally 
Routed them, pursuing them into Stow ; killing and wounding 
many in the town : and the meanwhile our left wing rallied ; our 
word was ' God be our Guide,' the enemies word was ' Patrick 
and George. " 

The following is a list of the officers who were taken prisoners, 
copied from this tract : — 

Vol. XVI. f 


Tkaxsactions for the Year 1891-92. 

A List of the Commanders and Officers taken at the Battel 1 at 
Stow in the Would, March 2], 1645. 

Lord Ashley, Generall. 

Lieut: Smith. Remormad (sic) 

Collo: Corbet. 

Lieut: Poole, Reformad. 

Collo: Gerrard. 

Lieut: Hart, Reformad. 

Collo: Mouldsworth. 

Lieut: Kely, Reformad. 

Lieut: Coll: Broughton. 

Capt: Lieut: Aston. 

Major Billing sly 

Lieut: Edw: Baker. 

Major Hameage. 

Cornet Godfrey Preses. 

Major Saltstone. 

Cor: Brooks. 

Capt: Edw. Grey. 

Cor: Roberts. 

Capt: Tho: Gibber t 


Capt: Harrison 

IjAT" JifniioiQ np^lcpth 

VUl . J.' t tvlCL/LO J-t C>o/l/C/l /£• 

Capt: Peacock. 

Xjllo. J~) VLvLj/vU Uj 1 Hi. 

Capt: Harris. 

Ens: Horton. 

Capt*. Salmon Halston. 

Ens: Dedluck. 

Capt: Ardinq. 

Ens: Ellis. 

Capt: John Bonner. 

Ens: Farmer. 

Capt: Tho: Bonner. 

Ens: Cleaver. 

Capt: Joshua Sing. 

Ens: Avis. 

Capt: Hatton. 

Ens: Hobson. 

Capt: Geniqer 

Ens: Calbrook. 

Capt: Malhews. 

Ens: Broughton 

Capt: Davenport \ 

L I ft 

Ens: Mason. 

Capt: Geo: Wriqht I 

n P „ J V Reformad. 

John dp, A <th,fipld Clark" 

Capt: Potts 

A IPTriYi CI ( ,1 Ofil Ortl linQV^lQlTl \t\ 
JXICi.AjUjIvLIVI \J l/OUVO u, vyiictuidlll LU 

Capt: Smith J 

Sir Vnnnhfl.'Y) 

Lieut: Hill. 

nj/iOfl* i~\nwL*PW % IVIq v»'f"T q 1 1 l3-*vn ov»q 1 1 
ujjUjvu. xJLl/n/t//, ITJal Lldll Ucllcldll 

T/iPirh • .Tnhv) r7 nhanm 

Quartermaster Stone 1 Re- 

Lieut: E ...nswick. 

Quartermaster Watts J formad. 

Lieut. Warbnoton. 

Robert Weale, Chirugion. 

Lieut: Geo: Faucott. 

Pdch: Aston, Servant to Lord 

Lieut: Hobman. 


Lieut: Benjamin Thornbury. 

Mr. Williams, Quartermaster- 

Lieut: Fletcher. 


Lieut: Kirke. 

Coll: Egerton 

Last Battle of the First Civil War. 


Capt: Stanley. 
2 Lieut: Coronels (sic ) 
Common Souldiers, 1630. 
About 100 slain. 
2000 Arms taken. 

Taken since by Collo: Fleet- 

wood in the pursuit. 
Sir Cha: Lucas. 

And 100 common Souldiers and 


The fighting must have been very sharp for a time. Birch 
had a horse shot under him, and 32 of his troopers' horses were 
shot. The prisoners, numbering some 1500 or 1600, were at first 
thrust into the church and afterwards sent to Gloucester, where 
they were confined in St. Mary de Lode Church, the very same 
building which, just three years before, had been used as a prison 
for Lord Herbert's little army of Welshmen who were captured 
at Highnam. 

Soon after the battle Colonel Fleetwood, at the head of 1000 
horse, appeared on the scene and captured about eighty of the 
fugitives, among others, the gallant Sir Charles Lucas, who had 
defended Berkeley Castle, and who was subsequently butchered 
at Colchester. The small remnant of the Royalist army which 
escaped fled to Faringdon. 

An incident in this battle should not pass unnoticed, although 
it has often been told before. I give it in the words in which it 
is narrated by Vicars in 11 The Burning Bush," page 399 : " Sir 
Jacob Astley being taken captive, and wearied in this fight, and 
being ancient (for old age's silver haires had quite covered over 
his head and beard), the souldiers brought him a drum to sit and 
rest himself e upon ; who being sate, he said (as was most credit- 
ably enformed) unto our souldiers, Gentlemen, yee may now sit 
and play, for you have done all your worke, if you fall not out 
among yourselves." 

There was much prescience in this remark. The work of the 
Parliamentary army was certainly done for a time ; and it might 
have been permanent, had not their party " fallen out among 

Thus the first civil war was ended at Stow-on-the-Wold. 

F 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92, 


By the Rev. DAVID ROYCE, M.A., Vicar of Nether Swell. 

The History of Bourton-on-the-Hill, as derivable from written 
sources — the name is not found, as yet, in Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 
nor charter, nor earlier than in the Domesday Survey. 

In Deerhurst Hundred, the Church of S. Peter, Westminster, 
held the Manor of Deerhurst. To this manor belonged the four 
berewics, Elmston (Aylmundestone) Hardwick, Todenham, Sut- 
ton-under-Brayles, and Bourton to the amount of eight hides, or 
or about 1000 acres. These King Edward, the Confessor, took 
from the Priory of Deerhurst to endow his new Church at West- 
minster. These eight hides were not the whole of Bourton, 
Besides these, in Bourton, in King Edward's time, one Wluui, a 
radchenister, 1 held two hides. These William, the Conqueror, 
gave to his Chamberlain, Girard. He was, likewise, a favourite 
with the Queen Matilda. She was his great benefactress. 2 To 
compensate her, it would seem, and to be under the Queen's pro- 
tection, as well as to increase the dues and services owed her as 
Lady of the Hundred of Tewkesbury, Girard brought the two 
hides at Bourton, with eleven in Kemerton and Bodington, out 
of the Deerhurst Hundred, into that of Tewkesbury. Hence, 
there were two manors in Bourton : one in the upper division of 
the later Westminster Hundred, and one in the upper division of 
Tewkesbury. Consequently the Bourton people, in the old- 

1 These belonged to the class ''freemen." There were degrees in this 
class. Some could transfer their land, and go and live where they liked, 
and put themselves under what lord they pleased. But the "radchenister " 
Wluui, although a freeman, could not do this. He might have attached 
himself to another lord, but to leave his land in Bourton behind. These 
" radchenisters " are found, mainly, on royal and ecclesiastical property. 
They were bound to plow, harrow and mow, and tender the service from 
which it is thought they received the name of " Radchenister," viz., " Road- 
knight " — the service of riding with their lord, or lady, bishop or king, from 
manor to manor, for aid or protection. 

2 Analysis of Domesday, Gloucestershire. (Rev. C. S. Taylor, p. 34.) 



fashioned days, lived, moved and slept, in twofold peace and 
safety, under the authority and safe guardianship of two constables. 

Subsequently, according to Atkyns and Rudder, the West- 
minster portion of the parish was sacrilegiously taken by Eobert 
Fitz Hamon from the abbey, in the time of William Rufus. He 
unjustly detained it until the reign of King Henry II., when 
Laurence, then Abbot of Westminster, recovered it by a suit at 
law. At the dissolution of the monastery, King Henry VIII. 
and Queens Mary and Elizabeth regranted and confirmed this 
manor to the Abbey. 

This portion of Bourton being in the hands of the church, and 
not liable to the vicissitudes and inquests attending on lay-tenure 
is, as regards its holders, a blank up to the 17th century. The 
early records, mainly, perhaps, in the shape of Manor and Hun- 
dred Rolls, are in the keeping of the Dean and Chapter of 

The other manor, being in lay tenure, is more historic, yet not 
until the middle of the 14th century. It, then, for some two 
centuries, becomes one in descent with its neighbour, Condicote. 

In the early part of the 1 3th century, according to Fosbrooke, 
Margaret de Cormeilles had land here, and, if so, probably, a 
portion of this manor. But the Inquisition after her death 1 gave 

1 Inq. p.m. 16 May, 20 Hen. III., 1236 : — " Hec est inquisicio per dom- 
inum Robertum de Stepelton', Willelmum de Cholle, Simonem Pikesleg', 
Willelmum de Broy, Willelmum de Aula, David de Asperton', Willelmum 
de la Nole, Thomam de Stokes, Willelmum de Mora, Ricardum de Hida, 
Ricardum Clement, Clemencium Caperun. Qui dicunt, quod Margeria 
habuit feodum dimidium militis in Tatinton', in Bolingehope in Clehungre. 
In quibus habuit tres carucatas terre, de dominico, per annum centum soli- 
datarum redditns, quod in capite de domino Rege. Eadem Margeria habuit 
duo feoda militum, unde Rogerus de Eston tenuit unum feodum in villa de 
Eston in Comitatu Hereford'. Jacobus de Solers tenet alteram in Comitatu 
Glouc' in villa de Begesoure et Hennemerse. Terra quam tenuit in dominico 
valet xiij ]i per annum cum redditu prenominato. Dicunt iidem quod predicta 
Margeria habuit duas filias maritatas, Aliciam et Isabellam ; et Aliciam 
proinogenitam desponsavit Robertus le Archer, alteram desponsavit Symon 
de Solers, et sunt eius heredes de Waltero de Stokes, marito suo. In huius 
rei testimonium sigilla sua apposuerunt. 

The King took the homage of Robert le Archer and Simon de Solers, 
who had to wife the two daughters and heirs of Margaret. The Sheriff 
(Hereford) commanded taking security for £25 for their reliefs, and for the 
| th part of the Barony of Cormeille, to give seisin. At Merewell, 30 May, 
1236.— Fine Roll, 20 Hen. Ill, m, 8. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

merely, " Henmershe." This might be Moreton. Fosbrooke thinks 
that this manor is meant, and so specified, in contradistinction to 
the Westminster portion. Margaret was great-gran daughter of 
Ansfrid de Cormeilles, a companion of the Conqueror, and one of 
the most extensive landowners in this county. Amongst other 
manors, he had that of Batsford (Begesoure), adjoining Bourton. 
Batsford descended to Margaret, who became the wife of Walter 
cle Stokes. They had two daughters : Alice, the eldest, married to 
Robert le Archer, and Isabel, married to Simon de Solers, from 
whom Shipton Solers, inherited by him from Margaret, probably, 
took the affix. Margaret died in 1236. The descent of the manor, 
however, is not traceable until the reign of King Edward III. 

3rd April, 36 Edw. ILL, 1362, Joan, the wife of John de Wyn- 
chestre, died seized 1 of a carucate and twenty acres of meadow, and 
xxx 8 iiij d rent. John, son of Sir John de Stonor, her kinsman 
(consanguineus) is her nearest heir, and nineteen years old. This 
Sir John de Stoner was the great statesman and justiciar in the 
reign of Edward II. He married the daughter of the Lord Lisle. 
The above John, his son (miles) [34 Ed. III.], inheritor of Bourton, 
married the daughter and heiress of Sir John Hernshull, co. Ches- 
ter. Their son, Sir Edmund Stonor (5 Ric. II.. 1332) married the 
daughter of Sir Ralph Belknap. Sir Ralph Stonor, their son, mar- 
ried the daughter of ... . the Earl of Ormond. Certain lands and 

1 Inquisicio capta apud Bourton' die Veneris proxima post festum Sancti 
Jacobi Apostoli, anno regni Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum tricesimo 
sexto, coram Philippo de Lutteleye, Escaetore dicti Regis, in Comitatu 
Gloucestrie, per sacramentum Willelmi Caldecote, Johannis Purrok, Bene- 
dicti de Stoke, Ricardi Edden, Johannis Sandres, Johannis Prodhomme, 
Johannis Heynes, Johannis Franceys, Willelmi Huwet, Ricardi Geffes et 
Willelmi Soutere, qui dicunt per sacramentum suum, quod Johanna, que fuit 
uxor Johannis de Wynchestre, tenuit domino Rege in capite, die quo obiit 
in dominico suo, ut de feodo, apud Bourton' in Com. Glouc. unam carucatam 
terre, que valet per annum, ultra reprisas, xiij 3 iiij d . Item, quod tenuit, 
ibidem, viginti acras prati, que valent per annum, ultra reprisas, xx s . Item, 
dicunt quod sunt ibidem xxxix s iiij d de redditu tenendum ibidem, solvendos 
ad festa Annunciacionis Beate Marie, et Sancti Michaelis, equis porcionibus. 
Et dicunt, quod predicta, terre, pratum et redditus tenentur de domino Rege, 
in capite, per servicium militare. Et dicunt quod predicta Johanna obiit 
die dominica proxima ante festum Omnium Sanctorum ultimo preteritum. 
Et dicunt, quod Johannes, filius Johannis de Stonore, consanguineus predicte 
Johanue, est heres eius propinquior, ctetatis decern et novem annorum. — Jnq. 
p.m. 36 Edw. III., y. J, JSo. 77. 



tenements in Bourton in Hennemershe, and the advowson of the 
church there, which are held of Lord le Despenser, but by what 
services unknown, worth yearly, after all reprises, O, came into 
the hands of the late Rich. II. by the death of Sir Ralph de Stonore, 
and by reason of the minority of Gilbert, his son and heir. 
Gilbert died 2 Sept. 20 Richard II. (1396). Thomas, his brother, 
was his heir, and, then, aged twenty-one years and more. He 
married Alice, daughter and heiress of Sir J ohn Kirkby. Their 
son, Thomas Stonor, Esquire, married Joan, illegitimate daughter 
of Delapole, Duke of Suffolk. Their son, Sir William, married 
Anna, daughter and coheiress of John Nevill, Marquis of Mon- 
tacute. John, their son, married Mary, daughter of Sir John 
Fortescue, and, dying without issue, was succeeded by Sir Adrian 
Fortescue, who had married Anne, daughter of Sir William Stonor 
and sister of John. Sir Adrian was succeeded by Thomas, first 
Lord Wentworth, who had married his eldest daughter and heiress, 
Margaret, and died, 5 Edw. VI. 1551. His son, Thomas, second 
Lord Wentworth, sold the manor of Bourton-on-the-Hill to 
Richard Palmer, in Trinity term, 1556, whereupon he was warned 
to be before the Barons of the Exchequer for alienation or purchase 
of the manor, without the Queen's licence. He appeared, by 
attorney, and stated : — that there were two manors, one known 
only as Burton, and the other as Burton Henmersshe, alias Bourton- 
on-the-Hill — that before the levying of the fine, Thomas Smyth, 
of Chipping Camden, Esquire, was seized in fee of Burton, and 
that Sir Thomas, Lord Wentworth, was seized in fee of the 
manor of Burton, in Henmersshe, alias Burton-on-the-Hill, and 
held it of the Dean and Canons of Westminster. By a fine levied 
in eight days of Holy Trinity, 1566, Thomas, Lord Wentworth, 
and Anne, his wife, and William Himynge and Edward Grim- 
stone, Esq., acknowledged the said manor to be the right of 
Richard Palmer. By virtue whereof the said Richard was seized 
of the manor in fee, holding it of the said Dean and Canons — 
and not of the Crown. He could not, however, be discharged 
before search be made, whether any service be due to the Queen 
from Thomas Smyth, who does none for the manor of Burton. 


Transactions foe the Year 1891-92. 

According to warning, 12th February, 1567-8, the latter ap- 
pears at the close of Easter in person. He prays a hearing of a 
Record in Memoranda, 1526, and another, Michaelmas, 1527, to 
this effect, that Christopher Savage and Anne, his wife, a daughter 
of John Stanley Esq., and George Stanley, Clerk, do homage for 
the manors of Chipping Campden, Burton, Westington, Aston- 
sub-Egge, Ulington, Norton-sub-Egge, and thirty messuages in 
Campden, &c. He alleges that he was not, nor is now, a tenant of 
the freehold of the manor of Burton, nor had, nor has, anything 
in any parcel of it. He appears in person twice, is in default a 
third time. The Sheriff distrains him to appear and do fealty. 
The writ was not returned- -here the record ends, and no more 
in either of the two cases appears. The manor or manors came 
to Sir Nicholas Overbury, then of Aston sub-Egge (baptized there 
7th May. 1549) He married Mary, the daughter of Giles Palmer, 1 
of Compton Scorffin, Ilmington, Warw., Esquire, Recorder and 
M.P. of Gloucester, a Judge of the Marches, knighted at Warwick, 
22nd August, 1621, and buried at Bourton-on-the Hill, 31st May, 
1647. His burial is thus entered : — " Sir Nicholas Overbury, that 
ancient and venerable knight, who long and faithfully served both 
his Sovereign and Country, in the Raynes of Queen Elizabeth, King 
James, and King Charles, and was buried on the last day of May, 
1643, hee being then about one hundred years old." His wife was 
buried at Bourton, 14th June, 1641. His will, 1st Sept. 1640, 
with codicils, 17th Feb. 1641 ; 17th May, 1643 ; occupies, in small 
type, 2\ pages of The Genealogist (I., pp.268-270. 1877), and by its 
numerous bequests to his children and kinsfolk, supplies a copious 
pedigree. He bequeaths his body to be buried in Bourton Church, 
in decent manner, near his loving and beloved wife ; xl s to the 
( reparacion ' of the church ; iiij 11 to the poor of Bourton ; xl s at his 
decease ; xl s the Easter after; xl s to the poor at Moreton Henmarsh, 
Blockley, Cheping Camden, and Stow-on-the-Wold. To the Lady 
Overbury, wife of his son, Sir Giles, the two w Colledge potts of 
silver, the one whereof was made of the Silver w ch was given unto 

1 In a window of Mr. Gibbs' house, Darlingscott, an old stained glass 
shield bore the arms of Overbury impaling, Chequy, arg. and az. a chief 
yules. Palmer. 



Sir Thomas Overbury, Knight (my eldest son, deceased) by the 
King of Denmarke, for his service done unto the said King, when 
hee was heere in England in the time of the late King James, 
of famous memory ; and after, by him given to his mother, my 
late wife." The other was made of the Judicial Seal, which was 
his due, as Chief Justice of the Counties of Carmarthen, Pem- 
broke and Cardigan, as a fee, when the old seal was broken up 
for a new one. 

Sir Thomas Overbury, son of the above Sir Nicholas and Mary, 
was not, as Fuller states, born at Bourton ; but, according to 
Anthony a Wood, at Compton Scorffin, Ilmington, Warwickshire, 
in his mother's father's house there. He was baptized at Barton- 
on-the-Heath, 18th June, 1581. At the age of fourteen years, 
he matriculated as a gentleman-commoner of Queen's College, 
Oxford, February, 1594-5, and took his degree in 1598. He 
entered the Middle Temple ; then travelled for a little time, and 
published two works, containing u Observations in his Travels," 
under his own name. About the time of the Coronation of J ames I. 
he became acquainted so familiarly with Robert Carre, that "it was 
questionable, whether Robert Carre, Earl of Somerset, were more 
in the favour of King J ames, or this Sir Thomas Overbury in the 
favour of the Earl of Somerset. The latter procured knighthood 
for Sir Thomas, and the Welsh judgeship for Sir Nicholas, his 
father. The endeavour to dissuade Carre from his familiarity and 
marriage with Francis Howard, daughter of the Earl of Sussex, 
and wife of Robert, Earl of Essex, proved his overthrow. To get 
him out of the way, the King was induced to appoint him Am- 
bassador for Russia. Carre (whose counsel Sir Thomas asked) 
persuaded him " to decline the appointment, as no better than 
an honourable grave, and that it was better to lie for some days 
in the Tower, than more months in a worse prison, a ship by sea, 
and a barbarous cold country by land." He might be imprisoned, 
but the King would be brought to release him. He followed the 
advice, as that of a kind friend. No sooner was he in the Tower, 
21st, April, 1613, than his refusal was represented as an act of 
high contempt. A stricter restraint aided Carre and the Countess. 
By a horrid process of poisoning they contrived to despatch Sir 


Transactions for the Year 1891-2. 

Thomas, 13th September, 1613, at the age of thirty- two years. 
He was buried in the Tower Chapel of S. Peter ad Vincula. His 
burial is thus entered in the Register there — "1613 S r Thomas 
Overbury, prison 1 ', poysoned, buried xv th of September " ; and in 
the Bourton Register, thus — " 1613. Sept. 15. Thomas Overburie, 
Eques Auratus, veneno, Turre Londinensi, confectus." Fuller 
speaks of the happiness of his pen, in prose and poetry. In the 
former, "he was the first writer of Characters of our nation.'.' In 
the latter, a poem, " On the Choice of a Wife," was of so much 
merit as to go through seven editions : one, after his death, was 
entitled, " A Wife, now a Widow, of Sir Thomas Overbury." 
Three engraved portraits of him are mentioned by Anthony a ] 
Wood. Thomas Overbury, of Barton-on-the-Heath, Esq., in his 
will, 14th July, 1371, gave unto the University of Oxford the 
picture of Sir Thomas Overbury, " which now hangs over my 
Drawing room Chimney, to be by them hung up in some publick 
place, with a proper inscription under it." Another painted 
portrait of him hangs in the Grand Stair-case at Ditchley. 

This manor, on the death of Sir Nicholas, passed to another 
Sir Thomas, nephew of the above Sir Thomas, and sen of his 
brother, Sir Giles Overbury. He was a Justice of the Peace, and 
lived at Bourton. He wrote a full account of the trial and 
execution of Joan Perry, and her two sons, John and Richard, 
for the supposed murder of William Harrison, Gent., of Campden, 
who, however, turned up twelve months afterwards. He was a 
great traveller. A work written by him in defence of Religious 
Toleration was answered by George Vernon, the Rector of 
Bourton-on-the- Water, in his Ataxie Obstacuhcm, to which Sir 
Thomas replied. He sold his inheritance at Bourton-on the-Hill 
to Alexander Popham, about the year 1680, retired to his estate at 
Adminton, in Queinton parish, and there died and was buried. 

Alexander Popham was, according to Burke, son of Edward, 
the fifth son of Sir Francis Popham, of Littlecote, Wilts — which 
Edward was Colonel, General, and Admiral of the Parliament 
Fleet, and was called to the Upper House of Parliament. He 
died August 29th, 1651, and was interred in Westminster Abbey, 



Oliver Cromwell attending his funeral, Oct. 24th, on the evening 
of the General Thanksgiving for the Victory at Worcester, and 
was one of those disinterred by order of Charles. The above 
Alexander, his son, is said by Anthony a Wood to have been 
born deaf and dumb, and to have been taught to speak by Dr. 
William Holder, of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, and Rector of 
Blechingdon, Oxon, in the year 1659. About 16th April, 1629, 
he, being then of Charleton, and about 31, married Brilliana, then 
about 20, the daughter of Sir Edward Harly, of co Hereford. 
Their three daughters, Maria, April 10th, 1684; Letitia, July 
10th, 1685 ; and Anne, Nov. 13th, 1686 ; and one son, Edward, 
December 29th, 1687, were baptized at Bourton. Brilliana, the 
mother (1618), and Letitia (1738) died, and were buried here; 
to whose memory a mural tablet was put up in the South Aisle. 
After the death of his father, Edward Popham succeeded, " who 
liveth in a handsome large seat in this place, and has a great 
estate." (Atkyns). 

From the Pophams this manor passed to the Batesons, 1 Richard 
Bateson, of Driffield, co. Wilts, is described, also, as of Bourton-on- 
the-Hill. His son, William, was first of Burford and Milton, co. 
Oxon, then of Bourton- on-the-Hill. He was twice married — 1. to 
Joyce, daughter of Hercules Osbaldeston, of Chadlington, co. 
Oxon, who died in 1631 ; 2. to Mrs. Gertrude Corney, 2 widow, 
Sept. 1st, 1634, buried June 27th, 1663. He was eminent for 
his loyalty in the civil wars, was ' denoted ' as a delinquent, and 
suffered accordingly. 

The following is a copy of the transactions between him and 
Committees of the Parliament ; — 

According to your order of the 19th ffebr. 1648, upon the Peticon of 
William Batson, of Burton, in the Co. of Glouc. gent. , deserving a Review 
and Abatement of his ffine : -We finde 

That his ffine was sett, here, the 5th of January, 1647, as an Attorney at 
Law, at a third, amounting to £700. Whereof he hath payed us a moiety. 

It appeareth that his case was reported to the Lords and Comons for Seques- 
tracbn in August, 1647, where it depended till the 22 of December, 1647, 
and then he was voted a Delinquent, and the next day he peticoned here, 
and compounded here, within 13 dayes after. 
1 Visitation of Gloucester, 1682-3. 2 Parish Register. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

We finde that in Michaelmas Term, 1645. he was putt out from being an 
Attorney of the Court of Comon pleas, by Judgement of that Court, in 
an Accbn of Debt. And he deposeth, that that was long before any Com- 
plaint made against him for delinquency. 

He inserted in his Particular his goods, Cattell, Corne, Wooll and houshold 
stuff, amounting to £594, which were then Inventoryed by the Seques- 
trators of Gloucester, and he added his bedding and other goods, amount- 
ing to £70, which made in all £664, for which his fine was sett £221, 
part of the fine aforesaid. And you, by your letter to the Com tes of 
Glouc. , gave them notice of this Particular and Composicon for the said 
personall estate indisposed off, yet, he complayneth, that the said Com- 
mittee of Glouc, since his said composicon, here, have made him pay unto 
them £200 for his composicon with them, for the same goods, and, pro- 
duceth their acquittances for the payment off £150 thereof. 
Indorsed, 24 ffebr. 1648. All w cl1 y r certyficate. 

The Copie of Gloucester Certyficate, by direcon of the Com- 
mittee of the Goldsmithes Hall : — 

Upon perusal of yours of the 24 ffebr., 1648, desireing this Co tie to certifye 
the cause why they receved the sum of 200 u out of the personal estate of 
Mr W m Batson. This Co tie does hereby certifye, that upon an order of 
yo r Co tie of the 12 Jan. 1647, wherein you declared your opinion, that, in 
case this Co tie has made seizure of any parte of the estate of the s d M r 
Batson (the 23 Dec. last being the day when hee prefered his peticbn and 
particular to you) they ought not to make any restitucon, but might 
dispose of what had bin so seized to the use of the State— and the Co tle 
havinge longe before made seizure of his personal estate, and not findinge 
the same in the particular of his estate sent down by you — thereupon 
they did proceede to the sequestracbn thereof, out of which they raysed 
the said sum of 200 u . 

March 6, 1647. A printed notice to Mr. Bateson of his being assessed by 
the Assessors sitting at Haberdashers' Hall, London, appointed to assess 
such as have not contributed upon the propositions of both Houses ot 
Pari*, or not in proportion to their estates, at the sum of 500 H by virtue 
of the late Ordinance for assessment of a twentyeth part. He is required 
to appear at Haberdashers' Hall to give satisfaction to this assessment 
within 10 days after notice hereof. Signed by Martyn Dallison, Clerk 
to the Committee of Lords and Commons for the advance of money, &c. 
To Mr. Bateson, of Bourton-on-the-Hill. 

June 9, 1648. The above Committee order Mr. Bateson, to be discharged 
of his T,y h part. It appearing he is very much in debt, and hath paid his 
i th part. [Signed] Martin Dallison. 

In dorso. Let this be kept. 


Aug. 31, 1644. A receipt for £10 (paid by Mr. Bateson, of Bourton Super 

Montem) for the use of the King and Parliamt. 

rQ - „ 0 j n Mich, Webb, Maior. 
[Signed] ThomasHill ; 

The fir it payment of the 5th and 20th pt. at Gloucester. 

Aug. 8, 1646. A second receipt of £5 ; parte of his 5th and 20th part. 

[Signed] Ric. Castle. 
July 26, 1648. A bonde or Bill, on the part of W. Bateson, to pay to John 

Maddocks, William Sheppard, John Dorney, Esq rs , of the Citie of Glouc. 

£100 to the use of the State. 
Henry Fletcher's acquittance— for 28th July, 1648, £56; 1 September, 1648, 

£44. Both sums received by the hands of Capt. Richard Castell — 8th 

Nov r ., by Mr. Rob* Watson, £50— 5th ffebr. 1648, £50, by Leftent Coll. 

Grimes. These four sums are for the personal estate. 

He appears at Haberdashers' Hall, and produced the follow- 
ing account : — 

The Committee of Goldsmiths' Hall took a third part of 
Bateson's estate, valued at £2100, by the particular extant, and 
made him pay £700, as appears by acquittance. 

His goodes taken and seized by the Committee of Glouc r — and, 
therefore, the Committee of Goldsmiths' Hall would let them be 
compounded for there — 

li s. d. 

So that Batson hath payd and secured .... 700 00 00 
The Committee of Glouc r have secured all his goods to the 

value of 594 11 more . . . . . . 594 00 00 

The Committee of Imdemnity ordered 150 u more [to be taken 

from Batson . . . . . . 150 00 00 

That Batson payd his 5 th part, and Twentyeth parte in August, 

1644 . . . . . . . ~ . 020 00 00 

That he advanced Horse and Armes, with other things to 

Major Puryfoy, for the parliament's service, as appears by 

his acquittance . . . . . . 020 00 00 

That Captain Sambuch had from mee Two horses and more, for 

Parliament Service, worth . . . . . 020 00 00 

That Captayne Michelborne had of mee Two horses more for the 

Parliament service, worth ..... 020 00 00 
That Maior Carr, being Maior to S r W m Waller, had one geld- 

inge for the Pari*- service, worth .... 013 00 00 
That he quartered the Parliament Souldiers, to the value of 

167 u 11 s 6 d , at xij d . a day and a night for a man and horse 

and 6d. a day for a footman, & niver received a penny for it 167 11 06 
That he hath payd to the Parliament in Contribucion, Taxes, 

163 u 7 s . 0 d . . . . . . . 163 07 07 

Qy. 1767 H {sic) 1776 19 01 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Now againe they send for the some of 500 n for a I th and 20 th part, albeit hee 
hath payd and advanced, as before. Batson became so much out of purse, 
and is in debt to the value of above 16C0 11 and upwards. 

In dorso. Briefe of Batson, Haberdashers' Hall. 

He was buried here December 7th, 1654, aged above 90 years. 
The last of this family, apparently, thus connected with this 
parish, of the same name, William Bateson, married Susannah, 
daughter of Edmund Pytts, of Kyre Ward, Worcestershire, Esq., 
and died in 1819, of the same advanced age as his forefather 
and namesake, 90 years ; 1 having been baptised Dec. 11th, 1728. 
He seems to have sold to Lord Deerhurst, who sold to Sir James 
East, Bart, (of happy memory), the great house (Bourton house) 
now occupied by the gentleman who has so admirably arranged 
for this successful excursion, Algernon Bushout, Esquire, himself 
the worthy representative of a most ancient and distinguished 
line. To this house is attached a tithe-barn, once one of the 
largest in England. Was there a house, here, for the Tewkesbury 
manor"? On a stone over the entrance are cut the letters B.P. 
1570, for Bichard Palmer, the patron of the benefice, and kinsman 
of Giles Palmer, whose daughter was wife of Sir Nicholas, and 
mother of Sir Thomas Overbury. In the Register, 1571. Nov. 
22nd was buried "the worshipfull and vertuous matron, Mrs. 
Elice Palmer, set. 80." In 1569, Dec. 4th, W m ffreeman, of 
Blockley, Gentleman, married Mrs. Alice Palmer, daughter of 
Bichard Palmer, Gent. In the year 1568, Eebr. 15, was baptized 
Johane, daughter of Bichard Palmer, Gent.; and in 1570, April 
15, Margaret, daughter of Mr. Bichard Palmer. 3 

The handsome block of building, standing back on the left 
hand, above the Church, represents the Manor House of the West- 
minster portion. When the late Earl of Bedesdale, in 1856, bought 
the freehold of the manor of the Dean and Chapter, his lordship 
divided the Manor House, where the Squires Bateson had lived, 
into two farmhouses, now occupied by Mr. Davis and Mr. Slatter. 

1 Visitation of Gloucestershire, 1682-3 

2 Bourton Register. 

3 For Edward Palmer, uncle of Sir. Thomas Overbury, see Fuller's 
Worthies, L 387. 



Before the purchase, the Earl was described, as " Lord Farmer," 
afterwards as " Lord of the Manor." 

A large dovecote, belonging to another farmhouse on the same 
side, lower down, is worthy of attention. It reminds one of the 
fine old specimen at Lower Slaughter, which the architect was 
desired to take for his ideal and model in designing the Manor 
House, there. The dove-house (columbarium), in former days, 
was a very steady source of profit. 

The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of 
Oxford had lands in this parish, and in Moreton Henmarsh. 

For a moment to go back to earlier times for Bourton names. 

1221. One Serlo, of Bourton, had two sons, Samuel and 
Gilbert. Samuel went to the Holy Land. Whilst he was at 
Jerusalem, his father enfeoffed his second son, Gilbert, in Samuel's 
inheritance. Gilbert married Sibil. He died, and Sibil retained 
Samuel's house. After seven years of widowhood, and her second 
marriage with Peter Russ, Samuel came back, and by the follow- 
ing process sought to recover his own. Richard le Bedel, Richard, 
son of Geoffrey, and Reginald, of Seisincote, broke into Samuel's 
house, now in Sibil's occupation, broke open a box, took away 
four sheets, a counterpane (chalonem), ten ells of cloth, three 
whimples (pepla), two towels (toialla), a gold ring and other 
jewels, five oxen, two cows, one bullock, one horse, fourteen 
quarters of wheat, and other corn, a new cart ironed, and many 
utensils. The case was, really, a civil claim under the fictitious 
form of robbery. The matter was compromised by leave of the 

In a singular case, the Bassetts, Geoffrey, John, Walter, Ralph, 
Henry and Robert, were sued by Geoffrey of Sutton [under 
Brailes] for an assault at an ale, which ended in his death. 
Robert the only one appearing, the others, being of his household, 
was found guilty by a jury and the four townships, Sesincote, 
Todenham, Bourton and Moreton, and was hanged. 

Felicia de Bourton sued Roger de Bourton for beating her and 
robbing her of a mark ; though sworn to prosecute, she did not 
appear, nor did Roger, who was held to appear by Hugh de Cuil- 

80 Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

lardeville, Ralf de Welneford, Robert de Icford and Simon de 
Bourton. He was an outlaw in Oxfordshire. He was accused, 
also, of burning Ralf de Welneford's house. Hugh, Ralph de 
Icford, and Ralph de Welleford were pledged to produce him. 
In default they were in mercy-fine. — Pleas of Crown for Gloucester 

A name is supplied by the " Chantry Certificates," contributed 
by Sir John Maclean to this Society's Transactions, (vol. viii., 297) 
" A certeyn annuall Rent" was "given for the mayntenance of 
an yerelie obitte for oon Heynez, w ch is, by yere, yj s viij d , whereof 
is Distributid, yerelie, to the Releyvynge of poore people, vj d ." 

Names of other persons, of station, substance and character, 
appear in the parish register. Several of the ancient family of 
the Rutters. Of these, Isabella, sister of Michael Rutter, of 
Queinton, was the mother of Sir Nicholas Overbury. His great 
grandson, Michael Rutter, of Bourton-on-the Hill, married Doro- 
thy, daughter of Sir John Hales, of co. Kent, and of the White- 
friars, or Hales Place, in Coventry. This lady was distinguished 
as the ' angel of the parish.' Her portrait, attached to her funeral 
sermon (Hosea, vj., 2), preached by the then Rector of Bourton, 
Giles Oldesworth, in 1661 [dedicated to Sir John Hales, of War- 
wick, her nephew], gives some little idea, how, if the most classical 
features command admiration, there is still a higher and more 
commanding beauty, that goes straight to the heart, that induced 
the writing of the couplet, beneath the engraving : — 
" Life more abundant in her looks you see, 
Picture her Soule, a Hev'nly Saint is Shee." 
This portrait is engraved with four shields in its corners, one with 
Rutter quartering Hales. The others are inscribed : " Dominae 
Dorotheae Rutter, Martii 21 mo r Vera Effigies, 166 J. Anno JEtatis 
sua, 31 mo ." On her decease (in childbed) she was greatly lamented 
by the multitude she had succoured during her too brief exis- 
tence. The funeral sermon was republished, with a fresh 
engraving, in 1820, by T. Berry, from a rare print in the possess- 
ion of E.W. Martin, Esq." 1 These two entries are in the Bourton 
Parish Register, "1659. May 24, bapt. Thos. s. of Michael 
1 Reliquary, xii., 238. 


Rutter, of this parish, Esqr. and of his wife, Mrs. Dorothy 
[Hales]." Burials, " 1662, April 1, Mrs. Dorothie [Hales] wife 
of Michael Rutter Esquire." 

Nicholas Rutter, great-grandson of William Rutter, brother 
of Isabella, wife of Sir Nicholas Overbury, married Mary Gibbes, 
of Stretton-on-Fosse, probably connected with the above John 
Gibbes, and with W. Gibbes, the donor of the blankets, 1 doled out 
with ringing of bells, on S. Thomas Day. 

Connected with the Palmers is Richard Carique, who married 
a Palmer, 5th January, 1588. Four coats 2 were confirmed, and a 
crest newly granted, by Robert Cook, Clarenceux, to Richard 
Carique, of Bourton-on-the-Hill, Gent., son of Richard Carique, 
of Tewkesbury, Gent., and Mary, his wife, daughter of Anthony 
Harcourt, co. Leicester, son of William Harcourt, of Bosworth, 
and of Jane, daughter and coheiress of William Palmer. Richard 
' Careg,' of Tewkesbury, had Hall Place, Lower Slaughter. Henry 
Carique, of Chipping Norton — who married Jane, sister and heiress 
of Henry Cutts, and had by her William, Martin, Richard, who 
married Ursula, daughter of Thomas Busshell, of Broad Merston, 
Glouc., and Mary, wife of Francis Gorges, Chilingleigh, Kent — 
was brother of Richard Carique, of Bourton-on-the-Hill. The 
latter had a son of his own name. 

May 28th, 1747. John Head, of Hodcutt, Berks, Esq., married 
Mrs. Lucy Harward, of this parish, at Batsford, and " has a very 
handsome modern-built house with pleasant gardens here." The 
father of Lucy, Dr. Kempe Harward 4 married Mrs. Eliz. Carter, of 

1 A large marble tablet on the South wall of the Aisle, at the South end, 
memorializes, in two columns, this gift, and the Industry, Integrity, 
Benevolence and Thrift of the Donor. He is buried in the churchyard. 

2 Or, a fesse dancettee, betw. 3 talbots pass. sa. Crest — An ostrich arg. 
beaked and legged or. , holding in the mouth a broken spear of the last, 
headed of the first, Carrick, co. Glouc. 2. Arg. on a chief engr. gu., 3 
crosses fitch^e or., Otterbourne, co. York. 3. Arg. on a pale gu. 3 escallops 
or. Fitzwygram, Walthamstow. 4. Arg. a fret gu. on a chief of the last 
three pheons, or. Beltoft. 

3 Rawlinson's MS., B. 429, 148b. 

4 He bore arms (on his monument), Cheeky or. and az. : on a bend gules 
two eagles displayed, argent — ' Kempe' was a favourite name in the Abell 
family, Bidford. The following extracts, from the Harvington Registers, 
show how it came to be adopted :— 14th March, 1618, Kempe, son of Win. 
Abell, was baptized ; witness, Kempe Harwarde. 1595. Robert Harwarde 
and Margaret Kempe were married. — Gen ecdogist, 7.-ZV.6'., 20, 

Vol. XVI. g 

82 Transactions for the Year 189J-92. 

Blockley. To the doctor and his son, who died and were buried 
at Bourton, a monument was erected, on the S. waH of the church, 
by the above Lucy. On the same monument, in the space below, 
an epitaph has been added to the Rev. Thomas Williams, M.A., 
formerly of Balliol College) and many years Vicar of Bere Regis. 
He died 5th May. 1829, aged 80 years. A name resembling 
' Harward' appears in the Diocesan Registry of Marriage Licences, 
Worcester, 23 Dec. 1720. Robert Robins, of Blockley, « upwards 
of 50, bachelor, married Elizabeth Hay ward, of Bourton-on-the- 
Hill, about 19, maiden. 

29th Jan. 1702. Was buried < Samuel Kimberley, 1 Doctor of 
Phisic'; and 9th Febr. 1703, Mrs. Kimberley, daughter of Mr. 
Michael Butter. 10 July, 1685. Samuel Kimberley accumulated 
the Degrees in Physic. William Cole, of Gloucester Hall, Oxford, 
dedicated an " Essay concerning the late frequency of Aj^oplexies," 
&c.j 8vo, Oxford, 1685, to Dr. Samuel Kimberley. 

Bourton, through her former Chapelry, is, indirectly, associated 
with the Great Founder of our Empire in the East. Governor- 
General Warren Hastings was the grandson of the Rev. Peniston 
Hastings — son of Peniston "Hastings and Elizabeth, daughter of 
Samuel Creswick, of Moreton Henmarsh — baptised at Moreton, 
19th October, 1677. Mrs. Elizabeth Hastings, of Dailesford, was 
buried 21st June, 1699. — Moreton Register. 

The great age of the chief people is noticeable, " The worship- 
ful Mrs. Alice Palmer" reached 80 ; Sir Nicholas Overbury a 100 
years and more ; Richard, father of W. Bateson, 90 ; both W. 
Batesons, 90. "27 June, 1665, was buried Joane Allen, aged 
above 105 years" Nevertheless the village suffered severely from 
the Plague. In the Register are entered together forty-six names 
of those who " died by the pestilence." Amongst the victims are 
the chief residents. 

1 4 Jan. 1695. A Faculty confirms the Doctor in two seats {sedilia) 
erected by him in Campden Church, adjoining the seat of Thomas Wilson, 
Gent., on the East, and of John Hall on the West ; in length, ten feet and 
three thumbs {polities) ; in width, seven feet ; for himself and family to sit, 
stand, kneel and hear in, without any letting in, or intrusion of any one {ad 
sedendum, utandum, et genua fleet enda et Divina audienda absque intromissione 
vel inlrusione uniuscunque). — Glouc. Beg. 5, p. Jfi. 

Bourton-on -the -Hill. 



The Church is ascribed to S. Laurence. It is curious that, 
the churches of both the Bourtons are assigned to this Saint — and, 
in both cases, erroneously, In the following list of clergy, the 
Parish Church is under the tutelage of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 1 
May the mistake have arisen, thus 1 — Barton-on-the-Heath, in the 
Worcester Registers, seems to be described as Barton in Hen- 
mershe. S. Laurence, according to Ecton, is the Patron Saint of 
the Church of Barton-on-the-Heath. From the resemblance of 
the names, may S. Laurence, of Barton-on-the-Heath or Barton 
Henmarshe have been assigned to Burton, or Bourton Henmarshe, 
or Bourton-on-the-Hill 1 

With the kind permission of Mr. E. Guy Dawber, his exact 
account of the sacred building is inserted : " The Church contains 
work of all periods of architecture. ' In plan it has the usual 
features — Nave, Aisles, Chancel, Western Tower and North and 
South Porches. (See Plan Plate VII). 

The Norman shafts and caps 2 of the South Arcade are the 
only remaining portions of an earlier building of the eleventh 
century, but the Church has been so altered, in later times, that 
no other remains can be seen. The arches over the shafts are of 
the Transitional Period to Early English ; whilst the North 
Arcade and the Chancel are probably Decorated. Some small 
remains of Early English work 3 may be seen built in the arch of 
the South Porch, a late edition of the eighteenth century. 

The Tower is a good specimen of late Decorated work, in three 
stages, with angle buttresses, parapet and stair turret 4 carried up 
above the roof. The head of the lower window in the Tower and 
the West Door are, probably, later insertions. 

The main portion of the Chancel is of late Decorated work, 
the angle buttresses / with pinnacles over some of them, the Priest's 
door, partly blocked up 5 on the South side, and the East window 

1 This discovery is due to the Rev. T. P. Wadley. 

2 Enriched with the inverted cone. 

3 Of two orders, keel moulding with a deep hollow between. 

4 Surmounted by a pretty kind of broach. 

5 At the angle here the plinth of the aisle is stopped, by reason of the 
above blocking. 

G 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

with reticulated tracery, are all, evidently, of this date. The 
North windows were probably inserted in the fifteenth century, 
when the flat roofs were put on. Noticeable is the peculiar way 
in which the panelled work in the parapet is stopped on the South 
side. The South window in the Chancel is of modern date. The 
North and South Aisles, the Nave Roof and Clerestory are of the 
Perpendicular period ; although the North Aisle, from the good 
character of its mouldings and windows, seems of a slightly earlier 

Behind the organ, at the right side of the East window of the 
South Aisle, are remains of fifteenth century Tabernacle work. 
Most probably this has been used as a Chapel at one time. 

The old fifteenth century Font is a good specimen of the 
period, but for some time it has been laid aside." (See Plate VIII., 

fig- 1.) 

A pretty decorated Piscina with pyramidal crocketed head and 
side shafts with pinnacles, and stone credence shelf, has, appar- 
ently, been moved from its place in the South wall to the splay 
of the new elongated window (preceded, as the hood would, per- 
haps, prove, by a shorter one), the sill portion of which forms still 
a sedile for the Priest. (See Plate VIII., fig. 2). 

The only remaining Stained Glass is in the tracery of the E. 
window of the N. Aisle. Over the centre light are two kneeling 
figures, of a gentleman in crimson doublet and yellow hose and a 
lady in the compartment behind in common gown. Round the 
latter is the legend : "Et alicie Wxoris eius." Over the former : 
" Orate pro bono statu ricardus (sic) S . . . he . . " The lettering 
of the name is, for the most part gone, At the upper curve of the 
1 S ' there seems to be the top of the letter '17 We thus lose the 
founders of the Chantry. The Manor Rolls in the keeping of the 
Dean and Chapter would, no doubt, supply the name. Behind 
the lady, in another compartment, is a portion of a figure, in 
yellow, seated, with the right hand uplifted, the rest gone — 
perhaps the Blessed Virgin — whose Chapel this might be. This 
figure, however, does not belong to this place, and has been 
broken to fill it up. To the eye, returning to the crippled arch 
of the Eastern Bay of the South Arcade, it seems to have been 


abridged, possibly on the reconstruction of the Chancel in the 
the Decorated period. 

Monuments in South Aisle — to Kempe Harward and Robert 
Devereux Bateson (Rudder) — to Susannah, wife of William 
Bateson, Esq., second daughter of Edmund Pytts, of Kyre, War- 
wick, Esq., died October, 1768, aged 29 years ; and three of their 
sons, William, the eldest died, aged 4 years ; Robert and Thomas 
in infancy — Arms, Bateson impaling Pytts — to Ann, widow of 
Robert Devereux Bateson, Esq., one of the daughters of Allen 
Clyffe, Mathon, Wore, Esq., died March, 1763, aged 59— to Capt. 
Robert, 2nd son of Robert Devereux and Ann Bateson, died 5th 
Feb. 1779, aged 46 years — over south door, to William Bateson, 
Esquire, died 24th Sept. 1819, in the 91st year of his age — Arms, 
Bateson impaling Pytts. 

The Bells are six. On the third, recast in 1873 : "Reader, 
thou also must know a Resurrection or Renewal." On the tenor : 
" I sing to Sermon with a lusty Borne. 1677. That all may com 
And none may stay at home." In the Valor Ecclesiasticus, 
Henry VIII., this reprise is made from the Rector's income : "In 
feodum decani pro pulsacione campane in diliculo et ignetegio ab 
antiquo, sic usitata, per annum, xiij 8 iiij d ." i.e. the deacon's fee for 
ringing the early day bell, ' Angelus ' or ' S. Gabriel,' and the 
Curfew. In the Worcester Diocesan Registry, a.d. 1537, Leonard 
Savage, Kineton, co. Warwick, is presented for not permitting 
the bells to be rung " at Curfle' nother the Day bell, prout mos 
ibidem erat ab antiquo." 

The Altar Plate is modern, excepting the cover of a chalice 
with date 1576. On a flagon, no date, but the inscription, " The 
gift of Mrs. Bruges." 1 On two silver salvers, " Given to the 
Church of Bourton-on-the-Hill, Gloucestershire, 1827." 

The oldest Register on parchment, well kept, and full of 
interest, dates, 18th July, 1568, and May 31st, 1805. 

If one may speculate on the builders or rebuilders of the 
church, may the South Arcade be assigned to Margaret de 
Corrneilles or to predecessors of the Stonors by marriage with her 
1 A descendant of the Goodwins ? Visitation o/Glouc, 1682-3, 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

successors; i.e. if "Henmarsh" in the Inquisition represents, as 
Fosbrooke thinks, Bourton 1 Some of the work is, presumably, 
the Stonors, and some, as the North Aisle window would shew, 
has been the fruit of piety and zeal of the residents — 

Institutions, etc., to the Church of Bourton. 

1294. Monda'y, the morrow of the Assumption of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. The Bishop committed to Sir 
John de Rokeston, 2 clerk, the keeping of the 
Church of Borton, and of Robert de Farenhull, 
clerk, for 12 years. 

21 Dec. 1307. Reginald le Porter, 3 deacon, Rector of Bourton, 
had letters dimissory to take the order of priest. 

10 Kal. Jan. 13 18. Sir Thomas Croker, presented by Sir Robert 
Harnhulle, Knight. 4 

Unknown. John Lynham. 

1 Dec. 1369. Gregory Beye, 5 of Southleye, void by the death 
of John Lynham, presented by Edmund de 

Unknown. John Harleigh. 

1 Jan. 1431. Sir Thomas David, 6 Chaplain, void by the death of 
John Hurlegh, presented by Thomas Chaucer 
(possibly as father-in-law of [William] de la 
Pole, Duke of Suffolk, above), John Golafre 
(of Batsford and Sarsden), John Sarefield and 
Thomas Berdesley. [Trustees 1] 

21 Nov. 1465. Sir Thomas Lowe, 7 Chaplain, by the resignation 
of Sir John Hurle [Hurlegh] . Presented by 
Thomas Stonor. 

1 This and the following institutions at Worcester, and other valuable 
information, are due to the unwearied patience, kindness and zeal of my 
esteemed friend, the Rev. T. P. Wadley, Hon. Member of the Society. 

2 Bp. Giffard's Reg., fol. 380. 

3 Sede Vacant?, 28. 

4 Cobham, fol. 7. John Stoner married the second daughter of Sir John 
Hernshill, of Cheshire. 

5 Lynne, 3. 

0 Pulton, 95. 

7 Carpenter, I., 191. 



9 Sept. 1486. Sir Thomas Lowe exchanged with Master John 
Bayly, Rector of Backsoure (Batsford), with the 
consent of Sir William Stonor, patron, of 
Bourton, Robert Handy, gentleman, patron of 

Unknown. Hugh Kirkhall. 

11 Aug. 1492. Master Geoffrey Knyght, 1 B.C.L., on the death 
of Master Hugh Kirkhall. Presented by Adrian 
Fortescue, Esq., in right of Anne, his wife, 
sister and heiress of John, son and heir of Sir 
W. Stonor, Knight. 

16 Nov. 1520. Sir Simon Home, 2 Chaplain "to the Parish 
Church of the Blessed Mary of Burton, near 
Blockley" void by the death of Master Geoffrey 
Knight. Presented by Adrian Fortescue, by 
right of Anne, his wife, &c. 

22 Oct. 1523. Sir William Denwall, 3 void by the death of Sir 
Simon Home. Presented by John Marshall, 
alias Burye. 

27 Jan. 1524. Sir Alexander Nowers 4 to the Parish Church of 
Borton in Henmershe. Presented by Sir John 
Marshall, alias Burye. 
4 May, 1471. Thomas Winchcombe was presented to the Church of Barton 
in Henmershe (Barton-on-the-Heath?), void by the resignation 
of Sir Thomas Stowte. — Carpenter, 11., 51. 

April 6, 1474. Thomas Kyrkeby, Chaplain to the Parish Church of & 
Laurence, of Barton in Henmersh by resignation of Thomas 
Winchcomb. By the same patron, i.e. William Marshall, 
alias Bury. But Sir Thomas Lowe was now Rector of Bourton- 

1 De Gigliis, 9. 

Sir Richard Nicholas, Chaplain, taxed vj s viij d 

Sir Nicholas Langleye, Chaplain, Moreton .... v j s viij d 

Subsidy Loll, De Gigliis, 96. 

2 Jeronimi, I. 

3 Jeronimi, 18. 

He returns his Rectory as worth, for two yard lands arable, xl s , with 
all other emoluments, xiij u ; demised to John Smy the and William Mannynge. 
Reprizes for curfew and day ringing as above. — Valor Ecclesiasticus, Henry 
VIII., p. 452. 

4 Jeronimi, 18, 


Transactions for the Year 1891-9?. 

6 Sept. 1525. Sir Edmund Marshall, by the death of Sir 

Alexander Nowers. Presented by John Mar- 
shall. 1 

May, 1540. 2 
1 June, 1540. 3 

Sept. 1542. Henry Bradshaw, 4 void by the death of James 

Moore. Presented by Thomas Lord Wentworth. 

7 April, 1544. George Nashe void by the resignation of Henry 

Bradshaw. Same patron. 

30 Aug. 1577. James Beck, 5 by resignation of George Nash. 

Presented by Richard Palmer, Gent., plenojure. 
He resigned Notgrove K, 19 Sept. 1577. 

27 June, 1617. Nicholas Cartwright, void by the death of James 
Beck. Presented by Nicholas Overbury, Esq. 

17 Febr. 1638. Richard Hurst, 6 magister artium, et clericus, 
hujus Ecclesie minister laudatissimus sub 
Nicholao Oldisworth, Rectore, sepultus. 

1638. Nicholas Oldisworth. 

1 Jeronimi, 24. 

2 Mention of James Moore, D.D., Rector of Burton-super-Montem, and 
of Sir Thomas Wentworth, Knight, Lord of Wentworth, patron of Bourton, 
in a composition between the Vicar of Blockley and the Rector of Bourton 
for free burial at Bourton ( Bell, 8 ). Bourton was in the Peculiar juris- 
diction of Blockley. 

3 Sir William Towneley, Chaplain, witnesses to the will of John Byll, of 
" Borton o' the Hyll," leaving his goods to wife, Joan and children. Proved 
at Wykwan, 9th Dec. 1540. 

4 The institutions from Henry Bradshaw to Daniel Kemble are from the 
Summary of Institutions in the Gloucester Diocesan Registry, pp. 1, 2, 33, 
37, 44, 60, 80 bis, 99, 124, 158. 

5 He is presented to Church Stanway, 15th April, 1564, by Richard 
Tracy — to Stanway, 8th June, 1583, by Queen Elizabeth. Above the latter 
institution is written : " A bond for instituting James Beck unto Burton-on- 
the-Hill, R. with Moreton Henmarsh, C. 10 July, 1583.' He furnished a 
Corslet in the Military Assessments, 1613. 

6 Parish Register. 



1645. 1 Nicholaus Oldisworth, ille, Regis Alumnus, 

vel prima in aetate, cum Westmonasterii, turn 
Oxonii eximius, ille, in utraque Academia, 
Artium Magister egregie doctus, ille, demum 
Ecclesiae hujus, annexaeque Capellae parochialis 
Rector, longe clarissimus, quippe qui amplissi- 
mus literarum et virtutum omnium thesaurus, 
illud, inquam, et loci et saeculi huius Desiderium, 
mortem obiit apud Willmington, 25 to Die Martii 
Comitatu Warwiciensi : Die 26 t0 sepultum in 
Cancella Berchestoniensi, 1645. 

Nicolao Oldisworth successit JEgidius Oldisworth 2 

*7 March, 1645. Giles Oldisworth. 3 "Presented by King Chas. I. 
pro hac vice. 

*14 May, 1645. Giles Oldisworth, M.A., 4 by death of Nicholas 

5 May, 1679. Richard Watkins, void by the death of Giles 
Oldisworth. Presented by Sir Thomas Overbury. 
He subscribed, 12 May. 

1 Date of Burial. This extract from Parish Register. 

2 Kindly contributed, with other information, by the Rev. F. Farrer, 
the present Rector. 

* Thus in the Gloucester Book of Institutions. 

3 Giles is said by Anthony a Wood to be a son of Robert Oldisworth and 
Muriel, his wife, daughter of Sir Nicholas, and sister of Sir Thomas, Over- 
bury, If so, he was brother of Nicholas Oldesworth. He was born at Coin 
Rogers, 1619 ; was scholar of Trinity College, from Westminster, 1639 ; was 
dispossessed, and forced from Cambridge for his loyalty, and retired to 
Oxford, where by virtue of the Chancellor's letters, he was made M.A. He 
wrote seven works given by Anthony a Wood. In " The stone rolled away " 
is inserted a sermon preached by him at the funeral of Mrs. Dorothy, wife 
of Michael Rutter, Esq. (dying in childbed), above : and a visitation sermon, 
at Campden, on 2 Cor. viL, 1662. He died 24th Nov. 1678, and was buried 
in the chancel of Bourton-on-the-Hill. 

4 " 10th April, 1659. Thomas, son of Giles Oldisworth, Rector of this 
Parish, and of Mrs. Margaret (Warren), his wife, was baptized." So he 
may not have been ejected. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

20 Febr. 1707. Augustine Goodwin, void by the death of Richard 

23 May, 1734. Daniel Kemble, B.D., 2 on death of Augustine 
Goodwin. Presented by Thomas Kemble, Esq. 

27 June, 1810. Samuel Wilson Warnford, LL.D., 3 on his own 

22 Feb. 1855. Robert Jarrett, M.A., void by the death of Dr. 

1882. Robert Mitford Taylor, void by the death of the 

above. Presented by the Earl of Redesdale. 

28 Oct. 1887. Frederic Farrer, M.A. Presented by A. B. 

ffreeman Mitford, Esq., C.B., the present patron. 

1 "Mr. Thomas Deram, Gent., married Mrs. Ann Goodwing, 7 Febr. 
1695." — Bourton Register. Augustine was a son of John Goodwin, of Norton, 
born Sep. 15th ; baptised Sept. 16th, 1668, at Weston-sub-Egge. He married 
28th Feb. 1682, Joyce (dau. of Robert and Eleanor Bateson), widow of Charles 
Yate, of Campden, He was buried 7th June, 1733. For his children, see 
Campden Register. 

Robert Bateson, of Milton, Oxon, son of William Bateson, of Bourton- 
on-the-Hill; baptised at Burford, 1621 ; married Eleanor, daughter of Robt. 
Austen, Horsley, Oxon ; died at Moreton Henmarsh, and was buried at 
Bourton. Joyce married, 1st, Charles Yates, of Campden, and was buried 
Sept. 7th, 1728. 

2 Daniel and Thomas were sons of Thomas and Elizabeth Kemble, of 
Tewkesbury, and nephews of Daniel Kemble, Esq., of the same. Thomas 
married Margaret, daughter of John Martin, of Overbury, and Judith, 
daughter of William Bromley, builder of Ham Court, and Judith [Hanbury] 
his wife. John was son of John Martin, a celebrated banker in Lombard 
Street, and M.P. for Tewkesbury. Judith married, secondly, Thomas 
Bland, Esq., who succeeded to Ham Court, to whom passed in right of his 
wife, as devisee under Mrs. Kemble's will, the patronage of Bourton. — 
Nash, Worcestershire, II., 445 ; Rudge's Gloucestershire. 

3 Of his munificent aid in respect of our churches so many have been, 
and will be, large and grateful recipients. His name is also immortalized 
by the charities which bear his name, 

Watkins. Presented by Thomas Durham, Gent., 1 
and Ann, his wife, daughter and coheir of John 
Goodwin, of Old Combe, Campden, pleno jure. 


William Mayde. Presented by Thomas Kemble. 
Matthew Bloxam. By the same. 
Joseph Martin. By Margaret Kemble. 

Warneford, on his own petition ; buried 22nd 
July, 1882. 



Connected with the Hectors is the Rectory. A terrier at 
Gloucester, dated 15th June, 1584, notes a dwelling house, barn, 
gatehouse, garden and orchard, in a close containing, by esti- 
mation, two acres ; lands in Loxam furlong, under Pilsham ; in 
the upper part of Rissam ; in Whitland Qreen ; in Chilwelle 
furlong ; in Fulpit ; in Blacken Hill ; in Hollowstreat furlong ; 
in Saltredge, alias the furlong beneath the Plashe ; in Dousell (or 

Donsell) Hill ; in Plasheway ; in Gospels , . . 1 ; in Honny 

furlong ; in Whiter oft butts ; in long and short Gostell ; in Ash- 
linge furlong ; in Brod eye furlong ; in Benall Knap ; in Eithill 
furlong ; in Homer (Homeward 1) Standell ; in Sharpness furlong ; 
in JYorthill, "by the way ledinge to the quarre " ; in Brache 
furlong ; Gaily furlong ; at Comshouse ; in Corns furze ; in Gren- 
wiche Hill ; in Grenishe Hill ; in South Sexmede ; in Eushdale, 
etc. The lands border on John Gibbes^Thomas Palmer, John 
Smith, William Stevens, John Boughton, John Manninge, William 
Paxford, Nicholas Hodgkins, John Baylyes, Richard Palmer, 
Thomas Lampet. There is a pasture in common for 12 beasts, 
6 horses, 200 sheep ; also all manner of tithes, " as well personall 
as prediall, excepte a certayn tithe called the Bore tithe." 

[Signed] Thos. Smith, Edmund Dummulton, Churchwardens, 
X their marke. John Boughton, John Gibbes, X his marke. 

Other field names appear in other documents, Cool's piece, 
Braten furlong, Mortar-pitts, Pebblestone Grove, Kits, or Kils, 
down bottom, Scrubbs, Crabtree furlong, Blindwell furlong, Fen- 
hill quarter, Lambert's, Gibbes, Hornesmeadow, Mill way furlong, 
Kitespiece, Leather ground, Thickleather cover, Kinsonwell Lays, 
Elkington Cut, Bateson's Upper Grounds, Watergap furlong, Rev. 
Thos. Williams' ground, Lady Harn. 

A later paper, without date, states, that John Rutter, of 
Campden, did give £10 to the poor; it is as yet in the hands of 
his executor, Michael Rutter, Esq., Bourton-on-the-Hill. " Like- 
wise we are told that Mr. Batson, in Burton, did give £5 for the 
relief of the said poor yet in the hands of Sir Littleton Osbaldes- 
ton, in Woodstock, his executor. Likewise the interest of £10 a 
1 The Terrier is torn in places, 

92 Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

year given by Nicholas Hodgkins, in Burton ; but Nicholas Hodg- 
kins, in Burton, pretends ignorance of any such thinge. We have 
neither Schoole nor Hospitall, 1 in our Parish." 

[Signed] William Garden, Curate. 

John Dumbleton, Thomas Braine, Churhwardens. 

1 A retreat for aged men and women, consisting of four tenements, was 
established by Dr. Warneford in 1831. Each inmate receives £20 yearly. 

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Transactions for the Year 1891-2. 


By the Rev. JOHN H. KILLICK, M.A., Vicar of Little Gompton. 

In preparing the present Paper I have not been able to lay my 
hands upon many sources of information relating to the history of 
my parish of Little Compton, but I will begin by expressing my 
indebtedness to the late Mr. Marah's book, entitled "The Life 
and Times of Bishop Juxon," with a history of his parish of 
Little Compton, from which I have gleaned some of the par- 
ticulars which I have ventured to introduce into this Paper, and 
which contains, I believe, one of the best accounts that has 
ever been published of the subjects upon which I am privileged 
to address the members of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society on the present occasion. Respecting the 
geographical position and historical account of Little Compton, I 
gather from a Topographical Dictionary published between forty 
and fifty years ago some of the following items : — 

Little Compton is a parish in the Union of Chipping Norton, 
Upper Division of the Hundred of Deerhurst, co. Gloucester, 
though locally in the Hundred of Chadlington, co. Oxford, 4J 
miles from Chipping Norton, containing, at the Census in 1841, a 
population of 307 persons. Within the limits of this parish is a 
spot of land on which a stone is placed, known as " Pour Shires' 
Stone," which marks the junction of the four counties of War 
wick, Gloucester, Oxford and Worcester. The parish comprises 
by computation some 1600 acres. The soil is chiefly clay, and 
rocky. The Church, dedicated to St. Denis, is a small structure, 
with a quaint old saddleback tower, containing five bells. The 
living is in the gift of the Dean and Canons of Christ Church, 
Oxford, and is of the annual value of £66. The tithes were 
commuted for land and a money payment in 1794. The Manor 
House was formerly the property and residence of Bishop Juxon. 

Little ComptoN. 


A short distance out of the parish — in the adjoining parish of 
Little Rollright — are those curious, antique and interesting relics 
called the King's Stones, or Rollright Stones, supposed to be the 
remains of a Druidical temple ; they are set up in the form of 
a circle, the diameter of which is 35 yards, and are situated at 
the extreme verge of the county of Oxford, bordering on War- 
wickshire, and vary in height from 7 feet downwards ; at the 
distance of about 80 yards, in the latter county, is a stone stand- 
ing alone, 8 \ feet high, 7 feet broad, and 12 inches in thickness, 
called the King's Stone ; and at the distance of about 300 yards 
from the large circle there are also five stones called the Whisper- 
ing Knights. 

It may be noticed here that since the above accounts were 
published the following alterations have taken place : — 
(1) Little Compton was transferred some years ago for civil pur- 
poses from the county of Gloucester to the hundred of Kineton, 
in the South Division of Warwickshire. (2) That the annual 
value of the living has been considerably augmented. (3) That 
the population of the parish at the recent census in the spring of 
this year (1891) was 475. (4) That the old Church was almost 
entirely taken down nearly 30 years ago by the then Vicar, Rev. 
W. H. Marah, I believe against the wishes of the majority of the 
parishioners, who would have preferred to restore the ancient 
Church, which though much smaller than the present more modern 
edifice, was, and still would be, large enough for the requirements 
of the parish. Fortunately the ancient tower was allowed to 
remain. Mr. Marah was a remarkable man, somewhat eccentric 
and self-willed, and he and the parishioners did not always agree, 
but he was shrewd and far-sighted, and verj energetic in obtain- 
ing money to carry out his designs, and he succeeded in obtaining 
the necessary funds for rebuilding the church -the name of which 
he chose to change, for reasons which I have never heard satis- 
factorily explained — from S. Denis to S. Peter and S. Paul — and 
also for building the present vicarage house, a commodious and 
suitable residence for the Incumbent, and erecting a handsome 
School-room on the Vicarage Glebe, to which he gave the name 

Vol. XVI. u 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

of Archbishop's Juxon's School. This School, which was opened 
with great ceremony about 25 years ago, was, as I think, very 
unwisely taken down in the late Vicar's time. It would have 
been very useful for Sunday School and other parochial purposes. 

Let me next speak more particularly about the Church and 
Manor House at Little Compton. The antiquity of the old Church, 
which, as I have said, was dedicated to S. Denis, most probably 
extended into Saxon times. The massive old Tower of a saddle- 
back shape, the appearance of an old Lady Chapel in the belfry, 
the old construction of the Church before it was added to, the 
clerestory of later age superadded, and the quaint old windows in 
the Chancel, all bespeak very primitive architecture. 

To show that these statements are not mere guess work, Mr. 
Marah records a very curious story or legend in connection with 
the old Church and Parish of Little Compton, which he had 
translated from some quaint old Latin bearing date 1652, which 
relates that St. Augustine came to preach at Little Compton. 
The legend is too long to quote at length as it occupies 3 or 4 
pages in his book, so I would refer my readers to pages 102, 103, 
104, and 105. 

Respecting the aspect and condition of the Parish Church on 
the occasion of Mr. Marah's first visit on April 29th, 1857 — the 
date of his presentation to the living of Little Compton, he thus 
writes : " It certainly didn't present any striking features of 
attraction. The appearance of the glebe, on which the Vicarage 
House now stands, was the picture of desolation, and afforded an 
inviting pursuit to bhe parishioners for fuel and pasture. It 
seemed noboby's property and everbody's liberty. The lands were 
overgrown with stinging nettles perfumed with foetid odours." 
He also gave a most discouraging account of the condition of the 
moral aspect of the place, and of the Parish Church. Concerning 
the latter he writes : "The building seemed in the last verge of 
decay. The north wall was out of the perpendicular, and only 
preserved its equilibrium by the assistance of iron bars and 
pinions. The interior presented a range of old pews so decayed as 
to be all falling in, and the stone floors, especially in the Chancel, 
were so damp and wet that it was almost dangerous to stand on 

Little Compton. 


them long for the performance of Divine Service without the 
assistance of matting. On August the 13th, 1863, the Foundation 
Stone of the new Church was laid by the late Lord Redesdale, and 
consecrated by the present Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol (Dr. 
Ellicott), on May 17th, 1864. In the library at the Stanhope 
Rectory (the residence of the Bishop of Richmond) there are two 
books of special interest — the one is an early copy of the Eikon 
Basilike, or the Portraiture of his Sacred Majesty, in his solitudes 
and his sufferings. The King being Charles L, who was so closely 
connected with, and appreciated in, the parish of Little Compton 
from the circumstance that his devoted friend and chaplain, 
William Juxon, then Bishop of London, afterwards Archbishop of 
Canterbury, owned, and resided for many years at the Manor House 
there. This book consists of Devout Meditation on the King's 
Misfortunes. "We are told that fifty editions of this valuable 
work were published at home and abroad within two years of 
Charles' execution. The book, it is said, made a great sensation, 
and even to this day its authorship is a subject of dispute and 
controvers}^ to the learned and curious. The other is a folio 
volume entitled " Basilica," or the works of the King, containing 
a verbatim report of the trial of Charles I., and embellished with 
some striking and characteristic portraits. On the cover of this 
latter book are affixed iron hasps, by which, doubtless, it was 
secured with chains in the parish church, to which it was presented 
in 1663. These two books M ere, in all probability, the gift of 
Isaac Basire, a former Rector of Stanhope, and chaplain to King 
Charles I. The name of Isaac Basire is only known to those who 
take the trouble and interest to follow the by-paths of the history 
of the Church of England. Yet his story is interesting as throw- 
ing a side-light on the events of those troublous times, in which 
the good man's life was passed. I have introduced his name into 
my present Paper owing to the circumstances that he, like the 
former occupant of the interesting old Manor House at Little 
Compton, of which I am about to say something before I close my 
remarks, was likewise a chaplain of the same pious and ill-used 
King. But to return to my subject. I mentioned a moment ago 

that our present church at Little Compton was consecrated by 
H 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Bishop Ellicott on May 17th, 1864. In the Oxford Chronicle, of 
May 21st, 1864, the following particulars of Little Corapton 
Church and Manor House, in addition to the detailed account of 
the consecration ceremony, were published : — The fine old Manor 
House, which is only 6 feet distant at one point from the church, 
and in which Archbishop Juxon formerly lived, is now the pro- 
perty and residence of James Hardbidle, Esq. At the time when 
Juxon lived at the Manor House he was Bishop of London, and 
spiritual adviser of King Charles I. in his last moments on the 
scaffold. This prelate, of whom there is an excellent portrait in 
the entrance hall at the Manor House, copied from the one in the 
hall at St. John's College, Oxford, resided at Little Compton 
during the troublous times which followed the death of the King, 
and from the monuments in the church, chiefly flat stones placed 
along the floor of the nave, we gather that his family continued 
to reside there for several years after the Bishop's death. The 
Manor House itself is in good preservation ; many of the rooms 
retain their ancient and beautifully-carved wainscotting. In the 
old hall, in addition to the portrait of Bishop Juxon, to which I 
have already referred, there is an oil painting of his wife, Lady 
Fane, and there is also a collection of old chairs, a handsome 
old dining table, swords, armour, a black-letter bible, and other 
curiosities more or less identified with the early and present history 
of the mansion, but the bible known as Bishop Juxon's bible — 
the one used by him as chaplain in his ministrations to the un- 
fortunate King — is in the possession of Miss Whitmore Jones, 
the owner of Chastleton House, who has also some other valuable 
and choice relics of the King. The King's chair is now carefully 
preserved and protected in the Cottage Hospital at Moreton-in- 
Marsh. The original Gateway from the high road still exists, 
and a portion of one of the rows of trees — fine yews — which fur- 
nished an avenue to the house, is still standing. 

The old Church consisted of Nave, Chancel and Tower, the 
last-mentioned alone has been preserved. The Tower is of the 
14th century, but has had buttresses added at the angles, of 
later workmanship and of poor design. It contains a peal of five 

Little Comptois. 


bells, which have been re-hung, and is covered with a high pitched 
roof, gabled on the north and south sides. The old Nave was 
originally of Norman work, but it had been partly rebuilt, and 
had had windows inserted in nearly every subsequent style. It 
had a flat roof covered with lead, and a double tier of windows, 
the upper ones resembling clerestory, and being probably of the 
16th century workmanship. The Chancel Arch was of horse-shoe 
shape, with Norman semi-columns of poor design. The chancel 
was of 14th century character, and the old windows of the south 
side, which are very quaint, have been re-used, in fact the south 
wall of the new Chancel may be said to have been rebuilt as it 
originally stood. The north side and east end were of late 
character, and of no pretension. The Font is of plain 1 3th cen- 
tury work, is in good preservation, and has been kept, and is still 
used, in the church. The new Church extends eastward about 30 
feet beyond the old one ; and the Nave has been lengthened to 
that extent, and is about 20 inches wider. The Church now 
consists of a Nave, Chancel, Tower, South Aisle, with an Organ 
Chamber, and Vestry on the North side of the Chancel, and 
is of the 14th century character throughout. The new South 
Aisle is two bays in length, and has two arches, with stone 
columns dividing it from the Nave, with the increased length 
of which it corresponds. The whole of the masonry is of local 
stone, and the Church is seated with open timber benches of a 
plain substantial character. The seats in the Chancel are of 
pitch pine, and the Holy table is of old oak, with panels hand- 
somely carved in symbolic forms. The Pulpit and Credence table 
are of Bath stone. In the Tower there are five bells, one some- 
what larger than the rest : of these, unfortunately one is cracked, 
and causes a jar in harmony when rung. This is a great pity, for 
it might have been recast at a comparatively small expense when 
all the bells were re-hung. This peal appears to have been hung 
in the year 1720, as this date is inscribed on one of the bells, but 
it seems as if one of them had been recast in 1810. The inscrip- 
tions are the following : — 







Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

At the time of the re-opening of the Church Mr. Marah under- 
took to provide a new Communion Service for the Church, which 
was fitted in an oak case with a lid, on which was fastened a brass 
plate bearing an inscription — " The new Church accommodates 
upwards of 300 worshippers." 

Worcester College, Oxeorl. 



By the Rev. C. H. O. DANIEL, M.A. 

Master of the College. 

In the year 1883 the Society of this College celebrated the six 
hundredth anniversary of an existence of Protean changes. The 
event which it commemorated was one of much significance in the 
annals of the University, in the history of a great monastic Order, 
and in the chronicles of one of its greatest Houses. 

It was in 1283, on St. John the Evangelist's Day, that John 
Giffarde, Baron of Brimsfield, being present himself in St. Peter's 
Abbey at Gloucester, the venerable Father, Abbot Reginald de 
Hamus, presiding, founded Gloucester College, " extra muros 
Oxoniae," as a house of study for thirteen monks of that abbey, 
and appropriated for their support the revenues of the Church of 
Chipping Norton. Each monk was allowed 15 marks per annum. 
The Giflfardes were a powerful Anglo-Norman family. But in 
spite of their importance their pedigree seems to be involved 
in obscurity. Mr. Planche, sometime Somerset Herald, com- 
plained that he devoted much of the leisure of nearly thirty years 
to its elucidation, but in vain. The name, he suggests, must have 
been a soubriquet (as shown by the absence of the local de). The 
word is explained to come from Giffe, a cheek (whence giffee, o.f. 
for a slap on the cheeks) and to mean a person with fat cheeks, 
and so is applied to a cook. Be this as it may, the first of the 
race we are to take account of was Walter Giffard, Seignieur of 
Longueville, in Caux, in Normandy. This Walter accompanied 
William in his descent upon England, contributing to the fleet 30 
vessels and 100 men. The Duke, we are told, was mounted in the 
battle on a horse which Walter Giffarde had brought him as a 
present from a Spanish King. William gave him the Earldom of 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Buckingham, and entrusted him, amongst others, with the com- 
pilation of the Domesday Survey. He died about 1084, leaving 
a son Walter to succeed him in the earldom, and another son 
William, who was chancellor to William Rufus, and subsequently 
Bishop of Winchester. 

Walter Giffarde had two kinsmen (brothers or nephews — Mr. 
Planche is not certain which), Berenger Giffarde of Fonthill, and 
Osbert Giffarde of Brimsfield. Osbert Giffarde had a son named 
Elias. Elias had two sons, Elias and Gilbert : from the former 
descended the line of the Giffardes of Brimsfield, from the latter 
that of the Giffardes of Chillington, There were also Giffardes of 
Twyford, descended from Osbert, brother of Elias of Brimsfield, 
and Giffardes of Worcester and Weston-under-Edge, descended 
from Hugh, another brother. They, I learn from Mr. Planch^, 
bore as arms six torteaux, and these arms are still used for the see 
of Worcester, which was held by his son, Bishop Godfrey, in the 
14th century. 

We have thus Giffardes of Fonthill, of Brimsfield, of Chil- 
lington, of Twyford, and of Weston-under-Edge. To return to 
Brimsfield. Osbert, the kinsman of Walter, held in the time of 
the Conqueror, amongst other Lordships, four in Gloucestershire, 
of which Brimsfield was one. In the person of his son Elias, the 
Barons of Brimsfield first came into touch with St. Peter's Abbey. 
The Giffords were givers (an etymology which I fear we must 
repudiate in favour of the Norman fat cheeks). Elias, in 1086, 
gave part of his woods, with three borderers, to St. Peter's Abbey 
at Gloucester ; and again in 1121 he with his wife dedicated — 
super altare posuerunt — his lands of Bocholt scilicett et silvam et 
planum. His son and successor, Elias, was also a benefactor to the 
Abbey, upon which he bestowed the Lordship of Cronham (Cran- 
ham), the Church of St. Mary at Boyton, the Church of St. George 
at Orcheston, and the Chapel of St. Andrew, at Winterborne, 
with the lands and tithes thereto belonging. He himself assumed 
the vows, and, as Dugdale phrases it, was shorn a monk in St. 
Peter's Abbey, upon which occasion it was, quondam monochatum 
accepit, that he made gifts of the Lordship of Cronham. The son, 

Worcester College, Oxford. 


however, exchanged Cronham in return for lands at Willingwyke. 
We may now pass on to the time of Henry III., when John 
Giffarde, with whom I began my notes, was representative of the 
family at Brimsfield. He was a man of much account : Governor 
of St. Briavel's Castle, and of the Forest of Dean. 1 He fought 
against the King in the Battle of Lewes, but subsequently earned 
his pardon by fighting for the King at Evesham. But the Baron 
of Brimsfield won distinction not only as an ambidexter warrior, 
but as an impetuous wooer. If he was a " Giffard," he knew how 
to take. In the 55th year of Henry's reign, Maud Longespe, 
widow of the Earl of Salisbury's son, made complaint to the King 
that John Giffarde had carried her off by force from her Manor 
House at Kaneford, and taken her to his Castle at Brimsfield, 
and there kept her in restraint. He made excuse that it had not 
been against the lady's will ; coy she may have been, but willing ; 
and the end was that the King took a fine of 300 marks for his 
marrying her without the royal licence, and so condoned the act, 
upon condition that the lady made no further complaint. So 
"they lived happily ever after." It was for the health of this 
lady's soul, as well as for his own and his ancestors', that John 
Giffarde, in 1283, founded the cell in the suburbs of Oxford, for 
the monks of St. Peter's Abbey, under the name of Gloucester 
Hall. To complete the chronicle of John Giffarde, I may here 
mention that he with others of the nobility was in the expedition 
of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, against Llewellyn, Prince 
of Wales : was made Governor to Prince Edward during the 
King's absence in Flanders, and that he died (27 Edward I.) at 
Boyton, and was buried at Malmesbury, another of the great 
Benedictine houses. Antony Wood, making a strange confusion, 
represents him to have been engaged against the Spencers, Edw. 
II.'s favourites, and put to death by them in 1321, " drawn by 
horses through the City of Gloucester, aud then without the gates 
hanged on a gallows.'' This was, in fact, the fate of his son John, 
while John the father died peaceably, and was buried at Malmes- 
bury. Gloucester Hall or College was the first monastic College 
established in Oxford. It preceded by nine years the final estab- 
lishment of Merton College ; by three years the code drawn up 
In 1261. (See Trans., III., p. 361. -Ed.) 


Tansactions for, the Year 1891-92. 

for the government of the University Hall ; by one year the 
Statutes of Balliol, statutes which themselves preceded the estab- 
lishment of students upon the present site of that College. It 
differed from Durham College, the foundation of which soon 
followed, in admitting no regular students — none but monks of 
the Benedictine Order. Before long, the other great Benedictine 
Houses, whose students at Oxford had hitherto been placed in scat- 
tered lodgings, recognised the advantage of bringing them together 
under common discipline and a common Regent.^ They obtained 
permission therefore of the Abbey of Gloucester to share with 
them their house at Oxford, and to add to the existing buildings 
several lodgings, each appropriated to the use of one or more of 
the Benedictine Houses. The building made over in the first place 
by Giffarde had been originally the mansion of Gilbert de Clare, 
Earl of Gloucester, for whom it had the advantage of being close 
to the Royal Palace of Beaumont, in Magdalen parish. His arms 
in Antony Wood's time were still to be seen " fairly depicted in 
the window of the Common Hall. It subsequently passed into 
the hands of the Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, and was 
exempt from Episcopal and archidiaconal jurisdiction " a tern-pore 
cujas memoria non existit," It was from the Hospitallers that 
Giffarde obtained the house which he made over to Gloucester 
Abbey. In 1290 or 1291, upon the agreement to admit other 
Benedictine Houses to a joint use of the College, the founder 
purchased four other tenements, and, obtaining a license in mort- 
main from Edw. I., conveyed the whole to the prior and monks. 
Thereupon was held at Abingdon a General Chapter of the Abbots 
and Priors of the Order, at which provisions were made for regu- 
lating the new buildings to be erected and for providing contri- 
butions towards the expenses, while rules were drawn up for the 
conduct of the College. All Benedictines of the Province of Can- 
terbury were to have right of admission to " our common House 
in Stockwell-street," and all students were to have an equal vote 
in the election of the Prior. The strife and canvassing which took 
place over these popular elections in time arose to such a head as 
to create scandal in the Order, to remedy which it was decreed 
by a General Chapter that the author of any such disturbance 

Worcester College, Oxford. 


should be punished by degradation and perpetual excommunica- 
tion. The monks themselves, differing in this respect from the 
subsequent foundation of Durham College, were not permitted to 
study or be conversant with secular students ; they were bound to 
attend divine service on solemn and festival days ; to observe dis- 
putations constantly in term-time ; to have divinity disputations 
once a week, and the presiding moderator was endowed with a 
salary of .£10 per annum out of the common stock of the Order, 
which provided also for the expenses of their Exercises and De- 
grees in the matter of fees and entertainments. It was the duty 
of the Prior to enforce all regulations and to see that the monks 
preached often, as well in the Latin as in the vulgar tongue, for 
while some were students in philosophy, some in theology, others 
there were who were simply training as preachers. They were to 
confess to no monk of another House ; never to mix with seculars 
sine socio commonacho, monk students were not to plead before 
the Chancellor or other secular judges. It was further jealously 
stipulated that in their exercises they should " answer " under one 
of their own Order — a trace of the struggle between the religious 
orders and the University which arose to such a height in the 
case of the various orders of -Friars. In the year 1298 a great 
and notable gathering, the historian of St. Peter's Abbey tells us, 
took place at Gloucester College, when William Brock, a monk of 
that Abbey, proceeded to his Degree in Divinity. He was the 
first of the Benedictine Order in England to do so. Lawrence 
Honsum, a monk, also of Gloucester, answered him in the 
" vespers." There were present the Abbot, monks, prior, 
obedientaries, and claustral clerks of St. Peter's, in Gloucester. 
An hundred noblemen and esquires came with them, all horsed. 
There were present the Abbots of Westminster, Reading, Abing- 
don, Evesham, and Malmesbury, as also most of the Bishops of 
the Canterbury province of the same Order. These all, as well 
them that were absent as present, sending in their several gifts to 
the inceptor to entertain that great retinue, did consummate the 
solemnity with great credit and repute both for the renown of 
this College and the whole Order. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-95. 

Few structures carry their history and their purpose upon 
their face in a more obvious or more picturesque manner than do 
the still surviving remains of the old Bendictine colony. Each 
settlement possessed a lodging of its own " divided (though all for 
the most part adjoining to each other) by particular roofs, parti- 
tions, and various forms of structure, and known from each other, 
like so many colonies and tribes (though one at once inhabited by 
several Abbies), by terms and rebuses that are depicted and cut in 
stone over each door." These words of Antony a Wood are a 
perfect description of the cottage-like row of tenements which still 
form the south side of the present quadrangle, and partially apply 
to the small southern quadrangle, though many of the features 
have been in this case obliterated. But on the north side all that 
now remains of what is represented in Loggan's well-known print, 
is the ancient doorway of the College, surmounted by three shields 
(of which two bear respectively the arms of Ramsey Abbey and of 
St. Alban's), and the adjoining buildings, which are of the same 
character as the tenements on the south side. The first lodgings 
on the north side were allotted, we are told, to the monks of 
Abingdon ; the next were built for the monks of Gloucester. 
These in later days became the lodgings of the Principal of Glou- 
cester Hall, an arrangement followed in the position of the present 
lodgings of the Provost of the College. On the five lodgings of 
the south side one may see still in place the shields described by 
A. Wood. Over the door at the S.W. corner is a shield bearing 
a mitre over a comb and tun, with the letter W (interpreted as 
a rebus of Walter Compton, or else in reference to Winchcombe 
Abbey). Another shield bears three cups surmounted by a ducal 
coronet. Between these is a small niche. The chambers next in 
order were assigned by tradition to Westminster Abbey ; and the 
central lodgings of the five were " partly for Ramsey and Winch- 
combe Abbies." Over the doors of the easternmost lodgings again 
are shields, the first bearing a " griffin segreant," the other a plain 
cross (Norwich). Another plain shield remains in situ in the 
small quadrangle ; one has been removed and built into the garden 
wall of the present kitchen. 

Worcester College, Oxford. 


A. Wood gives a list of the Abbeys which sent their monks to 
Gloucester College. These were Gloucester, Glastonbury, St. 
Albans, Tavistock, Burton, Chertsey, Coventry, Evesham, Eyn- 
sham, St. Eclmondsbury, Winchcombe, Abbotsbury, Michelney, 
Malmesbury, Rochester, Norwich. It may be presumed that 
other Houses of the Order made use of the place, among those 
whose representatives were present at the Chapter held at Salis- 
bury the day after the interment of Queen Eleanor, 1291, when 
the Prior for the time being, Henry de Helm, was invested with 
the Government of the College, and provision was made for the 
election of his successor. But the Priories of Stokes and St. 
Neot's which were to have contributed refused to do so, and 
denied any interest in the College, on the ground that they were 
subject to the Abbey of Bee, in Normandy. We find scattered 
here and there passing notices which illustrate the relations be- 
tween the Abbeys and their Oxford " studium." Thus Thomas 
de la Mare, 30th Abbot of St. Albans, 1349—1396, gives 40 lib., 
et amplius pro-reparatione domorum et iitensilium scliolarium 
Oxonia. He was a man of magnificent expenditure. He spent 
on 3 mitres £100. John, the 31st Abbot died 1401, gives 
£138 3s. 2d. pro structra nom edificii Oxoniw. He also contri- 
butes to the building of a chapel 40s. William Hey worth, 32nd 
Abbot, completes the Domus Scliolarium Oxonice begun by his 
predecessor sumptuosius quam oportuit. Again Simon de Eye, 
Abbot of Ramsey, writes to the Regent (the Prior), complaining 
" audivimus, sed certe non per fratres vestros ibidem existentes " 
(the good Abbot is unwilling to set the brethren by the ears), that 
divers of the Society had encroached upon the Chamber built by 
the Abbot, and intended to be, but not carried on to the " muros." 
Now, the vacant ground thus encroached upon, the Abbot had 
reserved for the Prior — sicut debuimus. 

We do not at this early date find any mention of Refectory or 
Chapel, except for the contribution of Abbot John, The parish 
church was no doubt, as in other cases, frequented by the student- 
monks for divine services, but they also had licence to have a 
portable altar. It was not till 1420, in the prioralty of Thomas 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

de Ledbury, that John Whethamsted, Abbot of St. Albans, for- 
merly Prior, contributed largely to the erection of a chapel, which 
stood upon the site of the present chapel. Its ruins are figured 
in Loggan's sketch. He built also a library on the south side of 
the chapel, at right angles to it, the five windows of which, giving 
upon Stockwell Street, are also depicted in Loggan's sketch. 
Upon this library he bestowed many books both of his own col- 
lection and of his own writing ; and at his instance Humphrey, 
Duke of Gloucester, beside other benefactions gave many books to 
the library. He augmented the pensions of the scholars by 
13s. 4d. each. The benefits conferred by Wethamsted were such 
that a Convocation of the Order styled him " chief benefactor and 
second founder of the College." One other name, a name of 
local interest, we find associated with the place as its benefactor — 
that of Sir Peter Besils, of Abingdon. Thus a century of dignified 
prosperity was assured to the College, during which period it 
numbered among its alumni John Langden, Bishop of Rochester ; 
Thomas Mylling, Abbot of Westminster, and afterwards Bishop 
of Hereford ; Antony Richer, Abbot of Eynsham, afterwards 
Bishop of Llandaff; Thomas Walsingham, the chronicler. 

The dissolution of the monasteries, of course, involved the 
suppression of the Benedictine College ; Whethamsted's Chapel 
and Library were reduced to a ruin ; and the books " were partly 
lost and purchased, and partly conveyed to some of the other 
College Libraries," where Wood professes to have seen them 
" still bearing their donor's name." 

Thus closed the first chapter of this History, and the relations 
of Gloucester College to the Abbey of St. Peter's. 

Ladies' Costume in the Middle Ages. 




Although no monumental effigy of a lady exists in England 
anterior to the 13th century, we have ample illustration in con- 
temporary MSS. to show in what kind of costume women of an 
earlier period arrayed themselves. Anglo-Saxon women of all 
classes appear to have been very similarly attired in long, flowing 
garments, the contraction of which would be a difficult matter to 
explain, as they mingle together in elegant folds, and covering 
their wearers from head to foot, can scarcely be distinguished one 
from the other. Their outer garments were the tunic, and super- 
tunic, the one a close-fitting dress with long sleeves, the other a 
loose dress worn over it ; and above these was worn the mantle 
or cloak when required. Their hair was worn long, but was 
almost entirely concealed beneath a veil, which varied in richness 
according to the condition in life of its wearer, but was always 
worn both by princess, and peasant. This veil was called "heafods- 
rsegel " or head rail, and covering the head and shoulders hung 
in folds, which mingled with those of the hood usually worn 
above it. 

Th/? outward appearance of the Norman ladies must have been 
very similar, and though in their own country they had been 
accustomed to wear their hair cut short, yet it seems their ad- 
miration of the beautiful long hair of the Saxon ladies induced 
them to allow their hair to grow, and they wore it in long plaits 
or tresses on each side of the face, and the conquerors followed 
the fashion of the conquered. The two outer dresses of the 
Norman ladies were very similar in form to those of the Saxons, 
but were known by the Norman names of cote and surcote, and 
the veil was called the " couvre chef." 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

One of the earliest representations in stone of female dress in 
England is on the right side of the great west door of Rochester 
Cathedral, but it is a memorial, rather than a monumental effigy. 
It represented the Queen of Henry I. in the costume of the early 
part of the 12th century with great minuteness. On each side of 
her head hang long plaits of hair, almost reaching to her knees, 
but unfortunately the top of her head is so much damaged that 
it is doubtful whether she wore a " couvre chef," it must, how- 
ever, have been of small size, if worn at all. Her dress has a 
tight-fitting bodice, and below the waist her skirt becomes full and 
ample. She has very long sleeves, and wears over all a mantle of 

Probably the most ancient monumental effigy of a lady in 
England is that of Eva de Braose, in the Priory Church of St. Mary, 
Abergavenny, {Plate IX) and of which the following description is 
given by Mr. Octavius Morgan in his work on the Abergavenny 
Monuments, " The effigy is of small size, being only four feet six 
inches from the feet to as much of the head as now remains, the 
upper part being broken away. This rests on two cushions, the 
lower one square, with a tassel at each corner, the upper one 
long with a tassel at each end. The head is uncovered, the hair 
being arranged in two long flowing curled ringlets or tresses, on 
either side of the face, which descend as low as the shoulders 
and rest on the tomb beneath them. The upper part of the head 
being broken away, we are in ignorance of how the head-dress 
terminated. The figure is represented as wearing a close-fitting 
kirtle or cote hardie, which is closed in front with a row of close- 
set small flat buttons down to the waist, where it become fuller, 
and flows down over the feet, the toes only appearing : these rest 
on an animal like a dog, but all are very much mutilated. The 
sleeves fit closely, and seem to terminate in a band above the 
elbow. There seems to be a close-fitting sleeve of an under gar- 
ment, which descends to the wrist. The right hand lies across 
the body at the waist, and the left hand held something, said by 
Churchyard (who wrote a description of these monuments at the 
end of the 16th century) to have been a squirrel, and he speaks 

Plate IX 

Ladies' Costume in the Middle Ages. 


of it as existing in his time, but it is now broken away. What- 
ever it was, it seems to have been attached by a chain, which 
passes over the body with a sweep, and terminates in a slit or 
pocket in the side of the kirtle, which pocket is of unusual 
character, being strengthened all round with a very wide margin. 
The figure is of soft sandstone, and both it and the tomb have 
been sadly broken, and patched up with very rough plaster, so 
that the details of the costume of the one, and the architecture 
of the other, are nearly obliterated, but from there being no 
wimple, and the hair being dressed in flowing curls, and from the 
close-fitting gown with tight sleeves, I consider it to be the first 
half of the 13th century, and attribute it to Eva, daughter of 
William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, and wife of William de 
Braose, the last Lord of Abergavenny of that name, who died in 
1230, leaving only four daughters, all very young. She died in 
1246, which date well accords with the costume. With regard to 
the history of the squirrel, Churchyard says that a story had been 
handed down that the lady had a pet squirrel which escaped, and 
that she, in trying to recover it, overbalanced herself, and fell 
from the castle wall, and so lost her life. Such an event is quite 
possible, for the ladies of that day were very fond of pet animals, 
and there is no reason to doubt that the squirrel was upon 
the monument ; the peculiarity of the formation of the pocket, 
with the long chain issuing from it seem to confirm the story of 
the fatal accident. It may be well doubted if any part of the 
tomb is original except the effigy, and as that is older than any 
part of the existing church, we cannot be sure that the tomb is 
in its original situation. Adjoining this tomb at its east end is 
another, on which rests a very early and remarkable effigy. 
(Plate X). On the sides of the tomb are three quartrefoil 
panels, having within them heater-shaped shields, flat on the 
surface ; on the other side are six heater shields, convex on the 
surface, the two sides of the tomb do not correspond, and the 
figure does not fit the tomb, which has every appearance of being 
a piece of patch-work ; this, like the preceding tomb, is earlier 
than the church. The figure, however, is remarkably curious 

Vol. XVI. j 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

and interesting ; the total length of it is 4 feet 3 inches ; the face 
has been much injured ; the head rests on an oblong cushion, and 
is represented in a wimple with the veil or couvre chef hanging- 
down behind. The wimple made its appearance as a head tire for 
women about the end of the 1 2th century, and was a sort of hood, 
which covered not only the head and shoulders, but was usually 
brought round the neck beneath the chin, and was occasionally 
pulled over it, and concealed the whole of the throat. The hair 
was frequently dressed in plaits and curls, which projected at the 
sides within the wimple, giving it a triangular appearance. Over 
this seems to have been worn a sort of close flat- topped cap, from 
which a veil hung down behind, and which could at pleasure be 
drawn over the face. The wimple was much worn throughout 
the 13th century, but after that time this most unbecoming style 
of dress went out of fashion, but was retained on the usual 
mourning head-gear of widows and nuns, being worn by the 
lower orders till a century later. 

The effigy we are describing is represented in what appears to 
be a state mantle, which is gathered up in folds over the arms, 
the hands being raised upon the breast in prayer, holding between 
them what seems to be a heart. The most curious and interesting 
circumstance is that the body of the figure below the hands is 
covered with a long heater shield, in length 23 inches, and in 
width 17 inches across the top, having on it in relief three large 
fleurs-de-lis, two and one. I am not aware of any similar monu- 
ment, and 1 do not think another exists of a female figure bearing 
a large knightly shield on her body. This peculiarity enables us 
to identify the individual whose tomb and monument it is. The 
wimple head-dress, the border of quartrefoil flowers, and curling 
leaves, and the heater shield, all point to the 13th century, and 
the coat of arms equally points to the family of Cantilupe, whose 
arms werj^ gules, three fleur-de-lis, or. I have therefore little 
doubt that this is the effigy of Eva de Cantilupe, widow of 
William de Cantilupe, and Baroness of Abergavenny in her 
own right, which fact will remove all difficulty, and explain the 
anomaly of a lady bearing on her person the shield of a knight. 

Plate XI. 

Effigy in, th& Cnurcli of Tickmham/, 
Co. Somerset. 


Plate XII 

Ladies' Costume in the Middle Ages. 


She was one of the four daughters of the lady whose monu- 
ment has been previously described (Eva, wife of William de 
Braose, Lord of Abergavenny), and she inherited from her 
father the Barony of Abergavenny, which she conveyed to her 
husband, William de Cantilupe, who dying in 1256 left her, his 
widow, Ba/oness in her own right. She was therefore a very 
great and important personage, and was within her own marcher- 
ship a sovereign princess, holding the position of one of the 
barons of the realm, and had her own tenants by feudal service 
to follow her standard to the wars, if she required. This explains 
the unusual circumstances of her body being covered with her 
shield bearing her coat of arms. She enjoyed honours only for a 
short time, and died in 1257. 1 

The dress which was usually worn with the wimple, and which 
is concealed in this monument by the shield, can be well seen 
on the effigy of a lady, probably a member of the family of 
Berkeley, which is in the Church of Tickenham, Somersetshire, 
on a long raised stone bench in the north aisle. This branch of 
the Berkeleys long resided at Tickenham Court. 

The monument is very beautifully executed, and, except a 
mutilation of the nose, is in excellent preservation (PI. XI). The 
lady wears a cote, high at the neck, and with long sleeves. Over this, 
a long surcoat with sleeves which end at the elbow. This falls in 
folds over the feet, and is tucked up under each arm, shewing the 
cote below it. A mantle hangs over the shoulders, and is fastened 
across the chest by two cords or bands, which are brought together 
under the hands, which are folded in prayer. This monument shows 
the manner in which the hair was dressed up at the time, being 
gathered up in a network at the top of the head, and concealed by 
a fillet, over which the the couvre chef falls. 2 

Somewhat similar to the last is the effigy of Lady Margaret, 
first wife of Thomas sixth Lord Berkeley (Plate XII). She was 
daughter of Roger Mortimer, Lord of Wigmore, created Earl of 
March, and she died May 5th, 1337. Smyth tells us "she was 

1 From 0. Morgan's Abergavenny, p. 72. 

2 I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. R. Paul for the drawing and 
description of this effigy. 

J 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

worshipfully buried in the Church of St. Augustine's Monastery, 
in the great tomb under the arch between the elder Chappie of 
our Lady, and the north aisle there." By her side is the effigy of 
her only surviving son, Maurice, 7th Lord Berkeley, who appears 
to have been devotedly attached to his mother's memory, and 
who gave " a house before the gate of St. Augustine's Monas- 
tery, with the garden and dovehouse thereof, and divers houses 
in brode street in Bristol, to pray in that Monastery, especially 
for the soule of his mother, the Lady Margaret." The wimple 
and gorget on the monument are so enlarged as to fall like 
a cape over the shoulders, but at the time the monument was 
executed this ugly fashion had almost passed away. The shoes 
are large and pointed, and after this time shoes became more 
like what we now know as such, and were much ornamented 
with gold, and silver embroidery. Previously they had the 
appearance of sandals, being slit across the instep, or in other 
places. In the reign of Rich. II. began the absurd extravagances 
in the fashion of shoes and boots, the toes of which were elongated 
till they reached a length which made them the subject of pro- 
hibitory statutes. Fashion, however, as usual, rushed into the 
opposite extreme, and in the 16th century the shoes were as wide 
at the toes as they had previously been narrow ; but from that 
time they began to assume their present form. 

Stockings were undoubtedly worn at a very early date, and 
were known as hose in Anglo-Saxon, and chausses in Norman 
times. The material of which they were made was of cloth, and 
it was not till the reign of Queen Elizabeth that we hear of black 
silk knitted stockings. 

The changes of fashion in the dress of women of the upper 
classes of society which took place about this period are exem- 
plified by the monument of Lady Joyce (Plate XIII.), wife of Sir 
John Joce, or Joyce, in Newland Church. Her effigy, with that 
of her husband, rests upon a high tomb in the South aisle, but 
this tomb is entirely modern, and of the worst possible design 
and execution. These effigies at the time of the " restoration " of 
the church were thoroughly scraped and cleaned so that some of 
the details of both figures are sadly mutilated and destroyed. 

nix 9 ^id 

Ladies' Costume in the Middle Ages. 


Lady Joyce died in 1362, and the dress in which she is repre- 
sented is one which became general in the reign of Edw. I IT., and 
to which Mr. Planche gives the name of the " sideless " garment, 
the arm-holes being so wide that the body of the dress is reduced 
to a few inches in breadth, both in front and at the back, and so 
deep that they show the girdle which encircles the cote below the 
hips, and he adds "if this be not a sur-cote I am unable to find 
any other name which applies to it." 1 This sur-cote, though tight 
fitting on the upper part, becomes fuller after it passes the hips, 
and falls in graceful folds over the feet, which it nearly covers. 
This appears to have been the style of most of the outer dresses 
in medieval times, by whatever name they are called, but how the 
effect was produced I am utterly at a loss to explain, for they do 
not show any plaits or gathers by which the extra quantity of 
material was introduced, and I think it would puzzle a 1 9th 
century dressmaker to make one of a similar pattern. Under 
this dress is worn a tight-fitting cote with tight sleeves, which have 
cuffs, but the hands are gone. Over the surcoat Lady Joyce wears 
a mantle which falls in folds on each side, and is held together 
across the chest by a very handsome jewelled fastening, one end 
of which descends below the waist ; it is of exactly the same 
pattern as the baldrick which encircles the jupon of her husband. 
In the 14th century the art of the goldsmith was in great request 
to adorn these belts, and they are of a most costly description. 
By the sumptuary laws of Edward III., and which extended to 
the 16th century, no one under the rank of knighthood, or not 
possessed of property to the amount of £200 per annum could 
wear belts ornamented with gold or silver. Lady Joyce wears a 
reticulated head-dress which had by this time superseded the 
wimple, and underneath it is an arrangement which looks as if it 
were hair padded or stuffed into a kind of net-work, but, if so, it 
must have been false hair, for underneath it is worn, quite close 
to the face, a cap which has a very narrow frill, and which comes 
down below the lady's ears. 

1 M. Viollet le Due says that this was originally an English fashion, and 
though it was retained as a state dress for over a century it is quite unknown 
what its original name was. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

In much the same dress as that just described is the effigy of 
Lady Berkeley (Plate XIV), 2nd wife of Thomas, 6th Lord. This 
lady was the daughter of Sir John Clyvedon, and widow of Sir 
Peter le Veel, Knt. She died March, 1385, and was buried with 
her husband in the parish church of Berkeley "in a faire monu- 
ment grated round with iron bars, under the second arch before 
the rood on the South side of the Church." 1 It was during the 
absence of Lord Thomas in Scotland, and when this lady was in 
charge of the castle, that the cruel murder of Edward II. took 
place, and as one looks at the stern hard face of the effigy, one 
can imagine that the "she wolf" of Berkeley was a woman of 
most determined mould. The borders of her sideless surcoat are 
trimmed with fur, and the front of the bodice faced with it. The 
effect produced by this arrangement giving the dress the appear- 
ance of what we call a ' jacket." At this period the use of fur 
as a trimming of dress was limited by the sumptuary law of 
Edward III., and no lady unless she was ennobled could wear 
any furs of " ermine, lettice, pure minever, or grey, except the 
wives of the Lord Mayor of London, Warwick, and other free 
towns, the gentlewomen belonging to the Queen, and the chief 
maiden attendants of a princess, Duchess, or Countess." Over 
her shoulders Lady Berkeley wears a long mantle fastened with 
cords which pass through eyelet holes or fermailes. Her shoes 
with pointed toes rest on a lion. 

From the beginning of the 15th to the close of the 16th cen- 
tury little alteration is to be noticed in the form of mantles, but 
during the latter half of the 15th century many of the effigies of 
ladies of noble birth represent them in mantles embroidered with 
their husband's armorial bearings, having their own embroidered 
on their surcoats. Unmarried ladies did not wear mantles, unless 
they were of high rank, neither did they cover their heads with 
the head-dresses we have described. They seem to have worn 
their hair long, and either confined in a net-work of gold or silver, 
or hanging loose with a fillet or wreath of flowers to keep it in 
its place. 

1 From Smyth's " Lives of the Berkeleys." 

Fleite A1V 


Ladies' Costume in the Middle Ages. 


Perhaps the most remarkable thing connected with female 
attire during the 15th century is the extraordinary variety in the 
head dresses, and the outrageous forms they assumed. Upon the 
brass of Margaret, wife of the 10th Lord Berkeley, can be seen 
the early form of one of the most remarkable of these head-dresses. 
This lady was the only child of Gerard Warren, Lord de Lisle, 
and her death took place in 1417. "She lyeth buried in the 
parish Church of Wotton under a faire tomb, by the side of her 
husband, to which tomb her bones were translated at her husband's 
death " ; so says Smyth, and he also tells us that she was a very 
mild and devout lady, and that her death so affected her husband 
that he went on a foreign pilgrimage, and never married again. 
She left an only daughter, whose marriage with Thomas Beau- 
champ, Earl of Warwick, was the beginning of the great Berkeley 
lawsuit. Upon her brass she is represented wearing a " sideless 
garment " which has a long flowing skirt. Her sleeves are tight, 
and are fastened with buttons. These common adjuncts of a 
woman's dress have had many vicissitudes of fashion. In Anglo- 
Saxon, or in early Norman times there was no use for buttons, 
as the style of drapery did not require them, but in the reign of 
Edw. I. the long, tight sleeves were buttoned from wrist to elbow, 
and the front of the surcote was fastened with them. They con- 
tinued to be used till the 14th century, when they were superseded 
by laces and points, but they appear again on the sleeves of gowns 
at the beginning of the 15th century. Cords and tassels for a 
time displaced them, but at the close of the 16th century they 
again came into use, and have so continued to the present time. 
Lady Berkeley wears a long mantle fastened with cord and 
tassels, the folds of which mingling with those of her dress entirely 
cover her feet, at which lies a small pug dog with a collar of 
bells round his neck. Her hair is taken off her forehead, and 
confined in a cawl of gold or silver network, termed " crespine," 
with jewels at the intersections. A small couvre chef is fastened 
on the top, showing the pin which holds it, and falls in folds at 
the back of her head. The next change in the crespine was to 
introduce small bunches at the sides, which soon developed into 
the horned head-dress, of which a remarkable example can be 


Transactions foil the Yeati 1891-92. 

seen on the brass of Lady Greyndour in Newland Church. 1 This 
lady died about 1445, and is clothed in a gown, 2 a dress which 
we first meet with in the reign of Richard II. Both in name and 
construction this is much like some modern dresses, and it is 
complete in itself, instead of being a sort of dual garment, as were 
most of its predecessors. 3 The cote was still worn under the gown, 
but it was not visible, and in no way contributed to the general 
effect as heretofore. The sleeves of Lady Greyndour's gown are 
very full, and are gathered into a loose band at the wrist. The 
collar is turned down at the shoulders, and an ornamented band 
encircles her waist, which is very short. It is remarkable that 
this part of a woman's body seems always to have been considered 
of a moveable nature at the will of fashion, for it migrates at 
different periods from the extreme of shortness under the arms, 
to the extreme of length over the hips. 

The head-dress of Lady Greyndour is one which was much 
worn during the reign of Henry VI. It is known as the heart- 
shaped, the mitre, and the horned head-dress, and it grew to 
preposterous dimensions. A story is related of the Queen of 
Charles VI. of France that she had her horned head-dress so tall 
as to be unable to go through the doors of the palace at Vincennes, 
till they were heightened to permit the free passage of herself and 
her ladies. In the next reign another fashion came in, and tur- 
bans were worn draped with long veils in fanciful folds, but it 
would be impossible in the small space at my disposal to describe 
all the variety of head gear which ladies adopted at this period. 

The effigy of Katherine, wife of Sir Thomas Berkeley, sister 
and coheir of John Buttetort, Esq., lies under a handsome Ber- 
keley shaped arch on the north side of the Sanctuary of St. 
Mark's Chapel, Bristol. She is dressed in a gown with long 
plain skirt, which is held at her feet by two little dogs. This 

1 Trans B. & G. Arch. Soc, Vol. VII., Plate XVT. 

2 Many names are used for ladies' dresses in old inventories and ward- 
robe accounts, but as most of them are not positively identified, I have 
confined myself to the terms — tunic and super-tunic, cote and surcote, pre- 
vious to the gown. 

3 " Tenice gowns" are mentioned in inventories and wardrobe accounts 
in the 13th century. — Planche, p. 219, " Hist, of Costume." 

Ladies' Costume in the Middle Aoes. 


gown has long plain sleeves, and is cut low at the neck, with a 
very wide turned-down collar, the ends of which are united below 
the waist, and are kept in place by a band. Above the low bodice 
is a plaited chemisette, or peplum, an article of dress which is 
supposed to represent the old gorget in a new form. Close round 
her neck the lady wears a necklace with pendant cross. This 
kind of ornament became general in the ] 5th century, both with 
and without pendants. Her head-dress is very curious, possibly 
unique ; a veil falls at the back of the head and is confined over 
the forehead by a stiff band with sides. (I refer my reader to 
Plate XV. as it is a difficult head-dress to describe.). I can find no 
satisfactory description of this kind of cap, but after looking over 
many illustrations of the period, I am inclined to think it may be 
the cap which was worn under the steeple head-dress, a covering 
which, originating in France, became fashionable in England 
about 1467. This remarkable structure was a kind of round cap, 
gradually tapering to a point, from which hung a long veil, some- 
times three-quarters of an ell in height, and often so long it 
required to be carried under the arm. It was known in France 
by the name of '• Hennons/ and to this day its descendants can be 
seen on the heads of Normandy peasants, when they don their 
gayest attire for some fete or solemnity. It is there called a 
' cauchoise.' Lady Berkeley's effigy lies by that of her husband, who 
died in 1416, but from the style of his armour, and from the fact 
that he is represented as wearing a collar of suns and roses, it is 
evident that the monument was erected at a later period. This 
well known badge of th.e house of York was not used till after 
1461, and both his armour and the lady's dress are as late as this 
date. Probably the monument was erected when Bishop Miles 
Salley reconstructed the chancel of the Mayor's Chapel in the late 
Perpendicular style of architecture, and before 1516, in which 
year he died. 1 

Another wonderful head-dress is shewn on the brass of the 
first wife of Thomas Baynham in Micheldean Church. 2 She died 
in 1477, and this head-dress had come into fashion a few years 

1 Trans. Bristol & Glouc, Vol, XV., p. 10. 

2 Ibid. Vol. VI., Plate 7. 


Transactions eor the Year 1891-92. 

previously. It was known as the butterfly, and was made of 
muslin, or some thin material, stiffened to resemble the wings of 
a butterfly. Under it was worn a cylindrical cawl or cap, in 
which the hair was confined, and which projected from the back 
of the head. The lady is dressed in a gown, cut low, and square 
at the neck, edged with fur, above which shows the chemisette or 
partlet. She has tight sleeves with large fur cuffs, and a fur 
edging to the bottom of her dress, which is confined hy a waist- 
band showing the buckle, and has a long pendant end. 

Alice, the second wife of Thomas Baynham, is also repre- 
sented on a brass in Mitcheldean Church. 1 She wears a gown 
much like her predecessor, but her sleeves are tight, and long 
enough to almost cover her hands. There is perhaps no part 
of a woman's dress which has gone through more changes of shape 
and size than her sleeves. Shortly after the Norman Conquest 
most extraordinary varieties are to be seen. At first a rage 
existed for very long sleeves, so long indeed, that they were tied 
up in knots to prevent their trailing on the ground. In the reign 
of Edward III. long strips of some material hung from the short 
tight sleeves of the sur-coat, and originally these were of cloth of 
gold, or other costly material, the edges of which were cut into 
shapes and devices, and were known as dagges. Probably these 
gave the idea of the long hanging sleeves of the reign of Rich. II., 
and which continued to be worn through the greater part of the 
15th century. In the early part of the next century sleeves were 
separate articles of dress, which could be taken off, or added by 
means of points or buttons. They were afterwards worn both 
tight and loose, and were slashed in every conceivable manner. 

Alice Baynham died in 1518, and upon her head is a kind of 
bonnet, which succeeded the butterfly head-dress about 1490, and 
which is known by the name of the " dog kennel," " diamond 
shaped," and pedemental head-dress, with which the pictures of 
the court of Henry VIII. have made us familiar. This again 
gave way to the k{ Paris head," a close cap with long lappets 
dependent behind, which in the reign of Edw. VI. was depressed 
in front like the cap now known as a " Mary Stuart." 
i Trans. Bristol & Glouc, Vol, VI., Plate 8. 

Ladies' Costume in the Middle Ages. 


In Fairford Church there is a rather small-sized, but beauti- 
fully executed effigy of the wife of Roger Ligon, Esq., who died 
in the latter half of the 16th century. She wears an early form of 
the " Paris head," her hair is brushed off her forehead, and she 
has a small cap with closely plaited frill. This may have been 
a "bon grace," an article which seems to have been worn with 
the " Paris head," but which is not at present identified. The 
skirt of her over-gown is open in front, and turned back so as to 
show the under-dress or petticoat, and which has five or six small 
flounces at the bottom of the skirt. The bodice of the over-gown 
is full, without sleeves, the arm-holes being bound round with a 
thick cord. The sleeves of the under-dress are striped longitu- 
dinally at the upper, and slashed at the lower part of the arm ; 
the hands and lowest part of the sleeve are gone. Over the 
bodice is a turned-down plain collar, the ends of which are con- 
fined round her waist by a thick cord. The partlet, or habit 
shirt, is plaited close to her chin, where it is met by the starched 
ruff, which from this time becomes a conspicuous feature in the 
dress of both men and women. From her waist is suspended 
a small book. Her feet are in broad-toed shoes, and are not 
resting upon the slab on which she lies, but are in the midst 
of multitudinous frilling of garments, an unreal and inartistic 
way of representing them, common at this period. 

A little later in this century is the effigy of Lady Katherine 
{Plate XVI. J, wife of Henry, 17th Lord Berkeley, and which is 
lying by that of her husband in the chapel on the South side of 
Berkeley Church. She wears the " Paris head " modified to allow 
her coronet to lie upon it, and has a very large ruff round the 
neck. Her gown appears to be of satin, or some soft material, 
with a band of embroidery round the skirt, which terminates with 
a narrow fringe. The bodice has a high pointed stomacher and 
long waist, and her tight sleeves have small ruffs round her hands. 
Over all she wears a state mantle, with a wide collar of fur, edged 
and lined with the same, and fastened close under her ruff by a 
long cord and tassels ; she wears over this a long jewelled chain, 
without pendant. Her feet are in rather pointed shoes, and rest 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

on a lion. This lady was the third daughter of Henry Howard, 
Earl of Sussex, who was beheaded on Tower Hill in the lifetime 
of his father, the Duke of Norfolk. She was a very remarkable 
woman. Personally good looking, she seems to have been proud and 
haughty, requiring the greatest deference from all her attendants. 
Skilful in French, and perfect in the Italian tongue, an admirable 
performer on the lute, her attainments were considerable, and in 
later life she studied natural philosophy and astronomy. Extrava- 
gant in her expenses, she supplied herself with money in a manner 
which her biographer describes thus : " Few fines or Incombes from 
the tenants were raised, and never any land sold, but she had a 
6th or 8th or tenth thereout unknown to her husband." Although 
she had £300 a year allowed for her dress and chamber expenses. 

Smyth has given us a very curious account of this lady's 
funeral written to Lord Berkeley, and as it contains many inter- 
esting matters referring to the mourning dress of ladies of that 
date, I venture to quote a part. " The funeral took place on 
Thursday, 20th May, 1596, being Ascention day, and her body 
was brought from Callowden, where she died, to Coventry, with 
great ceremony. At the time of the funeral a great train of 
persons had assembled, and were directed by Garter King at 
Armes and Chester herald thus to proceed to the Ch. of St. 
Michael. First went six of your principal yeomen in long black 
clokes, with bk. staves in their hands, next came 70 poor women 
in mourning gowns, and Holland kerchiefs, then 30 gentleman's 
servants in black coats, then followed the servants of gentlemen 
and Esquires in bk. clokes, next the servants of Knights in black 
clokes also. Then followed your lordship's yeomen, and after 
them your gentlemen, with some of the Lady Strange's inters- 
placed with them, yours being 74, whereof my self went as one 
of her Secretaries." 

After describing the order in which the rest of the attendants 
walked, he says : " Then came your Lordship's chaplain, and after 
them, and next before the coffin, went Chester herald as a necessary 
marshall to the better direction of the train. Then came the Coffin, 
and behind it was Carter in his kingly Coate of Armes, and the 
gentleman usher, next after them came lady Strange the principal 

Plate XVI 

Ladies* Costume in the Middle Ages. 


' mournerese ' in her gown, mantle, train, hood, and tippet of 
black, and in her Paris head, tippet, wimple, vaile, and barbe of 
fine linen, her train being bourne by Mrs. Audeley Denis appar- 
elled as an ' Esquiresse ' in her gown, and lined hood of black, 
with a pleated kerchief and barbe of lawn. Then came Mrs. 
Elizabeth Berkeley, "your daughter in law," and the Lady Carey, 
side by side, apparelled as Baronesses, and in all points suitable 
to the principal Mourneresse, save that their gowns were tucked 
up, and not borne. Then followed Mrs. Deveroux and lady Leigh, 
apparelled as knights' wives in their black gowns, hoods, and tip- 
pets, and in their round 'paryshead' boinegrace and barbes of fine 
lawn. Next came four Esquiresses apparelled as the trainbearer, 
save that they wantid hoods. Then came the gentlewomen in black 
gowns, kerchiefs, and barbes of lawn. And next came eight 
chambermaids, servants to the ladies aforesaid, in gowns and 
kerchiefs of lawns only." 

With all this, and much more state and pageant, the dead lady 
was borne to her last resting place, and one cannot help feeling 
what a happy change has come over the funeral arrangements of 
of the 19th century. However, the account is very interesting, 
as we get from the pen of one who knew every detail — an exact 
description of the mourning dress suitable for women of every rank 
at the end of the 16th century. The article which is called the 
" barbe " in this account was added to the wimple early in the 
15th century, it was a piece of linen closely plaited, and worn 
over or under the chin according to the rank of the wearer. The 
Queen and all ladies down to the degree of a baroness wearing it 
over, the others below the chin, while poor persons could only 
wear it on the lowest part of the throat. It was not till the reign 
of Edward III. that the first mention occurs of black cloths beinsr 
worn as mourning when the court wore black dresses for the 
death of John II. King of France, 1364. On some monuments of 
that period the attendants are represented on the side panels with 
black cloaks over their other coloured garments. 

It is not my intention to refer to the dresses of the 17 th 
century. They are too well known to require description, and 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

can be easily seen and studied in pictures and sepulchral effigies, 
but the artistic and devotional representation of the dead had 
passed away, and in place of the graceful figure with uplifted 
hands in attitude of rest and prayer, we meet with stiff elaborate 
copies of people alive kneeling at a prayer desk, or half reclining 
on a tomb, which perchance occupies the most prominent position 
in the sanctuary. 

The study of women's dress in mediaeval times is more than a mere 
desire to become acquainted with each passing variety of flounce 
and furbelow, for an accurate knowledge of the minute and gradual 
changes in costume will often be of great service to the antiquary, 
as it was well known that ladies were particular, especially in the 
16th century, that their head-dresses, girdles, and every small 
detail of their dress should be accurately represented on their 
monuments. Fashion is but a fleeting~cloud, but fashions carved 
in stone will last for ages, and it may be that a bit of carving on 
a corbel showing through the ivy which clothes the ruined wall j 
in which it rests, may give a clue to the history of the building 
when all other records have well nigh passed away. 

Door Frame at Ampney St. Mary. 




{Honorary Member of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland). 

This parish contains 1236 acres and about 120 inhabitants. The 
incumbency is a perpetual curacy, and is united to the rectory of 
Ampney St. Peter, an adjoining parish. Before the union both 
were perpetual curacies and under different patrons ; but at the 
union the Dean and Chapter of Gloucester, the patrons of St. 
Peter, gave up the great tithes and constituted the living a rectory. 
The presentation is made alternately by the two patrons. Before 
the Reformation the patronage of St. Mary was attached to the 
abbacy of Cirencester, but the patronage of St. Peter to the 
abbacy to Gloucester. Nearly all the 'population of the parish is 
at a distance from the church, and service is performed in it only 
four times a year. 

It is built of limestone, which is plentiful here, and consists of 
Nave and Chancel with a bell-cot on the E. gable of the Nave. 
The Nave is 39 ft. 5 ins. x 19 ft. internally, and the Chancel 
23 ft. 9 ins. x 12 ft. 10 ins. The entrance is in the S. wall of 
the Nave, within a porch, and there is a small doorway in the S. 
wall of the Chancel. 

The walls are of irregular thickness — mostly about 2 ft., and 
of rough masonry. 

In the N. wall of the Nave is the door-frame which is the 
chief subject of this notice. 

The doorway is now blocked up. It has jambs with a roll at 
the external angles, surmounted by a single stone 5 ft. J in. long, 
in form an irregular half octagon, the lower edge being horizontal ; 
on which are carved in low relief four figures of monsters. Leav- 
ing the blocking out of account, the clear opening would be 5 ft. 
11 ins. x 3 ft. 4 ins.; but it is evident that the jambs have been 
rebuilt and placed 7^ ins. nearer together than at first ; so that 
the opening was at first 4 ft. wide, and possibly more than 6 ft. 


Transactions foe, the Year 1S91-92. 

in height. The wall is about 2 ft. thick. The same form of head 
is at Elkstone, Gloucestershire. 1 

The font is of late Norman or Early- English work. The bowl 
is circular, 2ft. 1 J ins. in diameter, and 1ft. 1 Jin. deep externally, 
carved with zigzag ornament. 

The internal portion of the door-frame of the chancel has a 
horizontal head formed of a floriated sepulchral slab, somewhat 
mutilated, with the ornate face doorwards. 

For the following observations on the carving of the door-head 
I am indebted to Mr. Rom illy Allen : — 

" In Norman churches the most important piece of sculpture 
is usually placed over the principal doorway, either on a tympanum 
tilling up the space between the under side of the arch and the 
flat top of the opening, or on a lintel-stone sometimes made 
sufficiently strong by increasing the depth in the centre to render a 
relieving arch above unnecessary. Decorated tympana are far more 
common than decorated lintels, probably because the semi-circular 
space gives more room for the effective grouping of the figures 
than the long narrow space. It cannot be said that the figures 
on the lintel at Ampney St. Mary are well grouped, as there is 
an obvious want of balance in the composition. 

The subjects chosen for the decoration of tympana on lintels 
of doorways in the 12th century were quite as often as not taken 
from the mediaeval Bestiaries or other similar works, instead of 
from the Bible. During the first four or five centuries, a.d., 
Christian symbolism was in the main purely Scriptural, and the only 
animal forms introduced were those which had an obvious Scriptural 
meaning, such as the flock of Sheep tended by Christ, the Good 
Shepherd. In [the mosaics of the sixth century we see a new 
tendency beginning to develope itself in the use of non-scriptural 
symbols like the Phoenix, and from this time onwards zoomorphic 
decoration became more and more popular until the austere 
teachers of the Church were compelled to protest in very vigorous 
terms against the abuse of such things. No doubt when the 

1 See R. Allen's "Early Christian Symbolism," p. 162. See also ante 
Vol. IV., Plate I. 

Door Frame at Ampney St. Mary. 


Northern races were converted to Chiristiatny they already had 
a liking for zoomorphic ornament, and the opening up of all the 
sources of classical learning stimulated their imaginations still 

Thus to the mythical creatures with which their own folk-lore 
had acquainted them they were able to add the beasts both real 
and imaginary described by Ctesias, Pliny, and ^Elian. In medi- 
aeval times all science, including natural history, was directed 
from a secular into an ecclesiastical channel, and it is therefore a 
a matter of no surprise that the monkish writers should have 
seized upon all this material and turned it to account, by the 
compilation of moralized bestiaries, in which the characteristics, 
habits and stories about animals are made to symbolize Christian 
doctrines and qualities. The sculptures in Norman Churches of 
England show how widely read these treatises must have been, 
and how much the art of the 12th century was affected by the 
pseudo-religious natural history of the Bestiary. 

The subject represented on the lintel at Ampney St. Mary 
appears to be a Griffin and a Lion {PI. XVII.) The two creatures 
are facing one another, the lion being on the right and the griffin on 
the left. The tails are in each case curled round, passing between 
the two hind legs, and then in front of the body with the ends point- 
ing upwards. The mane of the lion and the feathers on the neck of 
the griffin are treated in the usual conventional way. The head 
of the lion shows the full face, but that of the griffin is in profile. 
The roll-moulding round the rectangular opening of the doorway 
instead of being continued right across the lower edge of the 
lintel, has a division in the centre, and the two ends of the mould- 
ing are each made to terminate in a beast's head, showing the full 
face The necks are ornamented with conventionality to indicate 
the texture of the skin covered with tufts of hair. This treatment 
of the moulding round Jbhe doorway is most unusual, and I cannot 
remember having seen anything similar elsewhere. It is difficult 
to say with any degree of certainty to what species of animal 
these two terminal heads belong. Possibly they are intended for 
lions, and seem to me to be used decoratively, and not to form 
part of the subject on the lintel above. 
Vol. XVI. k 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92, 

With regard to the symbolism of the lion and the griffin, 
assuming, of course, that we are right in supposing them to be 
these creatures, a few suggestions may be hazarded, but at most 
they can be little more than guesses. 

The subject must have a meaning, which was well understood 
at one time, as there are other instances where the same, or at all 
events very nearly the same, subject occurs ; namely, on tympana 
at Ridlington, 1 Rutland ; and Covington, 2 Huntingdonshire ; and 
on the fonts at Lincoln Cathedral ; and Darenth, 3 Kent. 

The bestiary tells us that the lion has three natures : (1) when 
pursued by the hunters he effaces with his tail all traces of the 
marks of his feet, symbolising the hidden manner in which Christ 
makes His influence felt so that the ignorant cannot find Him ; 
(2) the lion sleeps with his eyes open, as when Christ was buried 
His body slept but his Godhead was awake ; and (3) when the 
lioness brings forth a cub it is dead, and in this state she guards 
it until upon the third day the father comes and brings it to life 
by breathing in its face, typifying the Resurrection of Christ after 
three days. 

The griffin is described in some of the bestiaries, but is not 
found in the most common series. It is described as a bird living 
in the deserts of India, which is so strong that it can fly away 
with a live cow in its beak to feed its young, thus signifying the 
Devil who carries off the soul of the wicked man to the deserts of 
Hell. 5 

The griffin has quite a literature to itself, and an admirable 
account of the literary sources whence the mediaeval artist ob- 
tained their ideas on the subject will be found in the " Encyclo- 
paedia Metropolitan " (vol. xix., p. 743). Herodotus tells the story 
of the griffins and the guarded gold, and their perpetual enemies 
the one-eyed Arimaspians. Ctesias mentions them, and JElian 
says that they easily vanquish all animals except the lion and the 
elephant. The griffin may be traced from its source in the books 
of the early Greek writers, through the Latin authors, like Pliny, 

1 Gentleman's Magazine, 1796, p. 187. 

2 " Early Christian Symbolism," p. 371. 

3 Ibid., p. 292. 4 Ibid., p. 342. 5 Ibid., p. 370. 

Door Frame at Ampney St. Mary. 


to the mediaeval romances of Alexander and Sir John Mandeville's 
travels. Milton keeps the memory of the griffin green in his 
Paradise Lost, and we can never forget him as long as the hideous 
monument which replaced Temple Bar is allowed to mark the 
boundary of the City of London. Guillim, in his " Display of 
Heraldry," makes a ponderous joke on the subject that may be 
worth quoting. He says : Sable, a Griffon sergeant, or, is the 
coat of the Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, being one of the 
Inns of Court. The erecting of the fore legs of the Griffon is an 
evident testimony of his readiness for action." 

Sir Thomas Brown throws some light on the symbolism of the 
Griffin by suggesting that it signifies a guardian, its ears imply- 
ing attention, it wings celerity of execution, its lion-like shape 
courage, and its hooked bill tenacity. 

The Egyptian griffin is the symbol of Osiris. In Scotland the 
griffin is represented on early sculptured stones at Kettins, For- 
farshire ; Meigle, Perthshire ; St. Andrew's and Jedburgh. 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 


THE HISTORY OF THE POPES, from the close of the Middle Ages, 
drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and other original sources. 
From the German of Dr. Ludwig Pastor, Professor of History in the 
University of Innsbruck. Edited by Frederick Ignatius Antrobus, of 
the Oratory. Vol. II. London : John Hodges, 1891. 

We printed a full notice of the first volume of this trustworthy work extend- 
ing from Pope Clement V. to Eugenius IV. , in our last volume. The present 
volume is prefaced with a note from the pen of the late Cardinal Manning. 
His eminence states that Professor Pastor comes to us with a singular and 
exceptional weight of authority on account of the general approval of Pope 
Leo XIII. of the first volume, and the strict injunctions given by his Holiness 
to the five Cardinals whom he had appointed as a commission to oversee the 
publication of historical matters contained in the Vatican Archives, and 
because no author, as yet, had written the History of the Popes with such 
copious evidence drawn not only from the Vatican records since they were 
thrown open by Pope Leo XIII. , but from a multitude of other sources 
hitherto never examined. And the notes and references given by our author 
shew the prolific use he has made of the manifold advantages so liberally 
placed within his reach. And these notes also testify to the trustworthy 
character of his history. Moreover, "the Holy Father charged the Com- 
missioners to see that the History of the Holy See and of the Church should 
be written with absolute truth as the only just and imperishable principle 
that the historica Veritas ought to be supreme, of which we have a divine 
example in Holy writ, where the sins, even of Saints, are as openly recorded 
as the wickedness of sinners." 

The second volume opens with a representation of the unsettled and un- 
satisfactory condition of the Church and the Roman States on the death, in 
1447, of Eugenius IV., and of the threatening attitude of the King of Naples, 
and of the populace and Republican party in Rome. Of course, the first 
step to be taken was the election of a new Pope. The circumstances were 
very critical. It was most important, indeed most necessary, that the 
election should be unanimous, and there were many disturbing causes in 
the Conclave, but at last, Cardinal Tommaso Parentucelli, of Bologna, who 
had received the red-hat only ten weeks before, to the astonishment of the 
whole College, was unanimously elected. As the Cardinal of Portugal was \ 
leaving the Conclave he was asked whether the Cardinals had chosen a Pope. 
" No ; the Pope has been chosen by God, not by the Cardinals," was his 
reply. The Sienese ambassador, after exhorting his countrymen to render 
thanks to Almighty God that so distinguished and holy a Pontiff had been 
given to the Church, continued in the following words : " Truly in the 
election God has manifested his power, which surpasses all human prudence 


Transactions for the Yjsar 1891-92. 

and Wisdom." All rejoiced that a Cardinal who had ever held aloof from 
party strife, against whom no one had aught to say, and who was known to 
all, should have been unanimously raised to the highest position. Parentu- 
celli's election, the Professor remarks, had, however, a wider importance. 
It marked a chief turning point in the history of the Papacy, for with him 
the Christian Renaissance ascended the Pontifical throne. 

Parentucelli was born at Sarzana in 1397. His father was a skilful 
physician, but by no means wealthy, and died while Tommaso was very 
young, leaving his widow very scantily provided for, so that it was imposs- 
ible for the widow to continue the boy at Bologna University. She also 
re-married, and had several children by her second husband. Being thus 
left to his own resources, he was fortunate in obtaining an engagement as 
tutor in the family of a Florentine nobleman, and afterwards in that of Palla 
de Strozzi, the Nestor of the learned Florentine aristocracy. The two years 
spent in this city, which at that time was the centre of the Humanistic 
learning, were of the greatest advantage to Tommaso. It gave him the 
opportunity of pursuing his studies, developing the powers of the mind, 
forming that taste in literature and art, and that enthusiasm which after- 
wards bore such abundant fruit, and brought him into contact with all the 
greatest scholars of the day. 

During his stay here he saved sufficient money to enable him to return 
to Bologna and resume his studies in the University there, where he took a 
Master's degree in Theology. His brilliant abilities and excellent conduct 
brought him under the notice of the saintly Bishop of that city, Niccolo 
Albergati, who took him into his service. Three years later he was ordained 
priest, and he remained in the service of this distinguished prelate for 20 
years, until his death, being, indeed, his constant companion, his confidential 
servant and the Major Domo of his household and of his ecclesiastical es- 

Upon Albergati's elevation to the purple, Parentucelli accompanied him 
to Rome, and thence, with the Papal Court, to Florence, where he was 
brought again into contact with the representatives of both the Christian 
and Heathen Humanists, and in their social gatherings and disputations he 
took part. It is recorded that after leaving his Cardinal at home he used to 
come, riding rapidly on a mule and accompanied by two servants, to take 
his part eagerly in their disputations. He was employed by the Papal Court 
in the most important negotiations, and Eugenius IV. , in recognition of his 
eminent services, conferred upon him the Bishopric of Bologna. But the 
city being in a state of revolt, he was rewarded with a Cardinal's Hat in 

Cardinal Parentucelli on his election as Pope, mindful of his respect, 
esteem, and affection for his old master, Nicolo Albergati, assumed the name 
of Nicholas V. At the time he ascended the throne Europe was in a most 
disturbed condition. England and France were at war. In Germany the 
authority of Frederick III., King of the Romans, on whose fidelity the Pope 
could thoroughly rely,, was shaken, and a great part of Bohemia was 
severed from the Church. The East was in a still worse condition. In 
Ecclesiastical affairs the case was no better, rather worse. 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 


On his election Nicholas appeared as the Prince of Peace, and his con- 
ciliatory manner, tact, and prudent measures drew all men towards him. 
His predecessor waged deadly warfare against the enemies of the Church, 
but Nicholas V. desired the work which had been begun by force should be 
completed by gentle measures. And in this spirit he succeeded in winning 
all his opponents. He succeeded in inducing the King of Naples to send 
four ambassadors to Rome for the purpose of coming to an agreement with 
the Holy See, and of taking part in the ceremonies of the Pope's coronation. 
When the German ambassadors congratulated him upon his elevation, the 
Pope gave them assurances calculated to set all misgivings completely at 
rest. " I will," he said, " not only approve and confirm whatever my pre- 
decessor agreed upon with the German nation, but will also hold to it and 
carry it out. The Roman Pontiffs have stretched their arms out too far, 
and have left scarcely any power to the other Bishops, and the Basle people 
have crippled the hands of the Apostolic See too much." 

An interesting account is given of the grand pageant of the procession at 
the Coronation of Pope Nicholas, for which we must refer to Professor 
Pastor's pages [33]. It is remarked that it was long since Rome had seen 
such festal days as those with which the coronation of Nicholas was cele- 
brated. Ambassadors came from all parts of Italy, and afterwards from 
Hungary, England, France, and Burgundy, to promise obedience to the Holy 
See. The Florentine ambassadors were received with marked favour and 
distinction. They entered Rome attended by 120 horse, and were received 
by the Pope in a public consistory. The hall was crowded, and Granozzo 
Manetti made an address which lasted for an hour and a quarter. The Pope 
listened with closed eyes, in perfect stillness, so that one of the attendant 
chamberlains thought it well to touch him many times gently on the arm, 
believing him to have fallen asleep. But as soon as Manetti had finished, 
Nicholas V. at once arose, and, to the astonishment of all, answered every 
point of the long discourse. The circumstance made a great impression, and 
tended materially to extend the fame of the Pope. The able manner in 
which Nicholas V. answered the addresses of the different ambassadors who 
came to pay him homage produced the greatest effect. A report soon went 
forth through the various countries that Rome had as Pope a man of incom- 
parable intellect, learning, amiability and liberality ; and these were truly 
the qualities which won for Nicholas V. the appreciation of the world. 

We have entered so fully into the characteristics by which the new Pope 
was marked to enable our readers to recognise how different from those of 
his predecessors were the character and abilities of the man by whom the 
Church and a great portion of the world were now governed. We must, 
however, leave this part of the subject, and give some attention to political 

In the first place we must briefly revert to the Synod of Basle, the object 
of which, it will be remembered, was to change the monarchial constitution 
of the Papal States, but the scheme was defeated by Pope Eugenius IV., at 
which the few members who remained as Basle were greatly exasperated, 
and first they suspended Pope Eugenius and afterwards pronounced a formal 
sentence of deposition against him as a heretic, because he refused to obey 
the council. They went further and elected Duke Amadeus of Savoy Pope 

136 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

by the votes of one cardinal and eleven bishops, and he took the name of 
Felix V. Many thereupon, from a horror of Radicalism and disunion, 
espoused the cause of Eugenius. 

The power of the Basle Synod now steadily declined, and, happily, it did 
not continue long. Difficulties still existed, in 1447, with the German 
Empire. King Frederick III., and a few of the Princes provisionally recog- 
nised the Pope, but others favoured the Synod of Basle, and eventually it 
was decided that Nicholas V. should be proclaimed throughout Germany as 
the lawful Pope ; and that he, on his part, should confirm the Concordat 
entered into by his predecessor. This Concordat was signed at Vienna on 
13th July, 1448. 

The anti-Pope and his adherents now saw that any further opposition to 
the authority of Nicholas V. was useless, and Felix expressed his willingness 
to renounce his papal dignity ; and on 18th January, 1449, the Pope issued 
a Bull revoking all disabilities affecting Felix V., the Synod of Basle, and 
its adherents, their possessions and dignities, and the Moribund Council on 
the 10th April, was induced on the fiction of a vacancy of the Holy See, 
elected as Pope Tommaso of Sarzano, and in the same month formally dis- 
solved itself ; and this ending of the Basle Schism caused the greatest 
rejoicings. Pope Nicholas acted with the greatest liberality to the late 
anti-Pope. He bestowed upon him the dignity of Cardinal of Sancta 
Sabina, made him Papal Legate, and conferred several other dignities upon 
him, with a pension from the Apotolic Chamber. He died, however, on the 
7th January, 1451. Dr. Pastor states his opinion that the restoration of the 
Papal authority was materially promoted by Nicholas V.'s perfect freedom 
from nepotism, and the care which he exercised in the creation of Cardinals, 
and, as an example, mentions that of the gifted Nicholas de Cusa, who united 
moral worth with intellectual qualities of the highest order. 

The restoration of peace to the Church after so long a period of conflict 
appeared to Nicholas V. a suitable occasion for the proclamation of a 
universal Jubilee, and, notwithstanding the difficulties arising from war 
and pestilence, on the 19th of January, 1449, the Jubilee was proclaimed 
throughout Christendom, amid great rejoicing. Millions of people congre- 
gated at Rome, and caused great difficulties, but, for details, we must refer 
to Dr. Pastor's pages. We may simply remark here that in addition to 
the plague, which broke out among the teeming multitudes, a still more 
terrible calamity occurred, by which hundreds, perhaps thousands, of people 
were plunged in the Tiber, to the overwhelming consternation and grief of 
the Pope. 

Though the spirit which ruled the Council of Basle had been quelled in 
the greater part of Europe through the religious zeal, tact, and energy of 
Nicholas V. it still smoldered beneath the surface in Germany and Bohemia, 
where the Hussite heresy was so deeply rooted as to appear again after many 

The Pope now turned his attention to the question of Reform, but in 
consequence of the innumerable difficulties which supervened, nothing ef- 
fective had yet been done. He selected Cardinal Nicholas de Cusa, of whom 
we have spoken above, to send as a missionary into the two countries we 
have just named. Cardinal Cusa was a prelate renowned for his learning 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 137 

and purity of life. He was now commissioned to publish the Indulgence of 
the Jubilee, and to labour for the pacification of the kingdom, especially for 
the conclusion of the contest between the Archbishop of Cologne and the 
Duke of Cleves, and for the re-union of the Bohemians with the Church, but 
the chief object of his mission was to raise the tone of ecclesiastical life, and 
thoroughly to reform moral abuses in Germany. For carrying out this work 
he was appointed Legate in that country, with ample powers, and even 
authority to hold Provincial Councils, 

The Cardinal understood the root of the malady with which the Church 
in Germany was afflicted. A Synod was formed for the purpose of strength- 
ening the allegiance of Germany to the Pope, whose general recognition of 
Pope Nicholas V., was of but recent date, and by a thorough reform of 
the relaxed religious orders. It was decreed by the Synod, that " every 
Sunday henceforth all priests are, at Holy Mass, to use a prayer for the 
Pope, for the Bishop of the Diocese, and the Church." By this rule not only 
each Bishop, but each individual priest, was obliged weekly to renew his 
solemn profession of Communion with the Pope, and the consciousness of 
Ecclesiastical unity was rendered more vivid. An indulgence of fifty days 
was granted for its exact obedience. 

This politic measure was most effective. It bound the clergy of this vast 
province by the closest ties to the Holy See, and formed a powerful check 
against Schismatical movement. 

In March, 1451, the Cardinal Legate issued a circular letter to all Bene- 
dictine Abbots and Abbesses of the Province of Salsburg informing them, 
that, in virtue of the Papal commission, he had appointed Martin, Abbot of 
the Scotch Foundation at Vienna ; Lorenz, Abbot of Maria Zell ; and 
Stephen, Prior of Melks, Apostolic Visitors of their Order. Having God 
before their eyes, and without regard to any other consideration, they were 
carefully and exactly to investigate and report upon the condition of the 
convents. In the event of resistance they were to invoke the aid of the 
secular arm, and to apprize the Legate, so that he might take all proper 
proceedings. They were, above all things, to insist upon the observance of 
the three essential vows, of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Dispensations 
accorded in former visitations were, without exceptions, revoked as contrary 
to the rule. A plenary indulgence, on the condition of the performance of 
an appointed penance, was to be granted to those religious who by their 
lives shewed themselves worthy of it. The document concludes by exhorting 
all concerned to receive the visitors with honour, and unreservedly to make 
known everything to them. All, without distinction of rank, were to be 
regarded as excommunicate, and their monasteries as under an interdict, in 
cases of disobedience, after the lapse of three days following the service of 
the monition required by the canons. 

Similar measures were adopted for the reform of the Canons Regular of 
St. Augustine by other visitors. 

While Nicholas de Cusa was thus laboring in northern Germany the 
celebrated Minorite preacher, St. J ohn de Capistram, was equally zealous in 
the southern and eastern parts. 

The Cardinal Legate during these proceedings for the reform of the 
Religious Houses was not neglecting the religious instruction of the people. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

He, in his own person, presented the picture of a holy life, and he deemed 
it the duty of those who held the highest place in the Church to exercise 
the office of preachers, and he everywhere proclaimed the word of God to 
both clergy and laity, and his practice agreed with his preaching. " His 
example," it is said, " was even more powerful than his sermons," and it 
appears that John de Capistram was even a more powerful preacher than 
the Cardinal. The effect of their sermons was indeed marvellous. But all 
this was not done without serious difficulties. Many supporters of the 
Basle schism remained in Germany and Bohemia, and did their worst in 
opposition. It is said that " the work done by Cardinal Cusa as Legate in 
Germany and Low Countries may be looked upon as the most glorious of 
his well-spent life." 

The next matter that engaged the Pope's attention was the coronation 
in Rome of King Frederick III. as Emperor, and to this was added, at the 
same time, his marriage to Donna Leonora, daughter of the King of Portu- 
gal. The Pope at first was not at all in favour of this design, but as the 
King insisted upon carrying it out the Pope yielded, and both solemnities 
were celebrated with the greatest pomp and rejoicing. Wherever the King 
appeared he was received with the utmost reverence and respect. On his 
arrival at Florence the clergy came to meet him outside the city, bearing 
the Host, and all knelt, and with them noble ladies and maidens, all decked 
out and adorned with the best that they had, and all received the King on 
their knees ; and with them a multitude of common folk, men, women and 
children. For the particulars of magnificent pageants and processions we 
must again refer to Dr. Pastor's pages. Frederick expected to derive greatly 
increased power and influence from this advancement to the imperial dignity, 
but he was disappointed. He was neither in power nor character a fitting 
representative of the highest dignity in Christendom. 

The chapter relating to the Pope's patronage of the Renaissance in Art 
and Literature is one of very great interest. We have already noticed [ante 
p. 134] that from his youth the Pope had manifested an ardent love of learn- 
ing, and for the ideal in Art in all its forms. During his residence in 
Florence he took an active interest in the social meetings and disputations 
of the Humanists, both heathen and christian. After his election as Pope, 
when the affairs of the Church and the States of the Church had become 
settled, and abundant treasure had flowed into his coffers with full confi- 
dence in the truth and power of the christian religion, he thought himself 
justified in indulging his taste, he placed himself at the head of the Re- 
naissance in Literature and Art. He formed a grand conception to rebuild 
Rome and make it the centre of the Church and of Literature and Art. He 
began his rebuilding on a most magnificent scale, and the collection of a 
grand library, upon which he lavished enormous sums of money. He spared 
no expense. He gathered around him the most learned men and accom- 
plished artists from all countries. Though himself a sincere christian, he 
was less scrupulous than he ought to have been as to the characters of the 
persons he admitted to his service. We must, however, pass over this part 
of our subject and refer our readers to Professor Pastor's volume, observing 
that we think this chapter the most interesting in it. 

The conspiracy in 1453 to overthrow the temporal sovereignty, and assas- 
inate the Pope and the Cardinals if they attempted to offer any resistance, 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 


naturally caused great alarm and excitement. The traitor was a man of an 
ancient family, and one who had rendered good service to the State, but he 
was one of the false humanists. He and some of his associates were arrested, 
tried and hanged. It greatly alarmed and shocked the timid and impress- 
ionable Pope. From this time he lost all confidence. All his magnificent 
undertakings on behalf of Art and Learning ceased. His peace of mind was 
gone. He became melancholy, reserved, and inaccessible, the conspiracy 
casting a gloom over his once cheerful temper, which had already been 
shaken by serious illness. He had scarcely recovered from this shock when 
another terrible blow fell upon him on hearing that Constantinople had been 
taken by the Turks. 

Whilst Pope Eugenius was at Ferrara after quitting the Council of Basle 
on the 4th March, 1439, the Greek Emperor, John Palseologus, with a great 
train of dignitaries and theologians, appeared, and four days afterwards the 
Greek Patriarch arrived. Eusebius had previously convened the members 
of the assembly to a solemn congregation to discuss the dogmatical division 
between the two branches of the Catholic Church. The discussions con- 
tinued for more than a year, during which the Synod had been adjourned to 
Florence, where the Greeks, at length, gave way, and a document, in which 
the conditions of union were laid down, was signed by all present, on 5th 
July, 1439, with the exception, Professor Pastor says, of some bitter op- 
ponents among the Greeks, and the following day it was solemnly read in 
the Cathedral. 

There was great rejoicing that the great schism between the East and 
the West was thus healed, but alas ! the union was very brief. When the 
Greeks returned to Florence it was found impossible to get the decree 
ratified. The Greek priests and people manifested the most violent rage 
and hatred against the Romans, whom they designated as Schismatics, pro- 
testing they would rather receive the Turban in the street than the Tiara. 
They had not long to wait. Mahomet was at the gates with 160,000 men at 
his back, whilst the Greek force did not number 7000. Mahomet found a 
house divided against itself, and the natural consequence ensued. The 
neighbouring Christian Princes were much in the same condition, whilst the 
European Sovereign powers were either at war among themselves or on the 
verge <of it. The Pope only sent reinforcements, and they were too late to 
render assistance. The Emperor himself was the only man who shewed 
any courage. He made an heroic defence, but was slain, and the Turks 
entered the city on the 29th May, 1453, and its fall, when known, spread 
consternation throughout Europe. 

It has been said that grief for this event, and the terrible calamities 
arising out of it, killed Pope Nicholas V., but Professor Pastor tells us that 
this may have been an exaggeration. Doubtless, though he had been very 
seriously ill for some months, the agitation and anxiety consequent upon 
these troubles acting upon his sensitive mind, probably hastened his end. 
He had succeeded in the great object which he had set before himself on 
his accession to the throne, the establishment of peace within his dominions, 
but the conspiracy of Porcaro aroused the old spirit of revolution, and 
caused him very great anxiety, and in the night between the 24th and 25th 
March, 1454-5, he was taken to his Rest. 

140 Notices op Recent Archaeological Publications. 

The Pope's death had been considered imminent for some two or three 
weeks before it occurred, and those most interested in it were secretly 
making their arrangements. As the time approached great excitement pre- 
vailed. The whole city was in an uproar, and the population rife for a revolt. 
It was therefore necessary that all the preliminaries for the election of a new 
Pope should be accomplished as soon as possible. The Conclave opened 
on the 4th April. On the day of the Popes' death the sacred college consisted 
of 20 members, of whom six were absent, but one of them returned in time 
for the election. On the occasion of this election, as on the last, nationality 
was of little consequence. The opposing factions consisted of the two great 
families, the Colonna and the Orsini. We shall pass over the details of the 
election, merely observing that the Colonna sought to gain adherents by 
prudence and affability, whilst the Orsini strengthened their material 
power. The Cardinals were greatly divided. Three scrutinies failed to give 
any decided result. Each portion was strong enough to prevent the success 
of the other, but not to attain its own. An excited mob was clamouring 
at the door. In this dilemma it was proposed to elect a neutral candidate, 
but this could not be agreed to, and, finally, to postpone the contest it was 
agreed to elect an old man whose life was nearly at an end, and on the 
morning of the 8th of April a Spanish Cardinal, the aged Alfonso Borgia, 
was declared elected by accession, and he took the name of Calixtus III. 

The new Pope had done good service in many ways. He is represented 
as an old man of an honourable and virtuous life, austere towards himself, 
and amiable and indulgent towards others, and the poor and needy never 
sought his help in vain. His whole demeanour was marked by great sim- 
plicity ; splendour and pomp being most distasteful to him. His election, 
however, was at first by no means popular because he was a foreigner, but 
happily the feeling soon wore off. On the 20th April he was crowned 
according to the ancient custom, after which followed the homage of the 
Christian Princes on the 24th May, on which occasion Callixtus declared 
* ' his determination to combat the foes of the Christian faith and to re- 
conquer New Rome, not sparing even his own life in the cause, although 
he deemed himself unworthy to win the Martyr's Crown." 

The jealousies and dissensions among the European Princes, which pre- 
vented their combination for the defence of Constantinople in the time of 
Nicholas V. continued to the accession of Calixtus, and the difficulties were 
aggravated by the turbulance of the Roman populace. The Pope, however, 
as we have seen above, was determined to recover that city and to drive the 
Turks out of Europe, if it were possible, and he made a solemn vow to that 
effect, and repeatedly declared that next to the attainment of eternal life he 
desired nothing so ardently as the accomplishment of this vow. The 
enthusiasm with which he entered upon this contest was astonishing for a 
man of his age. No difficulties, no obtacles, no disappointments, no treachery 
on the part of others, affected his zeal or courage. Professor Pastor says 
"any one who has had the opportunity of looking over the 38 thick folio 
volumes in the Secret Archives of the Vatican, which contain the Acts of 
Calixtus III.'s short Pontificate, must be amazed at the immense energy 
manifested by the aged and sickly Pontiff. He mentions, moreover, two 
volumes preserved in the State Archives, the first beginning with the words 
"In nomine domini Amen." And he adds, "these forty volumes are far 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications, 141. 

from containing all the Acts of the Pontiff. Besides these a number of 
volumes of the Acts of Calixtus III. have recently been found in the Archives 
of the Lateran. 

The Pope's first step was the solemn publication of a general crusade for 
the recovery of Constantinople and the expulsion of the Turks from Europe, 
and he despatched envoys to all Christian states, great and small, urging 
their Rulers to unite with him in this great undertaking, and to contribute 
liberally to the expenses of the war. He also claimed the assistance of the 
Religious Orders requiring the Heads of all the Orders respectively imme- 
diately to give up all other engagements and devote themselves to preaching 
the Crusade. 

Many of the Kings and Rulers affected to enter warmly into the under- 
taking. But alas ! the duplicity of man. All made excuses of one kind or 
other, and some appropriated the moneys they had received, or which had 
been entrusted to them for the purposes of the expedition, to their own use. 
The only bright spot which cheered the heart of the Pope was the great 
victory at Belgrade. 

Mahomet, after the capture of Constantinople, determined to extend his 
conquests to Servia and Hungary, which was the power he most dreaded, 
and in June, 1456, invested Belgrade, the bulwark of Vienna, with an army 
of 150,000 men. Want of space forbids our entering into the spirited details 
connected with this expedition. Suffice it to say that the Turkish army 
was twice defeated before Belgrade with enormous slaughter, and with the 
loss of all his material of war. It was defended by the heroic conduct of a 
force hastily raised by that famous Hungarian, Hunyadi, consisting of 7000 
men, composed chiefly of poor citizens and peasants, monks, hermits, and 
students, armed with axes, pikes, flails, pitch-forks, and such other rural 
weapons as they could collect. The generalship of Hunyadi, seconded by 
the zeal of St. John Capistram, did the rest. 

The glorious victory won by Christian arms cheered the heart of the 
Pope. He hoped it would arouse the Christian Princes from their sluggish 
and selfish lethargy, but no ! they remained as indifferent as before. The 
Pope's courage, however, failed not. He was faithful and courageous to the 
cause unto death, which occurred on 6th August, 1458. 

Calixtus III. had one grievous fault. His Nepotism exceeded that of any 
previous Pope. The lucrative dignities and offices which he conferred upon 
his unworthy nephews were very numerous, and enabled them to amass great 
wealth, but these gifts were exceeded by the shameless immorality and in- 
solence of these worthless men, though the eldest, Pedro, managed to conceal 
his flagrant wickedness from the Pope. Both were raised to the purple, and 
the Pope granted them his own name " Borgia," which in them became de- 
tested. Except for this gross nepotism, Professor Pastor says, " Calixtus III. 
deserves high praise, more especially for the energy, constancy, and purpose 
\ which he displayed in dealing with the burning question of the day — the 
Protection of Western Civilization from the Turkish power. In this matter 
he gave a grand example to Christendom, and it is to be observed that in 
the midst of the military and political interests which claimed so large a 
share of his time and attention he did not neglect the internal affairs of the 
Church and vigorously opposed heresies." 

142 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

As soon as it was known that the Pope was in extremis, Pedro de Borgia, 
knowing how greatly and justly he was detested by the Romans, and that 
by the Pope's death his life would not be safe for an hour, with great diffi- 
culty made his escape from the city, and fled for his life. His brother and 
the other Spaniards who had flocked into Rome followed his example or 
concealed themselves. 

The Cardinals before the end of July had entered into negotiations as to 
who should be successor to Calixtus in the chair of St. Peter, and unani- 
mously came to the conclusion that Domenico Caprani, Cardinal of Fermo, 
whose moral purity and many rare qualities, which were known to all men, 
should be elected ; but, to the great grief of everyone, he died a few days 
after Calixtus, and before he could be elected. "Two days later," Dr. 
Pastor says, "the Conclave began, and from it issued as Pope a Cardinal 
distinguished alike as a Statesman and an Author, who had once been 
Secretary to the Cardinal of Fermo. 

" The Gaunts "). By W. R. Barker, Member of the Council of the City and 
County of Bristol. Illustrated. Bristol : W. C. Hemmons, 1892. 

This is a very interesting and carefully written volume. It is divided into 
two Parts : Historical and Descriptive. As to the first Mr. Barker tells 
us that the Hospital of St. Mark was founded by Maurice de Gaunt, who 
died in 1230, s.p. He was the grandson of Robert Fitz Harding, the first 
Baron Berkeley of Berkeley Castle, and he granted the Manor of Billeswick, 
in Gloucestershire, close to Bristol, for its support. He was succeeded by 
his nephew Robert de Gournay the son of Eva de Gournay the half-sister 
of Maurice and sole heir of Hawise daughter of Robert de Gournay and first 
wife of Robert de Were the father of Maurice. Mr. Barker considerately 
shews this somewhat complicated pedigree in a tabular form. 

With reference to the History, Mr. Barker traces it from the grant of 
the endowment down to the surrender of the House to the King in 1534. 
The first two charters he prints do not at first sight appear to have but a 
very slight connection with the Hospital of Billleswick. It is a grant, by a 
charter undated, of the Manor of Poulet and some other lands and tene- 
ments with 40 marks of silver by Maurice de Gaunt to God and to the 
Church of St. Augustine, near Bristol, and to the Canons Regular there 
serving God for the good of the soul of the said Maurice and for the souls of 
his father and mother, his wives, and all his ancestors and successors ; and 
he ordained that the said lands and tenements, &c, shall be in free and 
perpetual alms for one hundred poor in Christ who are to be recipients, and 
one chaplain, who shall celebrate the divine offices for the faithful, in the 
cleemosynaria, which I have built, every day in the year. 

As stated above, this charter is not dated, but Mr. Barker has, from 
internal evidence, assigned its date, approximately, to about 1220. William, 
the son of John Harptree, the first witness to the charter, died ante 1231, 

Maurice de Gaunt died in 1230, and was succeeded by his nephew, 
Robert de Gurnay who, apparently immediately afterwards, confirmed, in 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 143 

general terms, his uncle's grant. This charter of confirmation also is undated, 
but among the names of the witnesses is that of Anselm, Bishop elect of St. 
David's. This Bishop was elected in 1228, and was consecrated in March, 

1230, so that he must have witnessed the charter between those dates. 

It will be observed that by these charters the lands and tenements were 
vested, absolutely, in the Abbots and Canons of St. Augustine's together 
with the control of the Brethren for whose support they were granted. The 
deed, or document, transferring these possessions to the Hospital is missing. 
Mr. Barker infers that there was a distinction between the Hospital and the 
Chapel, and that the eleemosynaria was distinct from the latter, but we 
would ask did not the eleemosynaria, or almshouse, which the founder says 
he had built, embrace the chapel. It seems to us inconceivable that the 
religious house was destitute of a chapel. Possibly, at first, the chapel 
might have been only a temporary one. 

The next record shows that the whole property had become absolutely 
vested in Robert de Gurnay, who by a charter said to be dated in the 61st 
year of Henry III., granted the same to the Hospital, but there is a serious 
error here which appears to be due to Dugdale, and is quoted without 
remark. Henry III. died early in his 57th regnal year, viz., 16th Nov. 
1272. But our difficulties do not end here. The name of the first person 
who witnesses this charter is that of Radolph, Bishop of Chichester and 
Lord Chancellor. This must have been Ralph Nevili, who was elected 
Bishop 1223, consecrated 1224, and died 1244. The next witness was a 
better known and still more remarkable man, and of more importance for 
our purpose, Hubert de Burg, described as Justiciar of England. He was 
made Justiciar in 1219, Earl of Kent in 1226, was deprived of his office in 

1231, and died 1243. Indeed it is believed that King Henry survived every 
one of the witnesses to this charter. It is very important to fix, if possible, 
the dates of dateless charters. When will historical writers cease " the follow 
my leader " system, like a flock of geese ? Moreover, it will be observed that 
Robert de Gurnay, in annulling any agreement which may have been afore- 
time made between himself and the canons of St. Augustine as to the first- 
fruits, &c, henceforth the administration of the alms, lands, &c, shall 
remain in the hands of the said chaplains (the chaplains of the hospital now 
increased to three) who shall choose from among themselves, or from others, 
a sufficient man as Master. It is clear that at this date no master had as yet 
been appointed. Nor is it shown on what date Henry de Gaunt was elected 
the Master. In fact though a Master of the establishment had been recognised 
we have no record of the appointment of such an officer for many years. 
Possibly the delay was caused by the jealousy and ill-feeling which animated 
the canons of St. Augustine's on account of the removal of the control of the 
Hospital from them to the Brethren. 

Henry de Gaunt is stated on the authority of Leland to have been a 
younger brother of the founder, Master Almoner of the Hospital, and a 
Knight. For several reasons this tradition, though possible, would seem 
to be improbable. The statutes of the Hospital, if we may call the Charter 
Regulations by that name, provide very distinctly that the Master must be 
in Holy Orders, and it would seem to us very unlikely that in the very 
first appointment made these regulations, in which so many persons were 
concerned, a Knight would be elected, and, if elected, that the Bishop would 

144 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

have confirmed him. Moreover, it is still more unlikely that the circum- 
stance should not have been noticed in any one of the original records 
connected with the Hospital, or that, considering the strained relations 
between the canons of St. Angustine's and the Brethren of St. Mark such 
a breach of an imperative rule could be smothered up. Mr. Barker states 
that the Hospital did not escape adverse criticism, but this grave charge 
was not brought against them. Again, Henry de Gaunt is not in any 
original document printed in this volume styled a Knight, or described as 
" Master Almoner." We believe he must have been not merely "Master 
Almoner " but Master and Governor of the whole House, nothwithstanding 
the random statements of Leland centuries after the events, like many of his 
statements, must be rejected as being unhistorical. 

The only instance in which we have seen the name of Henry de Gaunt 
mentioned in an original document is in the Ordination of the Hospital made 
by the Bishop of Worcester at Henbury in 1268, in which he is said to be joint 
founder with Robert de Gurnay, and we see that he did give lands jointly 
with Robert de Gournay, and certain rights in Deliomure and Lynagan, in 
Cornwall (these places are now known as Dellyconoure and Lannagan. They 
are situate in the parish of S. Teath, and it is stated by Mr. Barker, also on 
the same authority, that this Henry resigned the Mastership on account of 
age and infirmity, and died in this same year. 

There are many matters brought under notice subsequently to the 
foundation of the Hospital and the settlement of the regulations for the 
governance of the House, the details of which are of much interest, as is the 
routine of the daily duties of the Brethren. But for a long period the House 
was greatly disturbed by the interminable quarrels with the Canons of St. 
Augustine and internecine strife among the Brethren themselves. The 
Masters seem to have been incapable of maintaining discipline, and irregu- 
larities and malversation naturally ensued, but the end was close at hand. 
On the 11th Sept. 1534 (36th Henry VIII.) the House was surrendered to 
the King by John Coleman the Master, and his four brethren, to which 
number they had become reduced. 

Mr. Barker gives us a schedule of the possessions of the House, and 
further a list of the pensions assigned to the dispossessed Brethren; and 
also another schedule of the chapel, lands, manors, rents, &c, which the 
mayor and commonalty of Bristol purchased for £1000. 

During 50 years succeeding the transfer of the chapel and estates of the 
Gaunts House to the Mayor and Commonalty the history of the house was 
almost entirely unrecorded, but sufficient has been gleaned by Mr. Barker 
from the corporation records to shew the continuity of the narrative. No 
great change would appear to have taken place in the structure of the 
premises or the Chapel. Divine service was continued in the latter, it is 
presumed daily, by the pensioned brothers of the old House, in succession, 
who were content, it is said, to conform to the aew order of things for the 
liberal stipend of £2 a year, in addition to the pension of £6 granted to 
them as compensation for the loss of their homes, but in 1586 the work of 
destruction appears to have commenced. Down to this date the cloister garth 
continued in existence. Mr. Barker cites instances from the city accounts 
of repairs to the cloister down the end of the 17th century. In 1700-1 there 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 


were considerable repairs effected, and under that year he writes : " The 
question now arises, when, and under what circumstances, did the demo- 
lition of the cloisters and the north transept take place ? Under the date 
1587 an entry appears in the audit book relating to the repair of the 
" Cloysters." At this time, doubtless, the cloisters were intact, with the 
various Hospital buildings grouped around them, but the time had nearly 
arrived when it is certain the old buildings were removed and a clearance of 
the ground effected to prepare for new erections on the site, There do not 
appear to be any further entries of repair to the cloisters. Instead of their 
being again repaired, they were improved out of existence, as was the north 
transept with which the cloister on that side communicated. This must have 
taken place between the above date, 1587, and the erection of the new city 
school building against the walled-up archway and window." 

In the same accounts is found the following item : — " Paid 6th March, 
1591, to Bird, Freemason, for removing the great tombs of the three Foun- 
\ ders of the Gaunts which are set now at the upper end of the chancel, 10s. ; ' 

The three founders to whom reference is here made must have been 
Maurice de Gaunt, Robert de Gurnay, and Henry de Gaunt, who in the 
Ordination made at Henbury in 1268 is described, as before remarked, as 
joint founder with Maurice de Gaunt. Mr. Barker is of opinion that the 
north transept was an appropriate resting-place for these memorials of the 
dead, and they had remained there undisturbed for 300 years, and that 
their removal then became necessary because of the contemplated destruction 
of the transept. And from an old carved stone found in the wall built up 
into the arch between the nave and the north transept bearing the date 1631, 
Mr. Barker considers that the demolition took place about that time. Many 
details of no little interest follow, but we must pass on to the recent res- 
toration ; nor have we space to enter into the preliminaries leading up to 
this interesting work. We must not, however, omit to notice one interest- 
ing incident in the history of the Chapel. It is its occupation for forty years 
by the French Protestant Refugees, who had to fly from their homes and 
country after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, the circumstances of 
which are too familiar to need further mention. 

Mr. Barker is specially well qualified to write an account of St. Mark's 
Chapel and the possessions of the House ; and particulars of the restoration 
of this remarkable building are familiar to him, for he was privileged to 
watch the development of the work from day to day, and was witness to the 
objects brought to light. These, unfortunately, were comparatively "very 
few. Mr. Barker, writing of the time of the accession of Queen Elizabeth, 
says : " In addition to the various alterations in the character of the 
religious services, already referred to, there can be no doubt that a complete 
transformation in the appearance of the chapel itself took place about this 
time. Many of the ornamental features were abolished as evil in tendency, 
or unsuited to the altered taste of the day. All evidences of the former 
monastic use of the building were either carefully concealed, mutilated or 
destroyed. One of the leading features of its architecture was completely 
obliterated by filling up the bays under the nave windows with false masonry, 
thus making the walls conventionally " playne." The lime-brush, which it 
has been already shown was used "artistically " on the pulpit, was no doubt 
Vol. XVI. l 

146 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

freely employed throughout the structure. All this was done either in 
sympathy with the wave of reaction against Romanism, which followed the 
dissolution of the monasteries, or during the subsequent days of Elizabeth 
when the fear of the return of Romanism preyed upon the public mind in 
consequence of the attitude of Mary Stuart, or still later, when the issue of 
the Ordinances of 1643-4 encouraged the further wholesale destruction of 
Church property. At the last named period especially, the veneration with 
which the churches of the land had formerly been regarded was openly 
outraged, and too often, as in the case of St. Mark's, when the principal 
structures were permitted to remain, essential parts were demolished to 
satisfy the whim of those in authority, or the demands of covetousness or 
destructiveness." Alas ! would we could say this spirit is wholly extinct 

HANGING IN CHAINS. By Albert Hartshorne, F.S.A. London : 
Fisher Unwin, Paternoster Square, 1891. 

This is a very remarkable book on a very gruesome subject, and Mr. Harts- 
horne has shewn great courage in undertaking to write it, and no less skill 
in the manner in which he has accomplished his self-imposed task. Though 
the subject is a ghastly one there is nothing in its treatment to offend the 
susceptibilities of the most delicate minded woman. The subject, however, 
is one of considerable historical and antiquarian interest. Mr. Hartshorne 
reminds us that the gallows and the gibbet are the most ancient instruments 
in the world used for inflicting capital punishment, and he cites many 
examples of their use in the earliest ages, both from Holy Scripture and 
ancient classic authors. Hanging in chains in early times had a two-fold 
object. Hanging, itself, was the punishment more especially due to the 
murderer for the great crime of which he had been convicted by a jury of 
his countrymen ; and, indeed, a very severe punishment it was, both men- 
tally and physically, when the judge sentenced the culprit to be taken hence 
and hanged by the neck until he was dead. It was a gallows upon which he 
suffered death, and it was a gibbet upon which the body was afterwards 
publicly exposed. Hanging is now made easy. Death is usually instantaneous. 
It was not so in times gone by when the culprit was drawn to the gallows 
upon a dray or in a cart, and the rope being adjusted and securely fastened, 
the cart was driven from under him, and he was strangled by the weight 
of his own body. The suspension and exposure of the body after death was 
intended to have a deterrent effect, to strike awe into the spectators, and to 
be a warning to other evil doers. There has been much misapprehension as 
regards the term "Hanging in Chains." It has been supposed by some that 
the criminal was hanged in chains while alive, and allowed slowly to perish 
on the gibbet in such barbarous and awful circumstances. Such instances, 
however, if ever they existed, were very rare in England, and external to the 
law. All men feel great horror at the exposure of the body. The natural 
desire is that it should return to the earth from whence it came, and Mr. 
Hartshorne remarks that the idea of being gibbetted was ever a terrifying 
one to the sufferer, and many a strong man who had stood fearless during 
the dread sentence broke down when he was measured for his irons." Mr. 
Hartshorne quotes the case of a notorious highwayman, John Whitfield, who 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 147 

was executed and gibbeted on Barrock, near Wetheral, Cumberland, about 
the year 1777. It is said that he was gibbeted alive, and the guard of a 
passing mail-coach put him out of his misery by shooting him. But, as Mr. 
Hartshorne states, "If this were true the guard was clearly guilty of 
murder." Mr. Hartshorne is incredulous as to such cases of gibbeting alive. 
He says : " These and many other similar arbitrary statements might seem 
conclusive evidence ; but, on the other hand, the Statutes at Large may be 
vainly searched to find one directing the punishment of gibbeting alive." And 
he comes to the conclusion that Holinshed and all the old modern hair- 
brained chatterers have been carried away by a superstitious belief in a poor, 
vulgar, fiction, a vain thing fondly imagined, and into which the multitude 
of to-day still appear to cling with a fatuous devotion, which, probably, no 
amount of education or refutation will ever entirely eradicate. This shews 
the strong vitality of fiction." 

Mr. Hartshorne treats of many other and more cruel methods of execution 
of malefactors and, too often, of persons innocent of crime, in the usual 
acceptation of the term — religious martyrs and unfortunate patriots, but 
upon these sickening details Ave will not dwell. It will be sufficient to refer 
to the cruelties perpetrated upon the unfortunate abbots and friars in the 
16th century, and upon the unfortunate Scots who, with undaunted loyalty 
and valour, fought for their lawful sovereign in the year — 45. 

Mr. Hartshorne describes many instances of gibbeting, and furnishes 
illustratious of the chains, &c. , by which the bodies were suspended from the 
gibbets. Fig. 10 represents two men hanging in chains from one gibbet on 

Fig. 10, 

148 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications, 

Brandon Sands, Suffolk, from a sketch made by the Rev. Thomas Kerick in 
1785. Their names were May and Tybald, but the crimes for which they 
suffered have long since been for- 
gotten. The Thames in the last 
century was infested by pirates, 
and the banks of the river were 
degraded by the exhibition of 
many a mouldering corse. Hap- 
pily the hideous spectacle did 
not long survive that century. 
The last man gibbeted was named 
Cook, who was hanged at Leices- 
ter in 1834, but such a disgraceful 
scene of tumult and uproar oc- 
curred at the foot of the gibbet 
that an Act of Parliament was 
passed (4 William IV.) suppress- 
ing the revolting practice. A 
rusty iron cage, very skilfully 
made, was found hanging from a 
tree in Eastern Bengal, and the 
tradition was that the criminals Fig. 11. 

were hung up alive. 

In Notes and Queries for the 23rd July, 1892, Nemo mentions that he 
had lately in reading found the word gemmace used as a noun to denote 
the iron cage in which the corpse of the convict posthumously exposed was 
enclosed when suspended from the gibbet. He has been unable to find the 
word gemmace in any dictionary, and is desirous of knowing its derivation. 
He suggests whether it has any connection with the obsolete word gemmels 
(a pair of hinges), supposing that such a frame-work as that depicted (Jig. 11) 
"was opened by a hinge down the back, following the line of the vertebrse, 
and rivetted over the chest and abdomen." The cage figured in the margin 
does not appear to have been fastened in this manner, but, apparently, was 
divided horizontally at the waist, and the two parts connected by rings, but 
that was not of European contraction. The word gemmel is still in use in 
heraldry, signifying a pair. 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS (Domestic Series) of the reign of 
Charles L, 1645-47. Preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office. Edited 
by William Douglas Hamilton, F.S.A., of the Public Record Office and the 
University of London. Under the direction of the Master of the Rolls, and 
Math the sanction of Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment. London : Printed for Her Majesty's Stationery Office by Eyre and 
Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen's most excellent Majesty, 1891. 

The last volume of the Domestic State Papers edited by Mr. W. D. Hamilton 
was noticed in Vol. XIV. of our Transactions, p. 371. It brought down the 
history of that unhappy period to the fatal battle of Naseby, after which 
the unfortunate King's affairs became almost hopeless, and the Royalist 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 149 

leaders proportionately depressed. The State Papers calendared in the 
present volume contain the narrative of the King's misfortunes from that 
sanguinary and crushing defeat on the 14th June, 1645, to the final collapse 
of the Royalist cause and the King's imprisonment in Carisbrooke Castle. 
The Papers are less numerous than in either of the two previous volumes, 
but they are of no less importance and interest. They comprise the letters 
of the King and Queen, and Royalist letters intercepted. The King's letters 
were chiefly addressed to the Parliament, earnestly desiring a peace. The 
Parliamentary leaders had too deeply compromised themselves to accept 
really any terms. Their consciences told them that whatever terms were 
agreed upon the King would be King still, and they?feared the consequences. 
Their feeling was that their only safety was in the King's destruction. They 
had never any intention to make peace. Cromwell is accused of having said 
that " he hoped to see the day when there should be no King nor a Peer in 
England." The King was prepared to make many sacrifices for peace, but 
one thing, he said, he could not sacrifice —the Church. Writing to his 
Secretary, Nicholas, on the 25th August, 1645, in reply to his solicitations, 
he said : "let my condition be never so low, I am resolvdd, by the Grace of 
God, never to yield up the Church to the government of Papists, Presby- 
terians, or Independents ; nor to injure my successors by lessening the 
crown of those ecclesiastical and military powers which my predecessors left 
me, nor to forsake my friends." Any attempt at a compromise in these 
circumstances was utterly hopeless. 

From Naseby the King with his immediate supporters took refuge with 
the aged Marquis of Worcester at Raglan Castle, by whom he was received 
with a warm welcome and loyal and hearty sympathy, but from the Welsh- 
men generally this was not the case. He arrived at Raglan on 3rd July, 
and remained there surrounded by difficulties, and, not the less evil, faith- 
less council from his friends, for even his nephew, Prince Rupert, who was 
Governor of the important City of Bristol, was wavering in his constancy, 
and spoke of "treaty." The King called him over to Raglan, and two 
councils of war were held the same day, and the King resolved to go over to 
Bristol the day following ; but with his usual irresolution he postponed the 
journey until the 22nd, when he proceeded to Crick, in Monmouthshire, 
where he required his nephew, who had returned to his charge at Bristol, 
again to meet him, but the Prince had to return to Bristol the same day. 
The King was so greatly disconcerted and unsettled that he determined to 
go back again to Raglan, where he arrived late at night to the surprise of 
everyone. At length, on the 24th, he did make up his mind to cross the 
channel at the New Passage, and presented himself at the place of embark- 
ation, but the warm-hearted Welsh gentry, on the receipt of the news of the 
fall of Bridgwater, prevailed upon him to abandon his design. He returned 
to Cardiff, and whilst there, intelligence was brought him of the approach 
©f the Scottish army under the the Earl of Lev en into Herefordshire. He 
was, from many causes, placed in great difficulty and danger. The small 
force at his command was insufficent to meet the Scots under Lord Leven in 
the field in case of their possible advance, and he determined to return to 
Oxford. His friends were urging him to make the best terms he could with. 
the Parliament for the sake of peace. Rupert had written to him to this 
effect, and before leaving Cardiff the King replied in a letter dated 3rd 

150 Notices of Recent Arch^eoloCxICAl Publications. 

August of great force : " If I had any other quarrel but the defence of my 
religion, crown, and friends, you had full reason for your advice, for I con- 
fess, that, speaking as to mere soldier or statesman, I must say there is no 
probability but of my ruin ; yet, as a Christian, I must tell you that God 
will not suffer rebels and traitors to prosper nor His cause to be overthrown ; 
and whatever personal punishment it shall please Him to inflict upon me 
must not make me repine, much less give over this quarrel ; which, by the 
grace of God, I am resolved against, whatever it cost me ; for I know my 
obligations to be both in conscience and honour, neither to abandon God's 
cause, injure my successors, nor forsake my friends." This is a clear, firm, 
statesmanlike and dignified letter, but it does not appear to have had any 
beneficial effect on the impulsive Rupert. 

Two days afterwards, 5th August, the King wrote to his son, Prince 
Charles from Brecknock to this effect : — " It is very fit for me now to pre- 
pare for the worst in order to which I spoke to Culpepper this morning 
concerning you, judging it fit to give it to you under my hand, that it may 
give the readier obedience to it. Wherefore, know that my pleasure is, 
whensoever you find yourself in apparent danger of falling into the Rebells 
hands, that you convey yourself into France, and there to be under your 
mother's care, who is to have the absolute power of your education in all 
things, except religion, and in that not to meddle at all, but leave it entirely 
to the care of your tutor, the Bishop of Salisbury (Dr. Brian Duppa), or to 
whom he shall appoint to supply his place in time of his necessitated absence. 
And for the performance of this I command you to require the assistance and 
obedience of all your council, and by their advice the service of everyone 
whom they and you shall adjudge fit to be employed in this business, which 
I expect should be performed, if need require, with all obedience and with- 
out grumbling. 

From Brecknock the King pursued his journey towards Oxford, taking 
the mountain ways, in which he suffered many privations, in order to avoid 
the Scottish army now closely investing Hereford. The low estate to which 
he had become reduced was manifested by his inability to render any suc- 
cour in answer to a strong appeal from that greatly distressed city which he 
had received before he left Cardiff. 

We do not know the precise date on which the King reached Oxford, but 
his first thought was the relief of Hereford. He remained at Oxford but 
two days to make his arrangements. By a sudden and rapid march he so 
surprised the investing force just as they were prepared to storm the city. 
All things being ready, they received intelligence that the King was close at 
hand. A panic took place, and the same night, in the graphic words of the 
gallant and resolute Governor, Sir Barnabas Scudamore, "the Scottish mist 
began to disappear and the next morning had entirely vanished ont of sight." 
The King entered the city in triumph on 4th September at the head of 3000 
horsemen. A graphic account of this resolute attack and heroic defence may 
be read in Rev. John Webb's " Memorials of the Civil War," 2 vols, 8vo, 
Vol. II., p. 216 et seq. 

The King remained at Hereford a few days. On the 7th he attended a 
solemn thanksgiving in the cathedral for his success, and on the 11th he 
proceeded again to Raglan by way of Abergavenny. The object, of this 
visit, Symonds says, was to commit five chief hinderers to relieving 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 


Hereford. Four of these culprits, Webb says, were Sir Trevor Williams, 
Morgan (of Tredegar ?).... Herbert of Colebrook, and Baker. Williams 
was the first who afterwards threatened Raglan at the head of armed men. 
Whilst at Raglan the King first heard of the fall of Bristol. His anger was 
naturally kindled against his nephew. He rebuked him for his misconduct 
and withdrew all his commissions, telling him he had better find his future 
employment out of England. There were not wanting causes of suspicion 
that the Prince had been unfaithful, and we are told that in Paris the Queen 
"gave it out openly" that the place had been "sold for money." The 
Prince, however, wrote from Oxford on 18th Sept. to his uncle in a very 
modest and becoming letter in which he complains that "if your Majesty 
had vouschafed me so much patience as to hear me inform you before you 
had made a final judgment (I will presume to present thus much) that you 
would not have censured me, as it seems you do, and that I should have 
given you as just satisfaction as in any former occasions though not so 
happy. But there is so great appearance that I must suffer, that it is 
already decreed, otherwise I should have desired to have given your Majesty 
an account [of] now I am obliged to seek for my own clearing that what you 
will have me to bear may be with as much honour to me as belongs to in- 
tegrity. If your Majesty will admit me to that opportunity I desire to wait 
on you to that end as soon as I can." 

He afterwards, by a ruse, obtained access to the King's presence, but it 
does not appear that matters were much mended thereby, though the family 
quarrel was subsequently allayed. 

On the 14th September the King finally left Raglan and his kind and 
hospitable host, never to meet again in this life, and marched towards 
Chester with the hope of delivering that city from the grasp of Brereton. 
Gerrard's horse were waiting for him about Ludlow. The place of rendevous 
was King Arthur's stones, but the King being intercepted by Col-General 
Poyntz with 2000 horse drew off towards Bromyard. The King returned 
again the following day, but Gerrard's men had not received their orders in 
time. Poyntz's orders from Derby house were to march up close to the 
King's party to prevent their impeding the work in progress at Chester. The 
King's march was therefore extremely difficult. Poyntz's persevering watch- 
fulness checked him at every turn. On the 22nd the King reached Chirk 
Castle and heard that the outworks of Chester had already fallen. He sent 
off to entreat Lord Byron, the Governor, to hold out for yet 24 hours, and 
on the 23rd he entered the city, but alas ! found Poyntz approaching on the 
other side. 

The battle of Rowton Heath took place on the following morning. 
Langdale, with his worn oat troopers, charged and drove back Poyntz, but 
was taken in the rear by the besieging force under Jones, and utterly routed. 
Nine hundred Royalists were taken as prisoners to Nantwich, including 
many gentlemen of name. The young Earl af Lichfield, the King's kinsman, 
was slain in attempting to stay the rout. He is described as a faultless 
young man, of a most courteous and affable disposition, and of a spirit and 
courage invincible. He was greatly beloved. This success was a great 
triumph for the Parliament, for a considerable body of horse which con- 
tinued faithful to the King was entirely broken and dispersed. 


Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

From this date the King's affairs became more and more unsatisfactory. 
He could no longer bring a force into the field to cope with that of his 
enemies. Some of the more sanguine and dauntless spirits would resist to 
the last, and manifested prodigies of valour, though it was no more than 
a guerilla warfare, and had become useless, and only increased the im- 
poverishment and sufferings of the people, and the confiscations of the 
landed gentry. But the battle of Stow-on-the-Wold, on the 24th March, 
1645-6, in which the Royalists suffered a crushing defeat, and their army 
being broken and dispersed, finally extinguished all hope. 

On 5th May following, on the advice of Mon. Montreuil, the French 
agent, the King took refuge in the Scots' camp, near Newark. He was 
eventually delivered into the hands of the English Parliament and confined 
in Carisbrooke Castle. 

Mr. Hamilton is one of the best Calendarists in the Record Office. His 
abstracts, as in his previous volumes, so in this, are concise and clear, and 
contain all the historical information the student requires. We anxiously 
look forward to his next volume, which will contain the sad sequel of this 
deplorable story. 

LANDBOC, sive Registrum Monasterii Beatse Marige Virginis et Sancti 
Cenhelmi de Winch elcumba in Comitatu Gloucestrensi Ordinis Sancti Bene- 
dicti. E. Codicidus MSS. Penes Pronobilem Dominum de Sherborne. Edente 
David Royce, M.A., ex Aede Christi, Oxonii, Vicario de Netherswell. 
Volumen Primum, Ab Anno secundo Regni Regis Cenuulfi ad annum sextum 
Regni Regis Edwardi Tertii, a.d. 798— a.d. 1332. Exonise : Typis Willelmi 
Pollard et Socii mdcccxcii. 

Mr. Royce has just issued to his subscribers the first volume of the Landboc, 
or Cartulary of the great Abbey of Winchcombe. He has prefaced it by a 
carefully prepared Introduction, giving the history of the ancient Monastery 
and its possessions from its foundation by King Cenwulf in a.d. 798 to 
1332. He states that this history is based upon the four county histories, 
of which he considers Fosbrooke's as the most exhaustive, so far as Winch- 
combe is concerned, as Fosbrooke has culled Prynn's invaluable abstract of 
this Landboc. The editors of Dugdale, he says, have added much relating 
to the Monastery, and he further cites Mrs. Dent's beautiful and trustworthy 
volume, "The Annals of Winchcombe and Sudeley." He divides his his- 
torical Preface into three sections : I. The Town ; II. The Monastery ; and 
III. The Landboc of the Monastery. 

The author points out that in pre-Norman times Winchcombe, or Wince! - 
combe, formed a shire of itself called Wincelcombeschire, which is supposed 
to have included the present Hundreds of Kiftesgate, Slaughter, Cheltenham, 
Cleeve and Tibboldestone 

We do not seem to have had any knowledge of Winchcombe earlier than 
the eighth century, so, casting tradition aside, we will accept its history 
from the foundation of the Abbey, as stated above. Mr. Royce briefly 
sketches its history, and relates many interesting incidents during the long 
period which elapsed between 798 and 17th July, 1535, when Thomas 
Cromwell went down to Sudeley Castle profesedly to prepare for the Royal 

Notices of Recent Akcileological Publications. 


visit in the progress during July, August and September in that year. 
Three motives are assigned, Mr. Royce says, for the King's visit at this 
time : first, the consumption of provisions of his Manors of Sudeley, Ber- 
keley, and Thornbury, a common practice of great lords at that time ; 
the King's desire to be absent from the scene of the execution of Sir Thomas 
Moore ; and a stock-taking survey of the possessions of the Monastery. 
The King arrived at Sudeley, accompanied by Anne Boleyne, on Wednesday, 
July 21st, and remained to the Monday following. We think, however, that 
the first reason assigned would be a sufficient explanation without attributing 
to the King, at all events, the last. But the end of the famous Abbey of 
Winchcombe was close at hand. On 3rd December, in the same year, Abbot 
Mountslow and his monks surrendered it, with all its possessions, into the 
Kings hands, and "Henry," Mr. Royce says, "profanely wasted Cenwulf's 
pius work. The work of demolition and destruction at once began." 

Relating to this early period Mr. Royce prints divers records consisting 
of Subsidy Rolls, Extracts, in English, from Hundred Rolls, Inquisitions, 
-post mortem, and other documents of more than local interest, and all amply 

The first manorial court of the manor was holden in the month following 
the surrender of the abbey, when all the tenants in the town were attorned 
to appear before Thomas Lord Cromwell, as Chief Steward there, represented 
by Anthony Ay le worth and Christopher Laighlyne jointly assigned com- 
missioners for this term only. The names of all the tenants are given with 
divers notes, together with the Abstracts of various Wills in the Probate 
Court of Gloucester, for which Mr. Royce acknowledges his obligation to 
the Rev. T. P. Wadley, Honorary Member of the Bristol & Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society, to whom the Society is indebted for many similar 
acts of courtesy. 

Eight months after the surrender, viz., 2nd July, 1540, the King granted 
to Sir John Bridges, Constable of Sudeley Castle, the house and site of the 
Monastery with its houses in the town, and the capital Messuage of Corn- 
dene, for the term of 21 years at the annual rent of £45 7s. 4d., together 
with parcel of the Manor of Sudeley, at the rent of £28 6s. 8d. both together 
to be held by the service of the T V th part of a knight's fee. 

On 19th August, 1546 (which should be 1547, an inadvertent error), King 
Edward VI. granted all the above premises, together with the Manor of 
Winchcombe and the three Hundreds to his favorite uncle, Sir Thomas 
Seymour, Lord Seymour of Sudeley. Hen. VIII. was still alive on the 19th 
Aug. 1546, and Edw. VI. did not become King until 2Sth Jan. 1546-7. On 
the 16th of the following month Sir Thomas Seymour was created Baron 
Seymour of Sudeley, and his marriage with the Queen dowager was not 
solemnized until after the 4th June, 1547, and the Queen had not any 
connection with Sudeley until after this event. When Lord Seymour 
obtained the grant of these lands, it is presumed in fee, Sir John Bridges 
surrendered his lease and the Constableship of Sudeley Castle. Lord Seymour 
became a victim to the machinations of his enemies. The bill for his 
attainder was passed 6th March, 1548, and he was executed on the 20th of 
the same month. He left an infant orphan daughter, who was restored in 
blood by Act 3 and 4 Edward VI., but died soon afterwards. 

154 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

Seymour's lands having become forfeited by his attainder they were 
granted by the King on the 12th June, 1550, to William Parr, Marquis of 
Northampton, who being himself attainted in 1554 they again reverted to the 
crown ; and on the 8th of April in that year Queen Mary granted them to 
Sir John Bridges before mentioned, upon whom she conferred the dignity of 
Baron Chandos of Sudeley with reversion to Elizabeth his wife. It should 
be noticed, that the house and site of the abbey only were granted. No 
mention of the Manor of Winchcomb is made, nor is there any further 

Mr. Royce traces the devolution of the Manor of Winchcombe in the 
family of Bridges, or Chandos, down to George, 6th Lord Chandos, a very 
gallant soldier, who was ruined by the great sacrifice he made for the King 
in the civil war. His lands passed by purchase to various individuals. 

Much information of great local interest, both ecclesiastical and secular, 
especially as concerning the churches and the institutions of ministers to the 
said churches and chantries, for which we must refer to Mr. Royce's pages, 
and pass on to the third and principal section — 

The Landboc or Cartulary of the Abbey Lands. 
This Landboc commences with some miscellaneous charters and docu- 
ments of various dates. These are all in latin, printed in extenso, with 
brief titles and with marginal descriptive notes. The charters, proper, 
commence a.d. 798 and are continued to 1332. They contain various grants 
to the abbey, and by the abbots and convent to various individuals. The 
names of many of the parties are, to our taste, very peculiar, e.g. We find 
mentioned one Godwin Greahoundesnose, and his son Frewine Porenose. 
Unfortunately the scribe who recorded the charters in the original Landboc 
did not think it necessary to record the names of the witnesses, and they 
are often wanted. 

All persons who take an interest in Gloucestershire lands and history 
ought to be deeply grateful to Lord Sherborne for the liberal manner in which 
he has allowed this Landboc to be transcribed and published ; and to the 
Rev. David Royce for the great labour and pains he has bestowed in the 
production of this handsome and scholarly volume, of which another volume 
is to follow in due course, to which we anxiously look forward. Both the 
editor and printers deserve great credit for the handsome manner in which 
the book is produced. 

1307-1326. By the Rev. F. C. Hingeston-Randolph, M.A., of Exeter 
College, Oxford, Rector of Ringmore, and Prebendary of Exeter. London : 
George Bell and Sons. Exeter : Henry S. Eland, High Street ; William 
Pollard & Co., Printers, North Street, 1892. 

This is the third volume which has been printed by Prebendary Hingeston- 
Randolph of the invaluable series of Episcopal Registers of the Diocese of 
Exeter, though they are not quite in chronological order. The earliest 
in date of the series is Bishop Bronescombe's Register extending from 
from 1257-1307, containing also the remains yet extant of the Registers of 
Bishops Quivil and Bitton, the 13th and 14th of the Bishops of the See of 
Exeter in succession, and Bishop Stapeldon's Register, who was the 15th 

Notices or Recent Archaeological Publications. 155 

Bishop of the See, is that now before us. But the Register of Bishop 
Stafford, who was the 19th Bishop of the See, was the first printed, and 
covers the period from 1395 to 1419. 

Walter de Stapeldon was a native of Devonshire, being the son of William 
de Stapeldon and Mabilla his wife, and was born, it seems, at Annerly, his 
father's seat in the parish of Monkslegh. As a bishop he was learned, 
energetic, charitable, and bountiful in all good works. In secular matters 
he was one of the first statesmen of his age, incorruptible, faithful, and 
loyal to his King, which cost him his life, for he was murdered by the 
London mob with great barbarity and contumely on the 15th October, 1324. 

Mr. Randolph gives an interesting life of this great prelate in his preface 
to this volume, to which we refer our readers ; and in the appendix a series 
of documents relating to his will, which are very interesting, and the more 
valuable because no copy of the will is known to be extant. The inventories 
of his goods and personal effects are of great interest both historically and 
archseologically, particularly as the value of every article, we suppose by 
appraisement, is stated. The roll is said to be 8 feet long and 10 inches 
wide. Unfortunately that portion of it which relates to the goods of the 
chapel has been greatly damaged by the use of galls, so much so, especially 
at the beginning, that many words are illegible. The books included in the 
inventory are very numerous, and this portion of the roll would seem to be 
in good condition, and the appraised value is curious. The number of silver 
vessels and other pieces of silver is somewhat remarkable. The pieces are 
all particularly described, and generally the weight and value of each piece 
is given. 

This inventory is followed by inventories of the live and dead stock on 
the episcopal manors and farms. We are also furnished with the accounts 
of the executors of the Bishop's will. He bequeathed a large number of 
legacies to poor scholars, to the repair of churches, making and repairing 
bridges and roads and to other pious uses. It is stated in Bishop Branting- 
ham's Register, ii., fo. 6, that " Bishop Stapeldon not only complied with the 
ancient custom of his predecessors in leaving a hundred oxen to the see, 
forty to work the farms in Devon, thirty those in Cornwall, and thirty for 
those elsewhere ; but added another hundred oxen with directions that at 
his anniversary one hundred poor (persons) should then be fed in the hall at 
Exeter palace, or at its outer gate. — Oliver's Lives of the Bishops of Extter, 
p. 63. 

We must now return to the General Index on the two fly-leaves, at the 
beginning of which occur divers documents relating to Bishop Stapeldon, 
which is followed by the Rent-Roil of the diocese dated in 1367-8, the year 
of the Bishop's consecration. 

This index contains a full analysis of the volume, and shews the whole 
working of the diocese : — Institutions and collations of clerks to benefices, 
dispensations for non-residence, for the study of Sacred Theology or Canon 
Law, appointment of coadjutors to assist aged or disabled priests, the grant 
of pensions when necessary, licencing of chapels or oratories in manor 
houses, taxation or appointment of vicarages, letters demissory, Licencing of 
Confessors A curious case on the latter subject occurs under the date 
of 6th August, 1324. The Bishop states that the number of those who 

156 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

were in the habit of resorting to his Penitentiary General for confession, 
especially in reserved cases, had recently become so great that the said 
Penitentiary was unable to deal with them all on account of the great 
distance of Cornwall from Exeter (where the said Penitentiary resides for 
the greater part of the year) and the considerable expenditure of labour 
and money involved in the work. It was, therefore, necessary to give him 
help ; and the Bishop selected Master Robert, the Vicar of Liskeard, as a 
man of great industry, circumspection, trustworthiness and purity of cons- 
cience, giving him full authority to confess even "those who had been 
convicted of such crimes as adultery and incest. There was to be no inter- 
ference with the official action of the Penitentiary ; and those who pre- 
ferred to go to him were, still, at liberty to do so. And the Bishop reserved 
to himself the power to absolve in cases of wilful perjury for the purpose of 
disinheriting anyone, or impeding lawful marriages, as well as all such 
cases as he was accustomed to deal with, publicly, in his visitations of 
Cornwall, in the separate congregations, and numerous other functions in 
the administration of the diocese, too numerous to mention. 

Under the name of " Oxford," in alphabetical order, we find Exeter 
College (olim) " Stapledone Halle," the Original Statutes of this foundation. 
These Statutes are of great interest, but, of course, much too long to reprint 
here. Preb. Randolph, however, gives the following brief history : — 

Owing to the evils connected with the system of Students lodging all 
over the City of Oxford, Statesmen, like Walter de Merton in Henry the 
third's time, and Walter de Stapeldon under Edward the second, founded 
Colleges that the Students might live together, under a Rector, to maintain 
discipline and order. Their object was to establish a constant succession of 
poor and diligent Students, and train them for the service of God in Church 
and State. These Colleges were by no means Clerical Institutions. Stapel- 
don provides for thirteen Scholars (i.e. Fellows) twelve of them studying 
Philosophy, while the thirteenth was to be a Priest, studying Theology and 
Canon Law. Ten pence a week was allowed them for their commons ; and 
besides this, the Rector had twenty shillings a year ; the Priest, also, 
twenty shillings ; and each Scholar ten shillings. The Fellowship ended 
three years after the Fellow had taken the degree of Master of Arts ; so 
that men might be passed in considerable numbers through the University 
training, and then sent out into the world. Thus the Fellows were them- 
selves all undergoing the process of training ; and they were not Fellows as 
at present, for there were no other undergraduates in the College. 

Mr. Randolph adds: "The modern Statutes, have, in some degree, 
reverted to Stapledon's plan. For their are twelve Fellowships, including 
the Chaplain, and about twenty-six Scholarships and twelve exhibitions ; 
so that a considerable part of the funds is devoted to training men and pass- 
ing them out into active life as Stapeldon wished. The Statutes of the early 
Founders are well worth reading for their shrewd and intelligent plans for 
benefitting the Church and Nation." 

The Index contains much more of special interest, but want of space 
precludes us from continuing our remarks on this head. The next subject 
is a Register of Royal Letters and Writs, which is followed by a Record 
of Ordinations, which are very numerous. 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 157 

We cannot conclude without offering our congratulations to Mr. Hin- 
geston- Randolph upon the completion of the third volume of his laborious 
undertaking, rather, perhaps, we should congratulate his subscribers and 
the public at large upon the progress made with a work of such great value 
especially to archseological and topographical students of the West of 
England. Few persons, comparatively, can appreciate the labour required 
for the production of a work of this description. Nothing like it has been 
undertaken, so far as we know, in any other diocese in England, or is likely 
to be, and few could accomplish it with such accuracy, learning and skill 
as are displayed in these volumes. 

It is very gratifying to know that Mr. Randolph has commenced the 
Registers of Bishop Grandisson, and that the first volume is already in press. 
Mr. Randolph says : "this Register is the finest of all our Registers, the 
most interesting and the most valuable (an opinion which this writer can 
confirm). There must be three volumes, which I propose to publish separ- 
ately as each is completed. This means, if I am spared so long, about nine 
years of continuous and diligent labour," and he deserves to be amply sup- 
ported for his courage and perseverance. 

THE ANTIQUARY.— A Magazine devoted to the study of the Past, 
Vol. XXIV., July to December, 1891. London ; Elliot Stock. 
This volume fully sustains the high estimation in which it has been always 
held. There are many Notices of much interest and value. Under 1 the 
heading of Bygone Lincolnshire, gathered from a work by Mr. John 
Nicholson, edited by Mr. William Andrews, F.R.H.S., and so entitled, is a 
description with illustrations of an ancient one-tree boat found at Brigg, on 
the bank of the river Axholme, when making excavations for a new gas- 
ometer. It is said to be the largest vessel known made of a single tree, being 
48 ft. 8 ins. long, and in width 5 ft., tapering to 4 ft. Other examples are 
noted of one-tree boats of a lesser size. Illustrations are also given of a 
remarkable sculptured stone of a Celtic type, supposed to be the shaft of a 
pre-Norman Christian cross It is 6 ft. 11 ins. in length by 16 ins. high and 
8 inches thick. Of course, in its original position it stood erect. It had 
been built up in the western wall of the door jamb, and one of its faces has 
been concealed by the masonry. There is said to be part of a runic inscrip- 
tion, but it is so worn and fragmentary as to be unintelligible. 

Mr. A. E. Hudd, F.S.A., communicates some interesting Notes on recent 
discoveries in Egypt in continuation of Notes given in previous volumes. 
Extracts are given of Burials in the Friaries of the Black Friars. Among 
these are several entries of special local interest relating to Bristol and 
Gloucestershire, e.g. Robert Poyntz, Esq., buried 26 Nov., 1470. In his 
will he provides that his body shall be buried in the convent church in a 
convenient place, if he deceases in London, elsewhere, if it pleases the Lord 
Jesus. The Prior and the Convent shall come with their cross, as the usage 
is, and convey his body to their church, and for this, and the placebo, dirge 
and mass shall have 20 d , every priest 8 d , and every other Friar and novice 
4 d . Probate 7th February, 1470-1. He was the son of Thomas Poyntz, of 
Frampton Cotterell, co. Glouc. (ob. 1458), by Jane, relict of Harewell. 

158 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

He founded a chantry in Frampton Church. We find also under the date 
1502, the burial of " Lady Berkeley, wife of Sir William Berkeley, of Stoke 
Gifford, co. Glouc, and mother of Lady Katherine Berkeley, and several 
others in the convents of Gloucester and Bristol. Mr. R. C. Hope, F.S.A., 
continues from former volumes his interesting notes on Holy^ Wells, their 
legends and superstitions. Mr. Page, P S. A., continues from former volumes 
his lists of Church Goods, made temp. Edward VI. They relate to divers 
counties, but as they contain simply references to parishes, they do not 
appear, in their present state, to be of much practicable use. 

A very interesting report is given of the Congress of the Associated 
Archaeological Societies, held at Burlington House, under the Presidency of 
Dr. John Evans, F.R.S., &c, President of the Society of Antiquaries. There 
was present a considerable gathering of delegates from the various Societies 
in the Union, and other experienced antiquaries. Many valuable addresses 
were delivered. We may mention especially those of General Pitt-Rivers, 
the well-known Inspector of Ancient Monuments. The chairman, Dr. Evans, 
temporarily vacated the chair and gave an address On the Forgery of 
Antiquities, which was at once of great interest, humorous and compre- 
hensive. Many other well-qualified gentlemen also spoke, among whom we 
may mention the following experts :— the Rev. Dr. Cox, Mr.W. H. St. John 
Hope, Assistant Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, Chancellor Fur- 
guson, Mr. Ralph Nevil, F.S.A., and others. This association of eminent 
Archaeological Societies will, we doubt not, greatly promote the development, 
and tend to the preservation, of the antiquities of the country. 

Some very able and interesting notes are contributed by Dr. J. C. Cox 
on the very successful visit of the "Royal Archaeological Institute" last 
year to Edinburgh. The descriptions are admirable. 

The are many other contributions of great interest which we should like 
to notice more fully did time and space permit, but we would direct the 
readers' attention to the International Folk-lore Conference ; An Old English 
Canonist ; Mr. Haverfield's Roman Britain ; the Rev. E. Cole's Notes on 
Archaeology in Provincial Museums, &c, &c. 

The Antiquary. Vol. XXV., January to June, 1892. 
Since our notice of Volume XXIV. has been in type we have been favoured 
by the publisher with its successor, now before us, and we hasten to ac- 
knowledge it together with its predecessor. It is an excellent volume, and 
contains Papers and notes of great interest. The first paragraph which 
attracted our attention was the reference to the inscribed stone found by 
Mr. S. J. Wills, (recently-deceased) at Southill, in Cornwall. Mr. Wills 
having been unable to get the stone uncovered, it has since been seen by 
the Rev. W. Iago, of Bodmin, a skilled expert in pre-historic epigraphy, 
who has succeeded in reading the inscription. It is printed in the Antiquary 
as : 


T fill mauci 

Several examples of the Christian Symbol Chi-rho monogram have been 
found in Cornwall. There are others at St. Just, Phillack, and St. Helen's, 
Cape Cornwall. 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 


But the inscription, as printed in the Antiquary, being, to us, unin- 
telligible, we wrote to the Rev. W. Iago and asked him to be so good as 
to interpret it, and he has, with his usual courtesy, kindly sent us a draw- 
ing of the stone in facsimile, which we have had engraved'as annexed : 

conjoined for Christos. The final i's are placed horizontally. 

The Chi-rho symbol is of very great antiquity, and has been often 
described. In a Paper in the {ArcJueologia, (Vol. xlviii., p. 243), by Mr. 
Alfred Tyler, F.G.S., &c, On Points in the History of Roman Britain, 


Notices of Recent Archjsological Publications. 

as illustrated by discoveries at Warwick Square, London, writing on the 
origin of the Chi-Rho (xp) Symbol observes : Chi-Rho has been confidently 
claimed as a Christian symbol, but, though it was certainly adopted by the 
Christians, it is of Pagan origin. This, he says, is at once proved by its 
occurrence upon a coin of Ptolemy III. B.C. 230. The same symbol is also 
seen upon a medal of the date a.d. 250 to commemorate a Pagan Prefect 
whose title was probably Archon. 

In the time of Constantine, in the 4th century, in consequence of his 
alleged visions, the Chi-rho was definitely adopted as a Christian emblem, 
appearing on his standard and on many of his coins. It is also frequently 
found on the coins of Decentius. It is also generally known as the labarum 
of Constantine, and being formed of the two Greek letter X (ch) and P (r) 
which commence the word " Christos," it is used constantly as Christ's 
monogram. It thus occurs on numberless Christian monuments in the Cata- 
combs of Rome. On many early inscribed stones in our own country, and 
is still displayed in modern churches in carving, glass, on banners, &c. 

A most interesting and instructive Paper is communicated by the Rev. 
R. F. Clarke, S. J., on the Holy Coat of Treves, with illustrations. He points 
out its history as far as it is known, and discusses, from tradition and docu- 
mentary evidence, its claim to authenticity. 

Mr. Haverfield continues from the last volume his Quarterley Notes on 
Boman Britain. 

The Rev. F.W. Weaver supplies from pre-Reformation Wills, Church- 
wardens' Accounts, and other sources, Notes on the Lights of a Mediaeval 
Church. This is a very obscure subject, and one of much interest, to which, so 
far as we know, no special attention has been hitherto given. Its investi- 
gation will probably afford us much information upon the practices, hagiology, 
and ritual of the mediseval church, and Mr. Weaver will render good service 
by thoroughly working out the subject. 

The Rev. T. H. Ditchfield continues from the last volume his Notes on 
Archaeology in Provincial Museums, dealing in this volume with the museum 
in Reading. 

A most interesting Paper on Schliemami's Excavations, by M. le Schomx, 
abundantly illustrated, giving a brief Memoir of the learned antiquary and 
his early struggles : and also a further Paper by Professor Halbherr on 
Schliemami's latest discoveries. 

Mr. Page continues, from the last volume, his Inventories of Church 
Goods, temp. Edward VI., London and Middlesex. 

Viscount Dillon (Sec. to the Society of Antiquaries ) introduces a very 
valuable historical communication, being an Indenture shewing the agree- 
ment made between the King and one William Swinbourne, Esq., and the 
conditions on which the said William should serve the King in foreign parts 
for the space of six months, with ten men at arms, including himself, and 
thirty mounted archers. He was to be paid at the rate of six pence a day 
for each archer, and twelve pence a day for himself and each man-at-arms, 
with the usual allowance ; but the most curious part was the arrangement 
made with respect to the " gaignes " of war, ransom of prisoners, &c. This 
document is illustrative of the usual practice, in such circumstances, at that 
period. The deed is dated at Westminster, 1st May, 9th Henry V. (1421). 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 161 

Mr. Robert J. Preston communicates some charming Notes on some Cornish 
Bench-ends. He remarks that the churches in Cornwall are full of interest to 
the archaeologist on account of the antique and beautiful carved work which is 
found in them ; but, he says, " she can boast most of all of her ' bench-ends,' 
mystic, wonderful evidences of that zeal for the house of God in bygone 
days, which had eaten up the souls of the workers." He describes only 
certain bench-ends in the ancient Collegiate Church of St. Burian and in the 
Churches of Zennor and St. Ives, three parishes near the Land's End. He 
would find the Churches of Stratton, Marham Church, Launcelles, Poughill 
and others in the extreme north of the county equally rich in carved bench- 
ends, pulpits, &c, but, alas ! the hands of the vandals have destroyed the 
greater portion of the beautiful carvings which formerly enriched the 
churches of the more central and thickly populated parishes in this county. 

Mr. R. C. Hope continues from the last volume his Notes on Holy Wells 
and their Superstitions. 

Canon Scott Robertson describes the remains of Old St. Martin's Church, 
Dover, together with certain interesting interments discovered on the removal 
of some old cottages which covered the site of the ancient church. 

The Rev. J. Cave Browne, M.A., continues and concludes his description 
of Boxley Abbey, Kent, commenced in the last volume. Canon Isaac Taylor 
continues his remarks on Pre-hhtoric Rome, and Dr. F. Halbherr on his 
Researches in Crete. There are other Papers, &c. , of much interest, but the 
space at our disposal will not allow us to proceed farther at present. 

or Dormant, alphabetically arranged, and edited by G.E.C. Vol. IV. 
G to K. London : George Bell & Sons ; Exeter : Pollard and Co. 
We noticed the third volume of this work in Vol. XIV. of our Transactions. 
The work may well be entitled the " Complete Peerage," for it is the most 
comprehensive of all the works of this class in the English language. Its 
plan is an Alphabetical Synopsis of the Entire Hereditary Peerage, including 
Life Peerages ; and it gives briefly all the usual genealogical information ; 
and the numerous notes contain a vast amount of information not elsewhere 
published. No historical library should be without this work. It bears 
evidence of the great care and research bestowed upon its production, whilst 
the initials of the compiler are a sufficient guarantee of his ability to perform 
with accuracy the work he has undertaken. 

COUNTY FOLK-LORE. Printed Extracts No. 1. Gloucestershire. Edited, 
with suggestions for the collection of Folk-lore of the County, by Edwin 
Sidney Hartland, F.S.A. London : D. Nutt, Strand. Gloucester : Davies 
and Son. 

The Folk-lore Society etablished in 1878 was not formed too soon, rather 
the contrary, for many old Legends, Folk-tales, Traditions, Witchcraft, 
Local Customs and Superstitions had already perished. Mr. Lawrence 
Gomme, the President of the Society, writes: "Foreign countries have 

162 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications 

followed the example of Great Britain, and are steadily collecting and classi- 
fying their Folk-lore. It is most gratifying to this Society to observe that 
one great result of its work has been to draw attention to the subject in all 
parts of the world ; and it is particularly noticeable that the word ' Folk- 
lore ' has been adopted as the name of the subject in foreign countries." He 
adds : " Since the establishment of the Society a great impetus has been given 
to the study and scientific treatment of those crude philosophies which Folk- 
lore embodies, hence the place now accorded to it as a science, to be 
approached in the historic spirit and treated on scientific methods. The 
meaning for a long time given to the term Folk-lore has thus been greatly 
enlarged, and the definition which the Society has adopted will illustrate 
the importance of the new departure. The science of Folk-lore is the com- 
parison and identification of the survivals of archaic beliefs, customs and 
traditions in modern ages," 

Probably there is no county more favourable to the study of Folk-lore 
than Gloucestershire. It is, pre-eminently, a border county, and is inhabited 
by mixed races of people, especially the Cymri and Saxons of various tribes. 
The miners and woodmen of the Forest of Dean and the inhabitants of the 
Cotteswold hills differ much, and both differ from the dwellers in the vale. 
The Saxons in the Forest are mostly of the West Saxon blood, and their 
habits and speech very closely agree with those of the natives of West 
Somerset and North Devon extending into Cornwall. There is much to 
observe and much to study in the Folk-lore of these peoples, and we glad 
that " there is a chield amang us taking notes." 

The present pamphlet, by Mr. E. S, Hartland, is based chiefly on extracts 
from "Rudder" and the " Gloucestershire Notes & Queries." Perhaps he 
might glean something to suit his purpose from the Berkeley MSS. (Maclean's 
edition) Vol. III., pp. 16-34. Manorial Customs, Proverbs peculiar to the 
Hundred, Dedication, &c, but still better something fresh gathered in the 
several localities. 

Even since the above was written, at " The Congress of Orientalists," 
held in London on 6th Sept. 1892, after a discussion on the subject, a 
resolution was adopted affirming the desirability of forming a systematic 
collection of ancient and modern folk-lore." 

In the last volume of our Transactions is announced a proposal for the 
publication of Abstracts of 1000 ancient Charters and other documents 
selected from the Muniments in Berkeley Castle. We have now the pleasure 
of stating for the information of the subscribers, and the members of the 
Society generally, that this work will be issued to the subscribers early in 


IN 1891-22, 

At the Autumn Meeting held at Gloucester, 
On Thursday, October 8 th. 

The General Autumnal Meeting of this Society was held at Gloucester, on 
Thursday, October 8th, and was attended by the following members and 
many others : — Sir Brook Kay, Bart., The Very Rev. The Dean of Glou- 
cester, The Revs. W. T. Blathwayt, J. F. Green, W. H. Silvester 
Davies, and William Bazeley ( Hon. Sec. ) ; Messrs. H. W. Bruton, M. 
Medland, R. Groves Morris ; G. S. Blakeway, W. J. Braikenrldge, 
F. W. Waller, F. A. Hyett, E. A. D' Argent, and E. Hartland {Hon. 
Treasurer), &c. 

The Members assembled at the Tolsey, which was kindly placed at the 
disposal of the Society by the Mayor and Corporation of Gloucester, and the 
Chair was taken by Sir Brook Kay, Bart. {President of the Council). The 
following addition to the rules of the Society had been proposed by Mr. F. 
A. Hyett at the General Meeting, held at Moreton-in-Marsh, and carried by 
the requisite number of votes, but it is necessary that it should be sub- 
mitted to another General Meeting for confirmation. Between Rules V. 
and VI. to insert the following words : — 

"V.a. Members who have held the post of Hon. Treasurer or Hon. 
General Secretary to the Society for a period of five years, shall be 
eligible, on nomination by the Council, for election as Honorary 

' ( Rule V. b. The Subscribing Members may at any General or Special 
Meeting, on recommendation by the Council, and by resolution of 
which notice has been given, confer on any Hon. Member or Mem- 
bers all the rights and privileges in the Society which they themselves 
possess, any provisions to the contrary in Rules IV., VII., or XIV. 
notwithstanding. " 

The resolution having been put to the Meeting was duly confirmed. 

At the conclusion of the Meeting Luncheon was partaken of at Mr. Fisher's, 
and a good deal of interest was shewn in the carved oaken panelling of one 
of the rooms of his house. Amongst the decorations of the walls may be 
mentioned the heads of (?) the owner and his wife, the female head having 
the motto " Behold ■ Mi • Face " ; The Agnus Dei ; a shield of late type 
with the following bearing : a lend betw. 3 stags, a chief barry wavy of four, 
between the initials 'T.P.,' supposed to be those of Thomas Pope ; a Pope's 
Vol. XVI. m 


Transactions for the Year, 1891-92. 

tiara or triple crown with rays, and on either side a tassel ; a sheaf of arrows 
between two crowned pomegranates, the badges of Queen Katherine of 
Arragon ; the royal arms of Henry VEIL, with a greyhound and dragon for 
supporters, the dragon being on the sinister side ; a portcullis ; a Tudor 
badge, with lions as supporters ; the initials T. and P. being tied together 
with a twisted cord ; the lion of England ; the dragon of Wales, &c. 

These carvings have been drawn by Mr. Kowitt ; and Mr. Fisher intends 
to issue a description of them richly illustrated. Mr. Howitt, who has also 
written on the subject in the Gloucester Journal, thinks the carving was 
executed about the year 1525. The use of the greyhound as a supporter, Mr. 
Bazeley remarked, would lead him to suggest a slightly earlier date, say 

At two o'clock the Society was courteously received at the Cathedral by 
the Dean, who called the attention of the Members to some problems con- 
nected with the history of the sacred building. He was puzzled, he said, 
with regard to the date of the Crypt and some parts of the Choir, &c. Prof. 
Freeman had unhesitatingly declared that there was no part of the Cathedral 
earlier than the time of Abbot Serlo (1072-1104) ; and it would seem from Mr. 
Waller's edition of Haines' Guide to the Cathedral that the Cathedral Archi- 
tect agreed with Mr. Freeman. On the other hand, the late Mr. Gambier 
Parry, as was shewn in his interesting article in The Records of Gloucester 
Cathedral? had believed the Crypt to have been built by Aldred, Bishop of 
Worcester, in 1058. In one of his latest utterances Mr. Parry had begged 
him (the Dean) never to give up the earlier date. Mr. Bazeley, relying on 
the evidence of Masons' marks, and Mr. Harrison, who believed the columns 
in the Crypt to be of Saxon workmanship, held to the same opinion as Mr. 
Parry. The party then proceeded to the Choir ; and Mr. Bazeley described 
the Great East Window, on which, he said, a very able article, by the late 
Mr. Winston, had appeared in the Archaeological Journal. 

The stone-work of the window, which was part of the great structural 
change effected in the eastern limb of the Cathedral by Abbot Wygmore and 
his successors in the 14th century, was contemporary with the glass. The 
date of the glass might be ascertained from the heraldic shields in the lowest 
tier of lights. Commencing with the uppermost tier of lights, and proceed- 
ing from left to right, Mr. Bazeley briefly described the figures and shields 
which have survived the wreck of time and ill-judged efforts of so-called 
restorers. The accompanying diagram, which has been reproduced from the 
Archaeological Journal, with the kind permission of the Council of the Royal 
Arch geological Institute, will enable the members to follow Mr. Bazeley 's 
description : " The subject of the design is The Enthronement of the Blessed 
Virgin, who appears crowned and enthroned, in the 7th light of the fourth 
tier from the sill, i.e. in the light numbered 17 in Mr. Winston's plan. The 
topmost light, No. 1, has an inserted figure of a Pope and a canopy, both of 
15th century glass. It was, perhaps, originally occupied by a representation 
of the First Person of the Trinity, or by a Dove, the symbol of the Third 

1 " The Builders and Buildings of the Ancient Abbey of Saint Peter, now the Cathedral 
Church," by Thomas Gambier Parry, Esq., M.A., D.L. " Records of Gloucester Cathedral," 
Vol. I., p. 38, (1882-3). 

2 " An Account of the Painted Glass in the East Window of Gloucester Cathedral," by 
Charles Winston. —Archaeological Journal, Vol. XX., pp. 238, 319 (1863). 

Diagram illustrative of the East "Window of Gloucester Cathedral. 

Gloucester Cathedral. 


Person. Nos. 2,2 and 3,3,3,3 are filled with stars and roundels, and Nos. 4,4.4 
with canopy work. The principal group : Our Lord and His Mother surrounded 
by the Principal Apostles and Evangelists is placed in FF. Above, in G,G, are 
adoring angels ; below, in E,E, various saints ; in D,D, ecclesiastics and 
kings ; and in C,C, the heraldic shields of the donor, of the nobleman he 
wished to commemorate, and of those who fought with them in one of 
England's most glorious campaigns. In G,G five of the angels are original, 
and one. No. 6, is an insertion. This becomes evident when we compare the 
colours of the nimbus with the canopy. To commence at the extreme left of 
tier F,F— No. 11 (?) S. Mark with his book of the Gospel ; No. 12, S. James 
the Less with a fuller's club ; No. 13 (?) S. Mathew with the Gospel ; No. 14, 
S. Andrew with the X cross ; No. 15, S. John with eagle and palm-branch ; No. 
16, S. Peter with keys and model of a church with spire ; No. 17, Our Lord's 
Mother enthroned ; No. 18, The Saviour, having a green nimbus with white 
cross, and His hand raised in the act of blessing, the upper part of the 
figure only original ; No. 19, S. Paul with sword and book ; No. 20, S. 
Thomas with the spaar and girdle of S. Mary : he has no nimbus ; Nos. 
21-24, fragments ; E,E, No. 25, S. Dorothy with crown of red roses ; No. 
26, S. George with skull cap, hawberk of mail and white cyclas : he holds 
a spear in his right hand and rests his left hand on his sword : he has 
no nimbus ; No. 27, a female saint with a book ; No. 28, (?) S. Edmund, 
King of East Anglia, crowned, holding an arrow ; No. 29, S. Margaret 
piercing a dragon with her spear ; No. 30, S. Lawrence with a gridiron ; 
No. 31, S. Catherine with sword and book: below her is the spiked wheel 
on which Olybrius intended to torture her to death ; No. 32, S. J ohn 
the Baptist, wth naked legs and feet ; No. 33, fragments ; No. 34, S. Martin of 
Tours, or S. Maurice, with sword in right hand and holding his girdle with the 
left ; No. 35, a figure leaning on a green club ; there should be a female saint 
in this light ; No. 36 (?) S. Edward the Confessor, with sceptre : Nos. 37, 38, 
evidently insertions ; D.D. 39-52, various ecclesiastics and sovereigns, no 
doubt distinguished Benedictines and their patrons, none of them have 
nimbuses. C.C. Nos. 53-64, eighteen heraldic shields, eight in the wings, 
which Mr, Winston considers all in situ, and ten in the central lights, several 
of which are insertions from earlier and later windows in the cathedral. 
No. 53, Richard, Earl of Arundel ; No. 54, Thomas, Lord Berkeley, died 
1368 ; No. 55, Thomas, Earl of Warwick ; No. 56, fragments ; William, 
Earl of Northampton ; Nos. 57-59, inserted ; No. 60, Edward, the Black 
Prince, died 1376 ; No. 61, Henry of Lancaster, not original ; No. 62, 
inserted ; No. 63, Lawrence, Earl of Pembroke ; No. 64, Gilbert, or Richard, 
Lord Talbot ; No. 65, Sir Maurice de Berkeley, slain 1347 ; No. 66, Thomas, 
Lord Bradeston, died 1360 ; No. 67, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, executed 
1321, an insertion ; No. 69, King of England, inserted ; No. 70, Henry, 
Earl of Lancaster, died 1361. The evidence afforded by these shields 
implies that the window was erected by Thomas, Lord Bradeston, of Bra- 
deston, near Berkeley, in memory of his comrade and friend, Sir Maurice 
Berkeley, the son and heir of Thomas, Lord Berkeley, slain at the siege of 
Calais, and in commemoration of the French campaign which ended in the 
glorious English victory of Cressy. The date of the window is probably 

M 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92, 

The party then proceeded to the Lady Chapel which was described, 
architecturally by Mr. F. W. Waller who had prepared excellent maps of 
the Eastern limb of the cathedral. 

Mr. Bazeley read some Notes on The Early English Chapel, built by Sir 
Ralph and Olympias de Willington, a.l>. 1224. This paper will be printed 
in extenso post. Mr. Waller suggested that the Lady Chapel of the De 
Willingtons was not a separate or entirely new edifice in the 13th century, 
but merely an adaptation of one of the Norman chapels of the choir, most 
probably the central chapel of the apse, behind the high altar, which he 
thought might have remained intact until the erection of the present Lady 
Chapel at the end of the 15th century. 

The Meeting closed with a vote of thanks to the Dean, Mr. Waller, and 
the General Secretary for their efforts on behalf of the members. 

Arnald de Berkeley. 


ARNALD DE BERKELEY, Baron of the Exchequer, 1264. 


As no attempt has ever been made to trace the career of this 
scion of an old Gloucestershire family, the following notices of 
him, extracted from contemporary records, will, it is hoped, be 
found of interest, especially as they throw light on the under- 
currents of official life during the troubled reign of Henry III. 

It seems safe to identify him at starting with the " Ernald of 
Coberley " who in 1221 received, under cover of a writ of " Mort 
d'Ancestor," half a hide of land in that vill from Robert de 
Berkeley, its lord, — to be held with another hide which he pre- 
viously had there, at the nominal rent of a pound of pepper every 
Christmas, but in the event of his decease not to pass to his heirs 
on the same terms. 2 Presumably he was, like Robert himself, a 
grandson (or perhaps great-grandson) of William de Berkeley, the 
founder of Kingswood Abbey. 

Nothing further is traceable of Ernald of Coberley, but about 
ten years later the name of Ernald de Berkeley 3 appears under 
circumstances which favour the presumption that he was the same 

1 Madox includes his name in the List of Barons on the strength of a 
deed which he quotes, but makes no remarks about him. — History of the 
Exchequer, Vol. I, p. 319. 

Foss repeats this account, merely adding a reference as to the invasion 
of Arnald's lands in Herefordshire in 1267.— Judges of England, Vol. II, 
p. 237. 

2 "Finalis Concordia — inter Robertum de Berkele petentem et Ernaldum 
de Cuberley tenentem — de dimict hid. terre in Cuberley." — Pedes Finium, 
Glouc, No. 46, Henry III. 

3 The use of Coberley as an alternative surname was not uncommon in 
the family. Even in the next century, when people's names were much 
more settled, we find Sir John de Coberle summoned as a Juror to replace 
Sir Thomas de Berkele de Coberle in 1 336 .—Cart. Sc Fridemide, Oxon. 
While in 1372 (47 Edw. III., No. 55) the last Sir Thomas de Berkeley of 
Coberley is called in his Probatio .'Etatis Thomas de Coberley. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

individual, who after studying at Oxford during this interval had 
for some time past been in Holy Orders. 1 On the 27th January, 
1232, the Bishop of Lincoln is called on to induct Ernald de 
Berkeley in the church of Lillingstone, in the County of Oxford, 
on the King's presentation ; 2 and on the 17th April following the 
Archbishop of York is applied to on similar grounds to admit 
him to the church of Thorpe in the last named county. 3 Previous 
to the 1 Lth October in the same year he had likewise been pre- 
sented to the church of St. Peter in the East, in the City of 
Oxford, which still stands to attest its architectural importance, 
which is such as to warrant the supposition that it would only 
have been conferred on a preacher of some reputation at the 
University. This nomination, however, for some mysterious reason, 
was cancelled, an entry of the date above cited on the Close Roll 
directing, that H. Bishop of Lincoln should be " requested to 
institute Pontius de Ponte thereto, as the King had been deceived 
in his presentation thereof to Arnald de Berkeley." 4 Whatever 
the deception, Arnald can scarcely have been a party to it, for 
he retained Henry's favour, a writ being addressed by the King 
from Oxford on 28th July, 1233, to the Archdeacon of Canterbury 
setting forth that he had presented Arnald de Berkeley to the 
church of St. Peter's, Dover, 5 whilst in 1234 he requested the 

1 The stipulated reversion of the grant in Coberley to the donor in the 
event of Ernald's death, looks as if he were destined for the priesthood, and 
assuming the fine to have been passed when he came of age, he would have 
been old enough for ordination two or three years after its date. 

2 Rot. Lit. Patentium, 15th Henry III., probably St. Mary's, Lillingston 
Lovell, which has always been in the gift of the Crown. As Henry's reign 
began on 28th October, 1216, all dates after 31st December in his 15th year 
fell in 1232. 

3 Rot. Lit. Patentium, 15th Henry III. We learn from the Hundred 
Rolls that this was Thorp juxta York. 

4 Rot. Lit. Clausarum, 15th Hen. III. — Pontius was in high favour with 
the young King. We find from the Close Rolls of this year — orders in his 
favour for casks of wine from the King's cellar at Oxford , a couple of 
does on two occasions from Whichwood Forest, and, lastly, on 31st August, 
the Mayor is directed to provide him with another house in that city, as 
the one he lives in is required by its owner "who proposes to study." 
Pontius was probably son, or brother, of Reginald de Ponte of Cognac, an 
engineer on whom two years before Henry had settled a pension of 200 
marks on his taking the oath of allegiance. 

5 Rot. Lit. Pat., 16th Hen. III. 

Arnali> de Berkeley. 


Archbishop himself to institute him to the church of Alderman 
chirche. 1 In 1242 the Archdeacon of Canterbury is notified of 
his presentation to the church of Halton, 2 Bucks ; making in all 
five 3 crown livings conferred on him, — in accordance with the 
vicious practice of the day — for his support in the King's service, 
the entire civil administration of the kingdom being then confided 
to ecclesiastics as the only educated class of the community. It 
must have been manifestly impracticable for Arnald to serve 
churches scattered from one end of England to the other, and 
there is no reason to suspect that he was anywhere Resident 
Incumbent, except, perhaps, in the case of Datchworth, Herts, 
to the rectory of which he was presented in 1249 by John de 
Burgh, son of the famous Minister Hubert. 4 His duties about 
the Court were purely secular, connected with the Royal Revenue, 
out of which, in addition to his ecclesiastical income, considerable 
pickings fell to his share. Thus, in 1232, having purchased the 
Wardship of Robert de Chandos of Herefordshire for 20 marks, 5 
he was allowed when he paid 5 of them in the next year, 6 to 
deduct an equal amount, and on further payment two years later 7 
of 5 more, is declared " quit," in virtue of a royal brief, so that 
half the debt was remitted. Again in 1242 he is credited 8 with 
having collected 60 marks from the Jews in Herefordshire, of 
which he is allowed by the King to retain 12, — this sum (£8) 
being entered on the Pipe Roll of the year 9 " as accounted for " 

1 Rot. Lit. Pat., 18th Henry III. I do not know where this church is 

2 Rot. Litt. Pat., 26th Hen. III. 

3 Probably he resigned the earliest to a kinsman, for on 11th July, 1233, 
the Bishop of Lincoln is called to induct John de Berkeley into the church of 
Lillingston, on the King's presentation. (Rot. Lit. Pat., 17th Henry III.) 
There are, however, two parishes of the name in the county. Whether he 
received other preferment either from the crown, or, as in the case of Datch- 
worth, from lay patrons, is uncertain. He was very likely the Ernaldus 
Capellanus who appears in the Herefordshire Pipe Roll of 1258 as holding a 
cure in Arblate. 

4 See Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, Vol. II., p. 317. 

5 Vide Rot. Litt. Claus. 16th Henry III. 

6 Vide Mag Rot. Pipa? Hereford, 17th Henry III. 

7 Vide Ibid. , 19th Henry III. 

8 Vide Rot. Litt. Claus., 26th Henry III. 

u Vide Mag Rot. Pip., Hereford, 26th Henry III. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

by him. He soon began likewise to acquire land. In 1234 he 
received a Royal grant of some which had escheated from one 
William Balistarius in Berkeley. This could hardly have been 
made except with the knowledge of the Chief- Lord of the Fief, 
with whom indeed Arnald's relations about this period were very 
cordial, as shown by the occurrence of his name among the wit- 
nesses to several of the charters 1 executed by Thomas de Berkeley 
the then Baron. Only one of these is dated — April, 1236 — but 
others were probably earlier, and may have been drawn up by 
him, as he is styled " Ernulphus Clericus," except in a single 
instance where he is called " Arnulphus 2 de Berkelee, Clericus," 

As his means increased he took steps on his own account for 
the acquisition of property. In 1249 he obtained, through a fine 
from Richard de Cowley and Matilda his wife the right to hold a 
Burgage and its appurtenances in Berkeley for 2 marks of silver, 
paying annually to the chief lord of that fief an " obolus," (half- 
penny) and performing all the services pertaining thereto ; 3 and 
in 1255 he got a transfer from Peter de Wike of a lease for seven 
years of lands and a fishery. 4 

It was natural enough that he should thus seek to become of 
importance in his own neighbourhood, but it is less easy to under- 
stand why he, a priest, without, as would appear, near male 
relatives, 5 was so eager to acquire lands and houses in other coun- 
ties. Already, in 1218, he had purchased half a knight's fee in 
Rochull, 6 Shropshire, in which county he likewise held, before 

1 Vide Select Charters, preserved at Berkeley Castle, Nos. 237, 277, 279 
and 339. 

2 The same name as Arnald — vide Mr. Freeman's essay on the Counts of 
Ardres, or Mr. J. H. Round's Notes as to Arnulf de Mandeville, in his 
recent work, " The Anarchy." The original Teutonic EarnwuJf had become 
Arnulf in Flanders, Arnoul in France, and Arnold in England, although in 
the last of these countries it was, in the 13th century, spelt in every con- 
ceivable fashion. Arnald de Berkeley usually appears in the Records as 
Erncddus, but in the Hundred Rolls, temp. Edward 1., is [referred to as 
Harnal de Berkeley, whilst in an Irish Roll he is spoken of as Ernisius, 
probably through an erroneous extension of the abbreviation Em*. 

3 Pedes Finium, Glouc, No. 13, Hillary Term, 33rd Henry III. 

4 Select Charters at Berkeley Castle, No. 427. 

5 At his death his sister inherited. 
0 Eyton's Salop. 

AnisrALD de Berkeley. 


1255, a quarter of a fee in Watermore 1 of John de Esturmi, and in 
1256 Diddsbury, of Walter de Clifford, of Corfham, 2 while three 
years later he had an " assize of nouvel disseisin " against William 
de Cambrai as to Hopton Cangford." 3 In Herefordshire he obtained 
the King's license in 1254 to purchase 30 acres of land in Brad- 
field, 4 becoming as well tenant of other crown lands in the same 
county, and holding as we know at a somewhat later date 5 in the 
parishes of Much Marcle and Brockhampton of their respective 
lords. With both these counties his cousins of Coberley had some 
connection, but he had not the same inducement in the case of 
either Buckinghamshire, where he seems from the Hundred Rolls 
to have had an interest both in Halton, where he was rector, 
and in Woburn f or in Northamptonshire, where he must have 
possessed a farm, since in 1258 the justiciers were enjoined to 
enquire who it was that broke into Arnald de Berkeley's grange 
at Fancote by night, 7 the outrage being deemed of so much con- 
sequence that it is again alluded to on the Close Roll of the 
succeeding year. 8 Possibly the affair had some political signifi- 
cance, for the contest between the King and his Barons had grown 
serious, on the violation by the former in that very year of the 
Provisions of Oxford, and Arnald now filled a recognised position 
in the Royal household, having been promoted in 1251 to the 
office of Clerk to the King (Clericus Regis). A stipend of 20 
marks a year was attached to this post, with certain perquisites, 
which in his case included— 3 oaks every Christmas for firewood, 
and the present of a robe at that season. 9 The precise nature of 
1 Rot. Hundredorum, Vol. II., p. 74. 2 Eyton's Shropshire. 3 Ibid. 

4 Rot. Litt. Claus., 38th Henry III. It would seem that he bought the 
land from the crown on credit. 

5 Rot. Pip. Herefordshire, 3rd Edw. I. 

6 There is a Woe-burn in Bucks as well as in Beds. Whether Arnald's 
lands were those elsewhere spoken of as of Weston I do not know — See post 
p. 176. 

7 Rot. Lit. Pat., 42nd Hen. III. 8 Rot. Lit. Claus., 43rd Hen. III. 

9 Rot. Litt. Claus., 35th Hen. III. — The present of oak trees for firewood 
from the Royal forests was customary throughout the kingdom. The cost 
of such fuel must have been greatly enhanced by the expenses of carriage, 
save where the grantee resided in the vicinity. In Arnald's case it was given 
him from Havering (at Bower), in Essex, not much above ten miles from 
his rectory at Datchworth, in Hertfordshire, where his Christmas, it may 
surmised, was usually kept. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

the duties does not appear, but, presumably, he looked after the 
King's private accounts with the Exchequer, and saw that the 
necessary funds for the Royal expenditure were supplied. That 
he enjoyed the entire confidence of the Court is proved by 
his being selected in 1259 to act as financial agent to the heir 
apparent, the Patent Roll of that year granting protection in 
his favour " so long as he shall be in the service of Edward, 
the King's son, in Ireland." 1 This looks at first sight as if the 
Prince himself were going there, but although such a step was 
contemplated, it was never taken, and Arnald's mission was really 
to procure money for him out of the Irish revenue. Though 
only just 20, Edward had been married several years, and not- 
withstanding his father had, with his usual lavish extravagance, 
settled on him, in addition to large estates in England, the 
revenues of Gascony, Wales and Ireland, these were so far from 
bringing in the estimated income of 15,000 marks a year, that 
we learn that in 1258 the Prince had been so hard pressed that 
he had pledged some of his possessions to his uncle, William 
de Yalence, and would even have sold the lie d'Oleron to Guy de 
Lusignan, if the sale had not been revoked by the King. Forced 
to have recourse elsewhere, it was determined to despatch an 
officer of experience to Dublin to overhaul the Treasury Accounts. 
Their unsatisfactory condition, as may be gathered from a lengthy 
and rambling Report, 2 made nearly a quarter of a century later 
by Commissioners appointed on the dismissal of the then Treasurer, 
was due in part at least to the practice which had grown up of 
borrowing money on account of the Crown on the security of 
orders redeemable in Ireland either in lands or cash as from time 
to time arranged. This is well exemplified by the following 
extract from the Report in question : " Money is still due to the 
Executors of William de Dene. 3 which was not paid because Sir 4 

1 Rot. Litt. Pat., 43rd Henry III. 

2 Irish State Papers, Vol. III., pp. 1 to 15— "Report on State of the 
Exchequer in Dublin ; that of the Chancery ; and of the Country generally." 
Referred in the margin to about 13th Edw. I. (1285). 

3 William de Dene died before August, 1261. — See Vol. III. as above, 
No. 731. 

4 As the names of Bachelors in Arts in mediaeval times were recorded in 
the University Registers as Dominux, which in English was translated 
" Sir." In Ecclesiastical and Academical status they were inferior to Masters. 

Aknald de Berkeley. 


Ernisius de Berkeley enquired regarding William's receipt. By 
gifts and receipts he received more in land and in the Excheqner 
than was paid to the Lord Edward." This indicates the benefit 
derived by the Prince from Arnald's intervention, and it is clear, 
likewise, that the King was pleased with the result of the mission, 
since he ordered the Barons of the Exchequer in 1262 1 "to pay 
his Clerk Ernald de Berkeley £40 out of a debt due by the men 
of Minsterworth," 2 a high rate of remuneration even for a couple 
of years work, since the Barons themselves received but 40 marks 
for their annual salaries. On resuming his previous functions in 
England, Arnald did not forget to claim his perquisites, for we 
find from the Close Roll that in May, 1263, three oaks from 
Havering were allotted to him, presumably in respect to the pre- 
vious Christmas, his name being omitted from the lists of 1260-62. 
This is the last occasion on which he is mentioned as the "King's 
Clerk," for he does not again appear until 1264, when he had 
become one of the Barons of the Exchequer. Possibly he held 
his former office till the civil war actually broke out, one of its 
effects being the non-compilation of the usual Bolls, as testified 
by gaps in some of them at the present dav. To avert the final 
rupture the mediation of the French King had been invoked late 
in 1263 by the contending parties, 3 bub matters had gone too far 
to admit of other arbitrement than that of the sword, the Barons 
— who held the supremacy in the western counties— having 
blocked up Prince Edward in Bristol Castle, whilst the London 
mob was so hostile that the King was shut up in the Tower. A 
truce was indeed proclaimed early in 1264, and Edward, who had 
escaped by stratagem, met Louis at Amiens, but the negotiations 
having come to nothing, Henry took the field in March. Though 
successful on 3rd April at Northampton, his forces suffered total 

1 Fine Roll, 46th Henry III. 

2 On account of their ferm of the Royal manor which was in arrear. — 
Glouc Pipe Roll, 42nd Hen. III. 

3 It is noteworthy that among those who signed the letter addressed by 
the Barons to the King of France, appears " Galfridus de Cobberleigh, 
Clerieus," who can scarcely be other than one bearing both these names, 
who was shortly afterwards (1270) party to a fine as to the advowson of the 
church of Coberley, Gloucestershire, and doubtless therefore a near kinsman 
of Arnald de Berkeley. 



defeat on the 14th May at the battle of Lewes, and both he 
and his son were prisoners when the Parliament met on the 
22nd June. What the position of non-combatant servants of 
the crown was whilst these events were passing, can only be 
conjectured from the recorded fact that " the Exchequer was 
closed because all the officials had taken flight."' Their names 
even are unknown, those of 1261 being the last traceable from 
the Rolls, nor, for the same reason, can we tell the precise date 
at wJ^ich new officials were nominated. We may be pretty sure, 
however, that the Earls of Leicester and of Gloucester, the 
leaders of the Insurrection, lost little time after their victory 
in providing for the collection of the revenue to meet the expenses 
of the Government, since " the King's Rents and Ferms due at 
Easter had not been paid." By the end of June, certainly, Nicholas 
of Ely was appointed Treasurer ; John de Chishull, Chancellor ; 
and Edward of Westminster and Arnald de Berkeley, Barons, of the 
Exchequer. As none of them were violent partisans, and there 
could be no question about their competency, all four having pre- 
viously been in the service of the Crown, 1 the selection probably 
met with the King's assent, and this is evidenced by the fact that 
a deed executed by them on 31st October, 1264, respecting the 
office of Weigher (which forms the sole record of their collective 
action) was entered on the Great Roll of the Pipe made up for 
the year 1265 long after their supersession. 

The inclusion of Arnald de Berkeley among the nominees of 
the rebel leaders was somewhat strange, since, after his long and 

1 Nicholas of Ely had been nominated for Chancellor by the Baronial 
party in October, 1260, when they were in power under the Provisions of 
Oxford, and although dismissed by the King a few months afterwards, was 
made Treasurer in 1262, and re-appointed Chancellor in 1263, so that he 
cannot long have been away from the Exchequer. John de Chishull, Arch- 
deacon (but subsequently Bishop) of London, had been one of the King's 
clerks, and was sent to Paris in 1263 to aid in the negotiation for a compro- 
mise. Though called on to surrender the King's seal on 25th February, 1265, 
he was so little obnoxious that it was entrusted to him again after the King's 
triumph at Evesham, but he was never definitely confirmed as Chancellor. 

Edward of Westminster was thoroughly conversant with the routine of 
the Exchequer, having been Chancellor from 1248 to 1251 when he was 
superseded. While .Arnald de Berkeley, besides having been the King's 
clerk for more than 20 years, must have acquired considerable experience of 
Exchequer duties during his Irish mission. 

Arnald de Berkeley. 


intimate connection with the Court, he would hardly have been 
chosen by them unless they felt assured of his hearty co-operation 
in their designs. It may, perhaps, be partly explained by the 
influence brought to bear upon him by the Berkeleys of Coberley, 
who had for over a century held a Knight's fee of the Honour of 
Gloucester, and it is worthy of remark that as soon as the young 
Earl had quarrelled with De Montfort, and withdrawn to the 
west of England, Arnald was removed from ofhce, after a very 
brief tenure. On 1st November, 1264, Roger de la Leye, one of 
the Remembrancers of the Exchequer, was ordered to be admitted 
by the others to the rank of a Baron with a view to his residing 
there, 1 which it is clear none of them did ; and by the end of the 
same month a close-writ was issued, purporting to be tested as 
usual by the King, but countersigned by Hugh le Bigod and 
another of De Montfort's adherents, intimating "that as a 
Treasurer and a Chancellor had not yet been appointed," this 
same Roger de la Leye was to execute these offices until further 
orders. Either a clean sweep of the previous officers had been 
made, or their appointments were simply ignored, for not long 
afterwards Henry de St. Radegunde was made treasurer with 
four colleagues, 2 none of the number, save Roger de la Leye, 
having before been at the Exchequer. 

It would have been well for Arnald de Berkeley had he 
availed himself of this supersession to mark openly his severance 
from the extreme faction which retained power. It might have 
been a service of danger, however, to travel from London to the 
western counties for such a purpose, and he probably thought it 
enough to retire to his Hertfordshire rectory. Unluckily for him, 
his patron and neighbour, De Burgh, adhered to De Montfort until 
his overthrow at Evesham on 5th Aug. 1265, thereby forfeiting 
all his possessions, to be redeemed only on the hard terms of the 
Dictum of Kenilworth at the end of the war. It is not surprising 
under such circumstances that Arnald de Berkeley should have 
been popularly suspected of remaining with the King's enemies to 
the last, and that he was in consequence subjected to serious 

1 Madox History of the Exchequer, Vol. II., p. 55, 

2 Ibid. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

inconvenience and damage, his lands being everywhere pillaged 
"by the bands of armed men who traversed the country during the 
autumn of 1265. The King, indeed, seems to have taken a 
lenient view of his conduct, for although he was not again 
appointed to the Exchequer, nor even reinstated as Clerk, he 
suffered neither fine nor forfeiture, and was not only allowed to 
appeal to the Law Courts for redress, but even received special 
protection. In January, 1266, he instituted proceedings against 
Walter de Pedwardin for injury to his Manor of Rochull, Shrop- 
shire, 1 and in September following we find him not only con- 
tinuing this suit by his attorney, 2 but bringing separate actions 
against other trespassers, viz. : William de Berkeley, 3 and John 
de Esturmi, 4 for forcible entry of his lands at Halton and Weston 
in the county of Bucks, and seizing and detaining his goods and 
chattels thereon. None of the defendants put in an appearance, 
and they were consequently pronounced to be in default and 
liable to arrest, unless bail were given for their attendance next 

It was evidently easy to protract matters, for as late as 
Hilary, 1268, Arnald was still suing Walter de Pedwardyn as to 
Hochull, 5 though he seems to have eventually succeeded, and died 
seized of the manor. In the adjoining county of Hereford, his 
lands at Merkele (Much Marcle), Bradfield and Brockhampton 

1 Eyton's History of Salop, Vol. IV. Walter de Pedwardyn was a 
red-hot Royalist. 

2 " Idem Arnaldus de Berkele per Attorn su op' se 4 t0 die versus 
Walterum de Pedartha de placita quia ipse bona sua apud Rochehulla cepit 
et abduxit, &c., &c." — Coram Dno Rege apud Westminst in Octav Scti 
Mich. Anno 50, incipiente 51. — (Now called "Curia Regis Rolls.) 

3 This William de Berkeley, a younger brother of the Baron's, was one 
of the most notorious of these marauders. It was he who, at the head of a 
body of Welshmen, landed at Minehead " to rob Somersetshire," (as Robert 
of Gloucester puts it), but was repulsed with loss by the keeper of Dunster 
Castle. He eventually carried things too far, and was compelled in 56 
Henry III. to become an Hospitaller and abjure the realm, giving sixteen 
sureties, including his brother Richard, never to return. — See Smyth's Lives 
of the Berkeleys, Vol. I., p. 120. 

4 John d'Esturmi was Arnald's overlord for years at Watermore in 
Shropshire, but must have become his bitter enemy. 

s Eyton's Salop, Vol. IV. 

Aknald de Berkeley. 


were in like manner attacked, for in 1267 the King gave special 
instructions to the sheriff to enquire whether Henry de Caldwell 
had invaded these manors and taken Arnald de Berkeley's goods. 1 

Apparently he was successful here, too, but his losses and legal 
expenses must have been heavy, and it was doubtless about this 
time that he accepted the position of "Master of the Hospital of 
the Holy Trinity, at Longbridge without Berkeley," which cer- 
tainly looks like coming down in the world. 

This institution had been founded by the first Maurice de 
Berkeley in 1189, for the residence of a certain number of 
brethren and sisters ; but it seems to have been regarded from 
the outset with jealousy by the abbots of St. Augustine, Bristol, 
who were patrons of the vicarage of Berkeley, and to have owed 
its continued existence to the Bishops of Worcester, within whose 
diocese it lay. A controversy had latterly sprung up between 
them and the Barons as to the right of presentation to the master- 
ships, which it was eventually arranged should be alternate ; and 
it is not improbable, from the events which subsequently hap- 
pened, that Arnald de Berkeley owed his appointment to his 
former colleague at the Exchequer, Nicholas of Ely, who became 
bishop early in 1266, and not to the then baron. It is certain, 
at all events, that the vacancy caused by Arnald's death was 
filled up by the baron. 2 

He can scarcely have settled down in his ecclesiastical retreat 
before he was again despatched to Ireland by Prince Edward, 3 

1 Abbreviatio Placit, 51 Henry III. See also Duncumbe's Hereford- 
shire, Vol. III. The Caldwell's were neighbours of Arnald's at Much 

2 According to Smyth (Hundred of Berkeley, p. 260) the controversy 
arose in 1*255, the prior or master of the Hospital being called on to do fealty 
to the abbot of St. Augustine's. It is not stated how the question was at 
that time settled, but he refers (Lives of the Berkeleys, Vol. I., p. 76), to 
the " Registrum Wigornense " as showing that the mastership being void 
in 54th Henry III. ("the year of Amald de Berkeley's death") the Lord 
Maurice then presented ; the bishop next time." 

3 It is distinctly stated in the pleadings in 1269, hereafter referred to, 
that Arnald was master of the Hospital when he crossed to Ireland in the 
Prince's service, and this clearly happened during the episcopate of Nicholas, 
which began in 1266. See Note, p. 17. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

its titular Lord, to place its finances on a sounder footing, which 
the experience gained at the English Exchequer must have 
apparently admirably qualified him to accomplish, for the report 
previously alluded to {ante p. 172) sets forth that "when Sir Ernald 
de Berkeley was in the Dublin Exchequer, 1 allowances were made 
after a due manner, and rolls were drawn up with due deliberation, 
but now by the removal of clerks by the Justiciary, to the King's 
great loss," all this is changed. 

His absence from England on this occasion can scarcely have 
exceeded a twelvemonth, but although he had adopted the pre- 
cautions before leaving, of placing the Hospital in the custody of 
his friend the Bishop of Worcester, and of appointing Nicholas, 
vicar of Berkeley, his agent, (ballivus) to look after the property 
on the spot, he found on his return that it had been despoiled by 
fraud and violence. Arnald at once, as in former cases, had 
recourse to law, and it is from the Gloucester Assize Roll of 53rd 
Henry III., which is still extant, that the particulars are to be 
gathered. The Bishop, it appears, substituted as custos pro tern 
Robert de Kingston, who, with the connivance of the vicar, made 
over to Roger, who it is suggested in the pleadings was in reality 
one of his own villans, a messuage in Slimbridge which belonged 
to the Hospital. It is asserted in reply to Arnald's claim for 
restitution, that he resigned the Mastership in the vicar's favour, 
but the jury find that Nicholas was only his ballivus, and that 
Robert and Roger merely held of Mm, and they consider that 
Arnald should recover the aforesaid messuage as the right of the 

1 This may, of course, refer to his visit in 1259, though it is scarcely 
likely that when merely King's clerk he would have been invested with so 
much authority. It is, however, right to add that there is nothing in the 
Report to indicate that he was there more than once, and also that the para- 
graph above set out, occurs on p. 3, whereas that previously quoted (ante 
p. 172) as to William de Dene is from p. 13. As the Commissioners of 1285 
did not give a consecutive narrative, but divided the subject into half a 
dozen sections — the first, describing^the Exchequer, the last quaintly headed : 
" How the Bishop of Waterford the Justiciary became rich," not much 
importance need be attached to this order of occurrence, especially as the 
Report must have been drafted by different hands — " Ernald " appearing in 
the one place, Emisius in the other. It is quite possible indeed that both 
passages relate to his second visit in 1268, and that the circumstances of his 
previous visit were forgotten. 

Arkald de Berkeley. 


Hospital. 1 Though he succeeded in this suit, Arnald altogether 
failed, however, in a much more important one against Aleysia, 
Countess of Warwick, 2 William and Richard de Berkeley, brothers 
of the Baron, and a number of their retainers, who had taken 
possession by violence of 30 acres of woodland at Eggeton, in 
Hinton. The Countess, who had doubtless been instigated by 
Arnald's old enemy to reclaim possession of land given by her 
deceased husband 3 and son, did not put in an appearance, but 
William de Berkeley came and made a reply, the nature of which 
may be inferred from the verdict of the jurors to the effect — that 
William, Earl of Warwick, did formerly enfeoff the said master 
in the aforesaid wood, but that he could be disseised, and that 
Maurice de Berkeley, the chief lord of the fee, refused his assent 
to such amortization. 4 The diminution of service would have been 
so trifling that the Baron's refusal looks as if it were prompted by 
ill-feeling arising from the recent dispute as to the right of pre- 
sentation to the Mastership. The Court, of course, had no 

1 Vide Assize Rolls, Gloucester, 53rd Henry III. folio 5, in dorso (now 
No. 275) " Ernaldus de Berkeley custos hospit S cti Trinit de Berkeley petit 
versus Robert de Kingston et Roger de Grevel unum Messuag cum ptc s in 
Slimbridge, quod clamat ut jus predicti hospitalis..' Et predictus Ernaldus 

per advocatum suum dicit quod aliquo tempore fuit magister pd 1 

Hosp . . x et postmodo quum debuit tramfretare in Hyberniam in servicio 
Edwardi filii Regis, ipse totius resignavit custodiam loci Episcopo Wigorn- 
ensi, et motu Episcopi loco suo constituit p dm Nicholaum ballivum suum ad 
custodiendum pred um Hospitalem. ' ' Jurati dicunt, super sacr. suu, quod 
Nicholaus nunquam fuit custodem perpetuum p di Hosp. Imo fuit Ball. 
p di Ernaldi dum idem Ernaldus fuit in partibus Hybernia et dicunt quod 
predictus Ernaldus nunquam resignavit custod. p di hosp. et quod Robertus 
et Rogerus habuerunt messuagium illud per p dm Nicholaum qui non fuit 
nisi Ball. p di Ernaldi. Et ideo consideratus est 'quod predictus Ernaldus 
recuperet jus suum de predicto Messuaguo ut de jure Hospitalis ipsius est." 
— " Robertus et Rogerius in Miscricordia." 

2 Alicia, daughter and heiress of Waleran, Earl of Warwick, had 
married when very young, William Mauduit, of Hanslope, donor of the 
land in question. Their son William, Earl of Warwick, died in 52 Hen. III. 

3 According to Smyth (Lives of the Berkeleys, Vol. I., p. 127) she had 
herself joined in the gift. 

4 "Jurati dicunt . . . quod quidem Willielmus Comes Warr. olim feof- 
favit predictum Magist de p cdo bono, et quod Mauricius de Berkeley Capitalis 
Dominus feodi noluit illam Elemosinam fieri, etc."— Assize Roll, Gloucester, 
53rd Hen. III., folio 34. 

Vol. XVI. n 


Transactions for the Year 1S91-92. 

alternative but to dismiss the complaint. At the same assizes, 
Arnald de Berkeley was sued by Christian Musard for 9^ acres 
in Slimbridge, but this was apparently in his private capacity, 
and her right was not established. 

How far the vexations he had latterly met with .had told on 
the health of Arnald, who must by this time have been verging 
on his three score and ten, we know not, but his long and busy 
career was rapidly drawing to a close. His death must have 
taken place early in the following year (1270), for on 6th Feb. 
William de Wintreshulle, Steward of the Royal Household, was 
authorised " to take possession of the Houses which Arnald de 
Berkeley, lately deceased, had in London," whilst on the 26th 
the said steward was further "ordered to hold them until the 
debts which the said Arnald owed to the King at the Exchequer 
should be paid." 2 This was supplemented by a writ directing the 
the sheriff of Herefordshire to seize Arnald's goods and chattels 
Merkele, Bradfield, and Brockhampton in that county. % 

The total amount of his indebtedness is not stated, but it ap- 
pears from the Herefordshire Pipe Roll of 3 Edw. I. that there was 
due at the time of his decease, £53 6s. 4d., on account of crown 
lands purchased as far back as 42nd Henry III. (1258). payment 
for which had been from time to time respited. There seems also 
to have been a claim against him in respect to Minsterworth, 
Gloucestershire. How matters were settled is by no means clear, 
but there are several references in the Hundred Rolls of 3rd 
Edw. I. to Arnald's connection with lands in Buckinghamshire 
and Berks, 3 and as the Act of Parliament under which the 
enquiries were made, whilst giving a general right of complaint 
for a quarter of a century back against all officers in the King's 
service, was mainly designed for the discovery of arrears due to 
the crown, it is more than probable that the omission from the 
Pipe Rolls of 5th Edw. I., and all other subsequent years, of the 
claims against Arnald de Berkeley, arose either from their re- 
covery or their abandonment as hopeless. 

1 Vide Rot. Litt. Claus., 54th Henry III. 

2 Rot. Lit. Pat. 54 Henry III. m. 20. 

3 Rotuli Hundredorum (Record Commission, Vol. I., pages 21 and 22) ; 
Bucks, p. 4 ; Berks, p. 12. 

Arnald de Berkeley. 


The only county wherein, so far as we know, his sister and 
sole heiress, Agnes, widow of Richard de Kenebelle, 1 inherited, 
was Shropshire, where there is evidence that at some date prior 
to the year 1282, she quit-claimed to Roger de Mortimer "all the 
lands which her brother had held at Rochulle le Wall, Elcott, 
Nene, and Fenton." 2 His Hertfordshire rectory of Datchworth 
was filled up on the 12th August, 1271, on the presentation of 
Peter de Burgh, by the institution of Walter de Guise. 3 It is 
noteworthy that Arnald's successor should have come of a family 
so closely connected with the de Burghs that one of its members 
shortly afterwards received from Sir John de Burgh the manor 
of Elmore, Gloucestershire, which his descendants in the male 
line have ever since held. 

It remains to say a few words in conclusion on Arnald de 
Berkeley's personal characteristics as displayed in the notices 
cited. That he possessed a certain amount of talent is clear from 
his rise, and that he was a very efficient financier is proved 
by his having been selected by the King to look after Prince 
Edward's interests in Ireland ; by his appointment by the Baronial 
party to be one of their representatives at a serious crisis at the 
Exchequer ; and by his being ultimately sent to Dublin to re- 
organize the Irish Exchequer. Had he been, however, a man of 
conspicuous ability in other ways, he would surely, with the op- 
portunities thus presented, have risen higher either in the Church 
or State ! 

How far he was deserving of promotion in the former is 
another matter, but he must have been at all events outwardly 
moral and decorous, or he would not have been retained at Court 
by Henry, who, though a weak King, was pious according to his 
lights, and far above the usual standard of morality. It may be 
urged that no conscientious priest would have undertaken so 
many Cures of which he necessarily neglected the duties, but this 

1 The de Kenebelles held a knight's fee of the Honour of Gloucester. — 
Liber Niger Scaccarii. It may have been the present Kemble in Wilts, but 
there is a manor of Kenebelle in Bucks. 

2 Ey ton's Shropshire, Vol. IV., p. 276. 

3 Registry of Bishopric of Lincoln — cited in Clutterbuck's Herts, Vol. II. 
p. 317. 

N 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92, 

would be judging him by ideas which have only recently sprung up 
as to pluralities, and there is no reason to infer that he was either 
better or worse than his contemporaries in this respect. One 
would fain hope, however, that the avidity be exhibited in amas- 
sing wealth, was not universal among churchmen in the 13th 
century. He seems to have been better suited on the whole for 
secular life, and admirably qualified to all appearance for the 
position he for a short period filled at the Exchequer, but his 
acceptance of it from the Rebel Barons after their victory at 
Lewes proved, as things turned out, a very grave mistake on his 
part, and his prospect of political advancement vanished for ever 
on their defeat at Evesham. Possibly he had no alternative but 
to yield to the pressure they brought to bear on him, but if on 
the other hand he voluntarily deserted the royal cause, he richly 
deserved all his misfortunes ; — not so much for disloyalty to the 
King, but for gross ingratitude to the benefactor to whom he 
owed everything. 

At any rate, whatever Arnald de Berkeley's merits were in 
other respects, he has no claim, whilst this imputation stands 
unrefuted, to rank among the Worthies of Gloucestershire. 

Pedes Finium. 



Or Excerpts from the Feet of Fines for the County of Gloucester 
from the 7th John to the 57th Henry III. 

Among the many classes of valuable documents preserved in the 
Public Record Office there are none of greater importance for 
topographical and genealogical purposes than the Feet of Fines. 
These instruments are of great antiquity. They commence as 
early as the 7th Richard I. and, with few exceptions, and where 
these occur the gaps are supplied by the Notes of Fines, are 
continued in uninterrupted succession down to the Act of 3rd 
and 4th William IV., cap. 74, by which Act they were discon- 
tinued. On their introduction the Feet of Fines were intended 
to be used for the settlement of real controversies concerning 
land but they afterward became based upon fictitious suits, and 
so continued down to the recent period of their extinction. 

The object of these instruments was to convey, in a simple 
manner, the title to manors, lands and tenements, either in fee 
simple, or for any other estate of shorter duration — to create, and 
annul, entails, and to free lands from the dower of wives. Much 
might be written upon Fines. It is, however, a very wide and 
somewhat intricate subject, and we must refer our readers, who 
may desire further information, to the law books. 

What we have to consider is the use, now, of these ancient 
documents to the historian, topographer, and genealogist. To the 
first they shew what was anciently the procedure in the transfer 
of lands. To the second as shewing the transfer of almost all 
lands and tenements in the kingdom, and the dates of such trans- 
fers for several centuries, the names of the parties to the fines, 
and, if married, the names of their wives, the situation and quan- 
tity of the land, and in many cases the names of the several 


Transactions for the Year 189J-92. 

persons, generally of kin, created in remainder, and sometimes, 
in early fines, the names of ancestors are mentioned. 

The Feet of Fines from 7th Richard I. to 16th John have been 
printed by the Record Commissioners arranged under counties 
from A to C in alphabetical order, a work easily accessible. These 
volumes, however, do not extend to Gloucestershire, and the 
following excerpts, down to the end of the reign of Henry III., 
were made by the writer for his own private use, without any 
thought of their being printed. It is very desirable that the print- 
ing should be continued for the use of Gloucestershire students. 

1st John, Final Agreement between Mabel and Matilda 

a.d. 1190-1199-1200. de Abenesse, by Robert Archard, their attor- 
ney, querists, and William, Abbot of Kings- 
wood, by Joel one of his monks, deforciants, 
of one virgate called Roowude, and 4s. rent 
of land of La Dene, whereby for 100s. sterling 
the same was quitclaimed to the said abbot. 

No. 13. 

3rd John, Between William de Dunse q. and Alan de 
a.d. 1201-1201-2. Elmoure and Roger his son, def., of 13^ acres 
of land with appurtenances in Elmour, where- 
by, etc., and in consideration one mark of 
rent the said premises were quit-claimed by 
the said Alan and Roger to the said William 
and his heirs. No. 30, 

„ Betw. Walter Blund, q., and Ralph Blakensia, 

del, of one carucate of land with app ces in 
Aure, etc., whereof, etc., the said Ralph recog- 
nised the said land, etc.. as the right of the 
said Walter. No. 33. 

5th Henry III. Between Lecuaria, who was wife of Roger de 
a.d. 1220-1. Berkeley, q , and Henry de Berkeley, tenant, 

of the third part of three carucates of land 
in Dursleg, and of the third part of five acres 
of land, and of the third part of five carucates 
of land in Dudington, and of the third part 

Pedes Finiutm. 


of two carucates of land in Stanleg which she 
held of dower of her said husband, whereof, 
etc., she remised and quit-claimed the same 
to the said Henry and the said Henry gave 
her 20 marks of silver. No. 7 

9th Henry III. Between Thomas de Berkeley, q., and Thomas, 
1207-8. Abbot of Gloucester, def., of the advowson of 

the Church of Slimbrig., whereof, etc., and 
the said abbot recognised the said advowson 
as the right of the said Thomas and remised 
and quit-claimed the same for himself and his 
successors to the said Thomas and his heirs 
for ever ; and the said Thomas for the welfare 
of his soul granted to the aforesaid Abbot and 
the monks of Gloucester serving God in the 
Priory of Stanleg, all his land at Lorlinges 
with app ces , viz., all which the said Thomas 
or his ancestors there held in demesne and 
rents in villenage, in homage, and services of 
freemen, in woods and pastures, and in all 
other things to the said land pertaining, to 
have and to hold of the said Thomas and his 
heirs in pure and perpetual alms, freely and 
quietly and quit of all customs and exactions. 

No. 85 

20th Henry III. Between Adam Malet, querist, and Nicholas 
1235-6. Oxhaye and Petronilla, his wife, impedimen- 

tis, of one virgate of land with app ces in 
Button whereof, etc., and the said Nicholas 
and Petronilla recognised the said land, etc., 
as the right of the said Adam, to have and 
to hold the same of the said Nicholas and 
PetronilJa, and of the heirs of the said Petro- 
nilla for ever, and for this fine the said Adam 
gave the said Nicholas and Petronilla 100 
shillings sterling. No. 148 

1 This lady was the wife of the last Roger de Berkeley, of Dursley, who 

died before May, 1221. Henry was the son and heir of the said Roger by 

Hawise, daughter of Ralph Paynel. 

186 Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

20th Henry III. Betw. Henry de Bathc-n, querist, and Isabella 
1235-6. de Longo Campo, impediraentis, of the third 

part of the Manor of Westbury with app ces , 
whereof, etc. , and the said Isabella recognised 
the said part, etc., with the advowson of the 
church of the same manor with divers villans 
and all other things to the aforesaid third 
part pertaining as the right of the said Henry, 
and as those which he had of the gift of the 
said Isabella, to hold to the said Henry and his 
heirs, likewise of 18 acres of land which the 
said Isabella holds of Roger Cadel in the ville 
of Radlegh, and likewise with the third part of 
all the land which Roger de Layburn and 
Agnes his wife, stepmother (noverta) holds in 
dower in the aforesaid Manor of Westbury, 
and which after the death of the said Agnes 
will revert to the said Henry and his heirs 
for ever, to hold to the same Henry and his 
heirs of the said Isabella and her heirs for 
ever. No. 174 

20th Henry III. Hugh, son of Hugh, petitioner, and Richard 
a.d. 1235-6 de Cromhall, 1 whom Nicholus Mingnoc called 
to warrant and who warranted one messuage 
with app ces in Berkeley, whereof an assize of 
the death of an ancestor was summoned 
between them, to wit, that the said Richard 
recognised all the aforesaid messuage with 
app ces as the rights of the said Hugh and 
remised and quit-claimed the same to the said 
Hugh and his heirs for ever, and for this fine 
the said Hugh gave the said Richard half a 
mark of silver. No. 193 

21st Henry III. Betw. Robert, son of Robert de Button, q., 
a.d. 1236-7. and Nicholas de Oxham and Petronilla, his 
1 Richard de Cromhall was slain in Scotland, cir. 39th Henry III. — 
Berkeley MSS. t p. 162. 

Pedes Finifm. 


wife, def ., of one virgate of land in Button, 
whereof, etc., to wit, that the said Nicholas 
and Petronilla recognised the whole of the 
said land with app ces as the right of the said 
Robert, and as that which the same Robert 
had of the gift of the said Nicholas and 
Petronilla to hold to the said Robert and his 
heirs of the said Nicholas and Petronilla and 
the heirs of the said Petronilla for ever, ren- 
dering annually 4s., and for this fine the said 
Robert gave the said Nicholas and Petronilla 
one sparrow hawk. No. 216 

23rd Henry III. Betw. Giles de Berkeley, pet., and Humphry 
1238-9. de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, whom the Prior 

of Lantony called to warrant, and who war- 
ranted two parts of the manor of Quedgeley 
with app ces , except two parts of the advowson 
of the church of the same manor, whereof, 
etc. that the said Giles remised and quit- 
claimed for himself and his heirs to the said 
Earl and his heirs all his right and claim 
which he had in the said two parts of the 
said manor for ever, and for this quit-claim, 
etc., the said Earl gave the said Giles 100 
marks of silver. No. 225 

23rd Henry III. Betw. Giles de Berkeley, pet., and Herbert, 
1238-9 son of Peter, whom the Prior of Lantony 

called to warrant, and who warranted the 
third part of the manor of Quedgeley, except 
the third part of the advowson of the church, 
whereof, etc., to wit, that the said Giles for 
himself and his heirs quit-claimed to the said 
1 Robert, sen., was the son of Adam D'amnaville to whom Henry II. 

granted the manor of Bitton or Button, the name of which place he assumed. 

Petronilla, the grandaughter of Adam, and niece of the second Robert, 

married Nicholas de Oxehaye, who, jointly with his wife, sold land in Bitton 

to the said Robert, as shewn in the text, ob. s.p. — See ffllacombe's History of 



Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Herbert and his heirs his whole right and 
claim which he had in the third part of the 
said manor, and for this fine, etc., the said 
Herbert gave the said Giles 50 marks of 

25th Henry III. Between John de Berkeley, pet., and John. 
1240-1. Abbot of Kingswood, def., of two virgates of 

land and three acres of wood with app ces in 
Osels worth, whereof, etc., to wit, that the 
said John remised and quit-claimed the said 
lands, etc., to the said Abbot and his suc- 
cessors. No. 240 

25th Henry III. Betw. William, Abbot of St. Augustine's, q., 
1240-1. and John de Berkeley, def., of the advowson 

of the chapel of St. Mary Magdalen of Lorn- 
ing, whereof, etc., to wit, that the said John 
recognised the aforesaid advowson as the right 
of the said Abbot and Church of St. Augustine 
of Bristol, and as those which the same Abbot 
and church had of the gift of Roger de Ber- 
keley, grandfather of the same John, whose 
heir he is, to have and to hold to the said 
Abbot and his successors and the said church 
of St. Augustine to hold of the said John and 
his heirs in free, pure, and perpetual alms for 
ever. No. 276 

25th Henry III. Betw. John de Akl and Adam de Kellicoc, 
1240-1. pet., and William de Everous (Evereux) whom 

Isabella de Car .... called to warrant and 
who warranted half a virgate of land with 
app ces in Oxenhall, whereof, etc., an assize of 
the death of an ancestor was summoned 
between them, to wit, the said J ohn remised 
and quit-claimed for himself and his heirs to 
the said William and his heirs all his right 
and claim which he has in the aforesaid land 

Pedes Fintum. 


for ever, and for this fine, etc., the same 
William gave the aforesaid John and Adam 
four marks of silver, and the same William 
and Isabella, at the request of the said John 
and Adam, remised and quit-claimed for them- 
selves and their heirs to the said Henry de 
Bathon and his heirs all the claim which they 
had in a certain pasture in Neowent and 
Pauntleg, which is called Bottelawe, for ever. 

No. 281 

26th Henry III. Betw. Bichard de Gaunsel, pet., and Bobert 
1241-2 Gurnay, whom Margaret de Somery called to 

warrant, and who warranted two parts of one 
carucate of land with app ces in La Lee where- 
of, etc., the assize of the death of an ancestor 
was summoned between them, to wit, that 
the aforesaid Bobert recognised all the afore- 
said land as the right of the same Bichard, 
and for this fine and recognition the same 
Bichard granted to the said Bobert all the 
land which was enclosed in the Park of Oure 
(? Aure) on the day on which this fine was 
made, to hold to the said Bobert and his 
heirs of the said Bichard and his heirs for 
ever, rendering thereof per annum half a 
penny for all services, and the same Bobert 
gave the said Bichard ten marks of silver. 

No. 321 

22nd Henry III. Betw. William de Dunye, pet., and Margaret, 
a.d. 1247-8 Countess of Kent, 1 def., of 13 acres of land 
in Elm oure, whereof, etc., to wit, the said 
William remised and quit-claimed for himself 
and his heirs to the said Countess and her 

1 This lady was the relict of Hubert de Burgh, the Grand Justitiary, 
created Earl of Kent 1226, and died 1243. She was the daughter of William, 
the Lion King of Scotland. John de Burgh, eldest son of Hubert, enfeoffed 
Anselm de Gyse in the manor of Elmore. (See ante p. 181). 


Transactions foe the Year 1891-9?. 

heirs all the said land for ever, and for this 

fine, etc., the said Countess gave the said 
William three marks of silver. No. 337 

31st Henry III. Betw. Maurice de Dunce, Walter de Bone- 
a.d. 1247-8 cumbe and Robert le Bastard, pet., and Peter 

de Burgeys ten., of one virgate and a half of 
land with app ces in Slimbrigge, whereof, etc., 
an assize of the death of an ancestor was 
summoned between them ; to wit, the said 
Peter recognised the said land with app ces as 
the right of the said Maurice, Walter and 
Robert, and for this fine, etc., granted to the 
aforesaid Peter and Lucy, his wife, the same 
land with app ces , to hold to the said Peter and 
Lucy of the aforesaid Maurice, Walter and 
Robert and their heirs, rendering thereof per 
annum for the whole life of the said Peter 
2s. sterling, and if the said Lucy survived the 
said Peter she should render per annum, to 
the said Maurice, Walter, and Robert and 
their heirs for the said land for her life one 
mark of silver, and after the decease of the 
said Peter and Lucy the said land to revert 
to the said Maurice, Walter and Robert and 
their heirs quit of the heirs of the said Peter 
and Lucy for ever. No. 348 

32nd Henry III. Betw. Arnulph de Berkeley, 1 q., and Richard 
a.d. 1247-8 de Couele [Cowley] and Matilda, his wife, def., 
of one burgage with app ces in Berkeley, where- 
of, etc., to wit, that the aforesaid Richard and 
Matilda recognised the said burgage with app ces 
as the right of the said Arnulph, to hold to the 
said Arnulph and his heirs of the said Richard 
and Matilda and the heirs of the said Matilda 
for ever, rendering per annum one obulus, 

1 For particulars of Arnulph de Berkeley, see Memoir by Sir Henry 
Barkly therunto following, ante p. 167 et seq. 

Pedes Finium. 


and making quit thereof to the chief Lord of 
the fee for all services. No. 366 

Betw. Ralph, 1 son of William de Abbehale, q., 
and John de Monemue, def., 2 of four acres of 
meadow in Abbehale, whereof, etc., and the 
said John recognised the said meadow as the 
right of the said Ralph, and quit-claimed the 
same to him for ever. No. 480 

Betw. Ralph de Abbehale, q., and Richard, 
son of Mazelyne and Margery, his wife, def., of 
two and half acres of meadow in Abbehale, 
whereof a plea of warranty of charter was sum- 
moned between them, to wit, that the aforesaid 
Richard and Margery recognised the afore- 
said meadow with a'pp ces as being the right of 
the said Ralph, and as that which the same 
Ralph had of the gift of the said Richard 
and Margery, to have and to hold to the same 
Ralph and his heirs of the same Richard and 
Margery and the heirs of the same Margery 
for ever, rendering per annum one pair of 
white gloves (Albarum Gyrotecarum) and one 

1 Ralph, son of William de Abbenhall, married a lady named Matilda, 
d. and ob. 1301, leaving issue three sons. (See ante Vol. VI., p. 183). 

2 There were two John de Monemues (Monmouth) Barons of Monmouth. 
The elder was the great-great-grandson of William Fitz Baderon, who at the 
time of the Domesday Survey was possessed of 22 lordships in England. The 
elder was Constable of St. Briavel's Castle in 1216, and died in 1248. He 
was succeeded in the Barony by his son, the second John, who was party to 
this fine. It is stated in Bank's Baronage that being without issue male in 
35th Henry III. (1252-3) in consideration of certain lands which Prince 
Edward had granted to him for his life, he gave to the said Prince and his 
heirs for ever his Castle and Honour of Monmouth. He is said by Banks to 
have died in the 41st Henry III. s.p.m. (1252). It appears from the Close 
Rolls, 9 Edw. L, m. 7, that he had been hanged for felony, and that he had, 
in the County of Gloucester, the Manors of Lassington and Bailey, and that 
he held the same of Agnes de Mussegros his mother, Matilda de Muscegros, 
and Johanna and Amabella sisters of the said Agnes ; and the Sheriff was 
commanded to accept sufficient security for their fine and deliver seizin. 
We do not know the exact date of the death of John de Monmouth, nor do 
we know of what crime he was accused, but it doubtless occurred during 
the time of the troubles caused by Symon de Monthfort. 

39th Henry III. 
a.d. 1254-5. 

39th Henry III. 
a.d. 1254-5 


Transactions foe, the Year 1891-92. 

halfpenny at Easter, and making thereof 
Royal service that to the same meadow per- 
tains for all services, and the same Richard 
and Margery and the heirs of the same 
Margery warrant the same to the said Ralph 
and his heirs. No. 473 

39th Henry III. Betw. Henry de Gant, 1 Master of the Hospital 
a.d. 1254-5 of St. Mark of Bristol, pet., and Simon de 
Guine, del, of half a virgate of land with 
a ppccs j n L a Jjqq^ an( j between the same 
Henry, pet., and William de la Lee, of half 
a virgate of land in the same ville, and be- 
tween the same Henry, pet., and John de la 
Wadelond and Mary, his wife, def., of three 
acres of land in the same ville, whereof, etc., 
to wit, that the same Master remised and 
quit-claimed for himself and the brethren of 
the said house to the aforesaid Simon, 
William de la Lee, John, William de Wade- 
lond and Mary and their heirs respectively, 
all the right and claim in the said lands for 
ever. And for this fine the said parties gave 
the said Master two marks of silver. No. 489 

39th Henry III. Betw. Henry le Yeel, 2 pet., and William de 
a.d. 1254-5 Merton, def., of one virgate of land in Yate, 
whereof, etc., to wit, the said Henry remised 
and quit-claimed the said land to the aforesaid 
William and his heirs. No. 489 

45th Henry II I. Betw. William le Blund, q., and Francis de 
a.d. 1260-1 Boun and Sibell, his wife, def., of six shillings 
rent with app ces in Aure, whereof, etc., to 
wit, that the aforesaid William remised and 

1 For Henry de Gaunt, see ante Vol. XV., and Mr. Barker's " St. Mark's 

2 Henry le Vele, eldest son of Geoffry Vele, by Matilda, dau. and coheir 
of Harding, alias Berkley, of Huntingford, and left issue ; was living 37th 
Henry III. 

Pedes Finium. 


quit-claimed for himself and his heirs to the 
aforesaid Francis and Sibell all the right 
which he had in the said rent. No. 552 

45th Henry III. Betw. William de Wodelond, pet., and John 
a.d. 1260-1 Hert, def., of one virgate of land with app ces 
except li acres in La Lee, whereof, etc., to 
wit, that the aforesaid John recognised the 
said land with app ces as being the right of the 
said William, and for this recognition, etc., 
the said William granted to the aforesaid 
John the aforesaid land with app ces to hold to 
the aforesaid John and his heirs of the said 
William and his heirs rendering thereof per 
annum eleven shillings. No. 563 

45th Henry III. Betw. Henry de Schalkeley and Johanna, his 
a.d. 1260-1 wife, Philip de Leycestre and Isabella, his 

wife, and Hildeburgh, sister of the same 
Isabella, q., and Peter de Wellingford and 
Isilya, his wife, sister of the same Isabella, 
def., of one messuage and one carucate of 
land in Westbury, whereof, etc., to wit, that 
the said Peter and Isilia recognised the afore- 
said messuage and land as being the right of 
the said Johanna, Isabella, and Hildeburgh, 
and for this recognition, etc., the aforesaid 
Henry and Johanna, Philip and Isabell and 
Plildeburgh, and the heirs of the said Johanna, 
Isabell and Hildeburgh for the whole life of 
Isilya, rendering thereof per annum one clove 
of gillinower for all services which pertained 
to the said Johanna, Isabell, and Hildeburgh, 
and making to the chief lord of the fee all ser- 
vices due and accustomed, and if the said Isilya 
died in the lifetime of the said Peter a moiety 
of the said lands to remain to the said Peter 
to hold of the aforesaid Henry, Johanna, 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Philip and Isabell and Hildeburgh and the 
heirs of the said Johanna, Isabell and Hilde- 
burgh by the aforesaid services for the life of 
said Peter, and the other moiety to revert to 
the said Henry and Johanna, Philip, Isabell 
and Hildeburgh and the heirs of the said 
Johanna, Isabell and Hildeburgh quit of the 
heirs of the said Isilya for ever. No. 596 

53rd Henry III. Betw. Ralph de Abbenhale and Matilda, 1 his 
a.d. 1268-9 wife, q., and Richard le Lung and Margery, 

his wife, def., of one messuage and one virgate 
of land with app ces in Abbenhale, whereof a 
plea of warranty of charter was summoned 
between them, to wit, that the aforesaid 
Richard and Margery recognised the said 
messuage and land as being the right of the 
same Ralph and Matilda, and as those which 
the same Ralph and Matilda had of the gift 
of the said Richard and Margery, to hold to 
the said Ralph and Matilda 1 and the heirs of 
the same Ralph of the aforesaid Richard and 
Margery and the heirs of the same Margery 
for ever, rendering per annum one rose at the 
feast of St. John Baptist for all services, suit 
at court, etc., and warranted the same. 

No. 650 

53rd Henry III. Betw. William, son of Ralph de Aure, q., and 
a.d. 1268-9 William de Bosco, def., of half a virgate of 
land with app ces in Aure, whereof a plea of 
warranty of charter was summoned between 
them, etc. , to wit, that the aforesaid William 
de Bosco recognised the aforesaid land as the 
right of William, son of Ralph, and as those 
which the said William, son of Ralph, had of 
the gift of William de Bosco, to hold to the 
1 These are the same Ralph and Matilda mentioned in Nos. 450 and 473. 

Pedes Fixium, 


said William, son of Ralph, and his heirs of 
the said William de Bosco and his heirs for 
ever, rendering per annum one rose at the 
feast of St. John Baptist for all services, etc., 
to the said William pertaining, and make to 
the chief Lord of the fee for the said William 
and his heirs all the services to the said land 
pertaining and the said William warranted the 
same accordingly. No. 653 

56th Henry III. Betw. Walter de Blakeney, q., and Ralph 
a.d. 1 27 1-2 Abenhale, def ., of the Advowson of the Church 

of Blechedon, whereof an assize of the last 
presentation was summoned between them, to 
wit, that the said Ralph granted that the 
aforesaid Walter should first present his clerk, 
without contradiction or impediment of the 
said Ralph or his heirs, and for this grant 
and concord the said Walter granted for him- 
self and his heirs that when it happened that 
the church was vacant by the death or cession 
of the clerk by the said Walter to the same 
church presented, the said Ralph, or his heirs, 
should present their clerk to the same church 
without impediment from the said Walter or 
his heirs. No. 671 

Vol. XVI. 



Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Built by Ralph and Olympias de Wylington, 
a.d. 1224. 


The present Lady Chapel of Gloucester Cathedral was built by 
Abbots Richard Hanley and William Farley in the last half of 
the 15th century. 1 The badges— of Edward IV., The Sunin Splen- 
dour and the Rose en soleil, filling the spandrels of several of the 
windows are evidence that the chapel was completed during his 
reign, 1461-83. Yorkist badges would hardly have been placed here 
in such profusion, to the exclusion of Lancastrian and Tudor, 
after the accession of Henry VII. in 1485. This chapel is there- 
fore only 400 years old ; but the site on which it stands has been 
hallowed by the prayers of the faithful and by the sleep of the 
holy dead for thrice that period. Here, I believe, stood as early 
as the end of the 7th century the church of S. Peter, with its 
chapel and altar dedicated to Petronilla, the sainted virgin daugh- 
ter of the chief of the apostles. 2 

The following statement of Leland, in his Itinerary, has been 
overlooked by the historians of this cathedral : " Osric, Founder 
of Gloucester Abbey, first laye in St. Petronell's Chappell, thence 
removed into our Lady Chappell, and thence remooved of late 
dayes, and layd under a fay re tombe of stone on the north syde of 
the high aulter," 3 where no doubt his bones still rest. In 710, 
after a peaceful rule of 29 years, Kyneburg, the first Abbess of 
this monastery, was buried in front of the altar of S. Petronilla ; 
nineteen years later, the body of the first founder, Osric, King 
of Northumbria, was placed in the grave of his sister Kyneburg. 4 

1 Leland's Itinerary, see Records'of Glouc. Cathedral, Vol. L, p. 143. 

2 Her Festival is on May 21st. 

3 Records of Gloucester Cathedral, Vol. I., p. 142. 

4 Historiaet Cartularium, Mon. S. Petri, Glouc, Vol. I., p. 6. 

Early English Lady Chapel. 


The 17th century writer of the Memoriale of Gloucester Abbey, 
in Dugdale's Monasticon, says that a little tower in the Monk's 
Orchard, close to the Lady Chapel, marks the site of the ancient 

In the time of Edward Confessor the N.W. angle of the 
Roman wall, the site of which passes through the nave, cloisters 
and chapter house of the cathedral, was taken down ; and the 
ground on which it stood, as well as a wide strip outside, was 
given by the King to Aldred. Bishop of Worcester, for the new 
monastery and church of S. Peter which he was about to build. 
Thus the earlier church, called by Leland S. Petronell's Chapel, 
became isolated in the cemetery, or Monk's Orchard, just as the 
early Saxon church of S. Michael, in which Aldhelm, the founder, 
was buried, became isolated at Malmesbury. 

The style of architecture which we know as Saxon had passed 
into Norman, and Norman had been superseded by Early English 
when Ralph de Wylington, Lord of the manors of Sandhurst and 
Yate, 1 and his wife Olympias gave to God and the monks of S. 
Peter the funds for building a chapel in the cemetery in honour 
of our Lord's Mother. " Wylington Court," in the parish of 
Sandhurst, preserves the name of a family which ranked as noble 
in the days of the third Edward. 

I know nothing of Ralph de Wylington's ancestry ; I believe 
his marriage with Olympias brought him the manor of Sandhurst 
and gave him an interest in Gloucester Abbey. There is a beautiful 
original deed in the cathedral library recording the grant c. a.d. 
1190 by Wymarc, widow of John Franchevaler, of six acres of 
land in Longford, for the purchase of iron shoes for the horses of 
visitors to the Abbey. This gift was assented to by one of her 
sons, Robert Franchevaler, and by Olympias Franchevaler, daugh- 
ter of William, another son. 

A few years later Olympias married Ralph de Wylington ; 
and they conjointly confirmed Wymarc's grant. 3 

1 He was Lord also of the manor of Brown willy lands, in Cornwall— See 
Maclean's History of Trigg Minor, Vol. I., pp. 380, 384, where a pedigree 
of Wyllyngton may be found. — Ed. 

2 Hist, et Cart., Vol. L, 354. Original Deeds, Vol. XL, No. 3. 

3 Hist, et Cart., Vol. I., p. 353. 

o 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

In 1222, four years after Henry III. was crowned at Glou- 
cester, when the great Justiciary, Hubert de Burg, was ruling 
the kingdom in the name of the young sovereign, there rose up a 
Benedictine architect at Gloucester skilled in the construction of 
those clustered shafts and graceful capitals which constrast so 
pleasingly with the heavy pillars and flat imposts of Norman 
arches. This architect was Helias, the Sacrist of the Abbey. His 
first work, we are told, was the erection of the great eastern tower. 
This must surely refer to the construction of a lofty spire on the 
square massive Norman tower which forms the base of the 
present tower. 1 No trace of this spire now remains. His second 
work was no doubt the building of Ralph and Olympias' Lady 
Chapel, which, like the spire, has utterly perished. The only 
architectural evidence of its former existence are two Early 
English windows in the crypt in the central eastern chapel. After 
the Lady Chapel was finished Helias proceeded to construct new 
stalls for the monks in the choir. A fragment of these Early 
English stalls has been thoughtfully and carefully preserved by 
Mr. Waller behind the seat of the canon-in-residence. 

The water supply of the Abbey had been hitherto insufficient 
or unsatisfactory. The monks had been dependent on the well in 
the middle of the Cloister garth, or on the Fulbrook which ran 
along the city ditch on the north of the city, and turned the Abbey 
mill-wheel in Millerd's Green, now Palace Yard. We are told 
that Helias thereupon made a conduit for living water [the same 
beautiful expression as used by Our Lord in His conversation 
with the woman of Samaria] . The reservoir which he constructed 
has been opened within the last two or three years beneath the 
windows of the cloister lavatory. In Edward the Second's time 
the monks of S. Peter obtained a fresh supply of water from 
Mattesdune (now Robins' Wood Hill), and the reservoir in the 
cloister garth was converted into a drain. 2 

1 Hist, et Cart., Vol. L, p. 25. " a.d. 1222, magna turris Gloucestrensis 
ecclesise orien talis auxiliante Helia, ejusdem monasterii sacrista, est erecta." 

2 a.d. 1237. On the 5th ide of November died Helias of Hereford the 
monk who erected the tower of Gloucester Abbey, he also constructed the 
ancient stalls of the monks, and he made a conduit for fresh water. 

Early English Lady Chapel. 


Some strange fatality seems to have attached to the work of 
Helias : none of it was to endure. But it was not so with the 
work of his pupils, the monks of S. Peter, whom he inspired. 
After his death in 1337, they began to construct a stone vaulting 
for the roof of the nave and finished it in 1242. 1 The fact that 
a re-Dedication Service was thought necessary in 1239 is a proof 
how extensive were the architectural changes at that time ; 2 yet, 
if we except the vaulting of the nave, the only Early English work 
that remains is that very beautiful structure in the north tran- 
sept, sometimes called a reliquary, which, I venture to think, was a 
part of the Wylington chapel. 

The MS. History and Registers of the Abbey tell us how, 
when Ralph and Olympias had built the Lady Chapel at their own 
cost, they gave lands — one hide in Abbington, two hides in Walls- 
- worth [Walhope], and land elsewhere by the Severn — to maintain 
two priests to say vigils and masses daily for the souls of the 
founders and their kin. 3 They gave also yearly rentals to provide 
lights to burn before the altar of S. Petronilla, in the chapel of S. 
Mary, during mass, and all day long and all night on the festivals 
of the Virgin Mother and on the vigil of S. Petronilla. 4 I believe 
that Olympias was the daughter of Petronilla de Sandhurst, the 
sister and heiress of Milo de Sandhurst. If so, we can understand 
her devotion to the patron saint of Kyneburg and Osric. 5 

There is an interesting document in Abbot Frocester's Register 
B, [one of many that relate to this earlier Lady Chapel] in which 
Abbot Henry Foliet promises for himself and his successors to 
carry out for ever the wishes of the founders. He fixes the salary 
of the chaplains and their assistant at 2 J marks annually, and 
allots them from the Abbey pantry their daily portion of cheese, 

1 Hist, et Cart., Vol. L, p. 29. " Et, a.d. 1242, completa est nova volta 
in navi ecclesise, non auxilio fabrorum ut primo, sed animosa virtute monach- 
orum item in ipso loco existentium." 

2 Hist, et Cart., Vol. I., p. 28. " a.d. 1239, Sep. 18, dedicata est ecclesia 
abbatise Gloucestrise a Waltero de Cantelupo, &c., &c." 

3 Hist, et Cart., Vol. L, p. 59 ; I., 20; L, 146; IL, 185; Frocester's 
Register B., Nos. 1106. 

4 Frocester's Register B, 1110. Hist, et Cart., Vol. I., p. 27. 

5 Comp. Frocester's Register B, 1107. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

candles, bread, meat and beer. Moreover, he ordains a yearly 
commemoration of his pious benefactors on the anniversary of 
Ralph de Wylington's death. 1 

The land which the de Wylingtons gave still belongs to the 
church ; but the donors are forgotton. In the chapel which has 
superseded theirs the hands of the destroyer have broken down 
the carved work with axes and hammers, the lamps are gone out, 
and the voices of the ministering priests have died away into 

1 Hist, et Cart., Vol. III., p. 279, a.d. 1228-1243. 

The Manor of Clifton, 




Some information respecting this manor, supplementing Mr. 
Alfred S. Ellis's interesting paper published in the third volume 
of our Transactions, is afforded by a document formerly belonging 
to Mr. Henry Bush, an eminent Bristol merchant early in the 
present century, and a member of the Society of Merchant 
Venturers. The manuscript in question is a copy of what lawyers 
call a Case, drawn up in 1683 on behalf of the Merchants' Society, 
to obtain the opinions of William Powlett and John Romsey, then 
Recorder and Town Clerk of Bristol. The appeal to the learned 
counsel was due to a singular cause. The Society was in possession 
of three-fourths of the manor of Clifton previously belonging, as 
Mr, Ellis has shown, to the Broke family ; but they appear to have 
been wholly unaware of the existence of the other manor in the 
same parish held, down to the suppression of the monasteries, by 
the Dean and Canons of Westbury, and afterwards granted by 
Henry VIII. to Sir Ralph Sadlier. The discovery that certain 
persons were claiming part of the "waste" of the parish by 
virtue of rights acquired from the Sadlier family appears to have 
plunged the Society in consternation, and the Case was drawn up 
to obtain counsel's advice as to the best method of resisting those 
claims. The manuscript affords no light as to the result of the 
dispute, which was in fact terminated by the Society's purchase 
of the ecclesiastical manor. But the Case affords information, 
hitherto unpublished, as to the descent of the larger manor from 
the death of Hugh Broke in 1588, and consequently fills up a gap 
in Mr. Ellis's communication. 1 The following is a summary of 
the title deeds recited : — 

14th September, 44th Elizabeth (1602). Thomas Bathill, Esq., 
in consideration of £200, grants to John Young, his heirs and 
1 Trans. Vol. III., p 226. 


Transactions eor the Year 1891-92. 

assigns, the moiety of the manor or lordship of Clifton, sometime 
the manor of Hugh Brooke, Esq. , and the moiety of eleven tene- 
ments, namely, a messuage with 74 acres of land, a messuage and 
35J acres of land, a messuage and 43 acres, two messuages with 
61 acres and 8 acres of wood and woody ground near Rownham, 
a messuage with 32 acres of land and 8 acres of wood, a messuage 
with 26 acres, a messuage with 32^ acres, a cottage and one acre, 
10 acres of meadow in the tenure of George Batten, and 12 acres 
of meadow. With covenants against himself and against Hugh 
Brooke and Sir David Brooke, saving existing leases for terms of 

26th July, 1st James I. (1603). William Clarke [of Minchin 
Barrow, who married one of the four coheiresses of Hugh Broke] 
in consideration of £100, grants to John Young and his heirs, all 
that fourth part of the manor or lordship of Clifton sometime the 
manor of Hugh Brooke, and which fourth was the part of Susan, 
wife of Hugh Halzwell, one of the four daughters of Brooke, and 
soon after her death conveyed to the said Clarke and Frances his 

4 May, 3d James I. (1605). John Young, reciting that he had 
just levied a fine of his fourth part of the manor and of 16 
messuages, 16 gardens, 200 acres of land, 100 acres of meadow, 
and 600 acres of pasture and common in Clifton, Westbury and 
Redland, to Robert Annesley (?) and John Throughton, declares 
the use of the fine to himself for life, or his assigns ; remainder 
to his wife for life ; remainder to his daughter Margaret. 

29 October, 7 James I. (1609). John Young, by indenture 
made between himself of the first part, Giles Daubeny, Thomas 
Young, and others of the second part, and Andrew Whittington, 
son and heir of Henry Whittington, of the third part, in consider- 
ation of a marriage had between himself and Phillip his wife, late 
the wife of the said Henry, and of another marriage to be had 
between Andrew Whittington and Margaret his daughter, coven- 
ants to stand seized, inter alia, of his share of the manor of Clifton 
to himself for life, remainder to Margaret and her heirs. 

12 January, 12 James I. (1615). John Young, in consideration 
of his love for his daughter Margaret, grants to Thomas Young, 

The Man on or Clifton. 


Christopher Cary and Richard Winter his three parts of the 
manor of Clifton, and other lands, in trust to himself for life, 
remainder to Andrew and Margaret Whittington and their heirs. 

[Mr. Ellis has shewn that Andrew Whittington died in 1634, 
in possession of the above estate, leaving a son, John, then 18 
years of age.] 

Trinity Term, 22 Charles I. (1646). A recovery is suffered of 
the manor of Clifton, and of 12 messuages, 12 gardens, 200 acres 
of land, 40 acres of meadow, 150 acres of pasture, and 200 of 
furze and heath, wherein John Whittington is vouched to war- 

1 October, 15 Charles II. (1663). John Whittington covenants 
with Francis and Thomas Yeamans to levy a fine of three parts 
of the manor of Clifton, and declares the use to Joseph Langton 
for a term of 1000 years, to him granted by an indenture of equal 
date ; remainder to his own heirs. 

26 October, 20 Charles If. (1668). William Whittington, son 
and heir of John, in consideration of <£1080, grants unto Isaac 
Morgan and his heirs, three parts in four of the manor of Clifton, 
except the messuage late held by Richard Yeamans and now of 
Acliff Green, and the wood called Rownham Wood, and the house 
occupied by John Fayne built in part of that wood, aud a cottage 
at the end of the wood, and 4 acres of land, occupied severally by 
John Harry and John Hodges, Esq., and 2 acres more in the 
little field, all of which were lately sold to Acliff Green. 

5 October, 20 Charles II. (1668). Edmund Arundill, merchant, 
releases to Isaac Morgan his interest in three parts of the manor. 

16 and 17 May, 22 Charles IT. (1670). Indentures of lease and 
release, by which Isaac Morgan conveyed to Richard Mountanay 
three parts in four of the manor, upon considerations to be void 
if he should faithfully execute the office of Collector of Customs 
at Bristol according to a bond dated 12th June, 1669. 

Isaac Morgan failing to give a just account of the execution 
of his office, an extent issued upon his bond, which was of a great 
penaltie, arid the manor was thereupon extented. And thereupon 



John Bawer, merchant, having paid off Morgan's arrears, died. 
Whereupon, 1 June, 26 Charles II. (1674) the executors of Bawer 
[word illegible] a lease for his moiety of the manor to be made 
to Nicholas Christmas and Peter Saunders in trust for them. 

1 and 2 May, 26 Charles II. (1674). Indentures of lease and 
release, the latter made between Richard Mountaney of the first 
part, the farmers of Customs of the second part, and N. Christmas 
and P. Saunders of the third part. Reciting the conveyance to 
Mountaney, and that the farmers of Customs had deputed Morgan 
to be collector, and that he had failed in discharging the office, 
and that an extent had issued. In consideration of £5 to Moun- 
taney, and of ,£800 to the farmers, Mountaney conveyed to 
Christmas and Saunders [a portion of the leaf apparently wanting, 
and the next two deeds are out of place]. 

1 October, 24 Charles II. (1672). Lease for a year granted 
by Isaac Morgan to John Power [? Bawer] of two third (sic) parts 
of the manor. 

2 October, 24 Charles II. For re-imbursing John Power 
[Bawer 1] such money as he had paid to the farmers of Customs, 
Morgan conveys the premises recited in the above lease. 

11 and 12 May, 26 Charles II. (1674). Lease and release, by 
which Christmas and Saunders, in consideration of the trust 
reposed in them convey three parts of the manor to John Hind 
and Richard Lane in trust for Thomas Moore and Roger Pothrow, 
the executors of John Power [Bawer ?]. 

12 June, 1674. Thomas Moore, Roger Pothrow, John Hind, 
Richard Lane, Nicholas Christmas and Peter Saunders in con- 
sideration of ,£1100 paid to the two first by Thomas Day, grant 
to Day three parts in four of the manor for a term of 1000 years 
upon con [words illegible] upon payment of .£1133 on the 30th 
December following. 

[No date] 1 Isaac Morgan, being seized in fee simple of three 
parts in four of the manor, conveyed the same to the Corporation 
of the Merchant Adventurers of Bristol, and their successors for 

The Manor of Clifton. 


[Having given the above somewhat puzzling abstract of title, 
the Case proceeds as follows] i 1 

In this manor are considerable waste. One Lambe, himself 
owner of one fourth part did in truth make more profit of his 
fourth than the Merchants did of the other three. On counsels 
advice a Bill was exhibited to discover Lambe's title to his part, 
when he set out that one fourth of the manor was in the reign of 
King James granted to one Hodges, which by several conveyances 
came to him. After this a writ of partition was advised to be 
brought against Lambe to secure for the Merchants all that part 
of the waste lying along the river for their three fourth parts, 
leaving Lambe some other part for his fourth (in case he had a 
right to it). 

But upon a more strict inquiry we found one Mr. Deane and 
the heirs of G. Heley [Kelly ?] 2 pretended to a share of the waste, 
but would show no more of it than that they claimed it under the 
title of Mr. Sadlier, " all that his manor of Clifton and all Royalties 
in a several tenement in Clifton so that it seemed as if there 
were two manors of Clifton, one of which manors descended to 
four daughters, three of whose Morgan had, under whom 

the Merchants claim. The property of the fourth daughter 
as Mr. Lambe came to him. The other manor which was 

Sadlier's under whom Mr. Deane and Kelly claimed that the waste 
belonged to both manors, whether jointly or severally appeareth 
not. Whereupon counsel being consulted again directed not to 
proceed with the partition against Lambe till we had a more full 
discovery of Deane and Keleys title to the said waste, and in 
order thereunto directed that what light could be gotten concern- 
ing Mr. Sadlier's manor and what profits he had made thereof. And 
to try whether any ancient Patent or writings concerning 

Mr. Sadlier's manor of Clifton, and take notes of what is found 
there. If by either of these ways discovery could be made that 
Sadler had this manor by patent from the King, and that it was 

1 According to a report presented by Messrs. Brice and Burges to the 
corporation of Bristol in May, 1859, the above conveyance was made in 1676. 

2 Mr. A. J. Knapp, in his Handbook of Clifton (page 14), states that, 
in 1668, John and Arthur Good, then holding Sadlier's manor, sold it to 
Gabriel Deane, of Bristol, merchant, and Abel Kelly. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

abbey or priory lands, then know to what abbey or priory it 
belonged, and then by search in the Augmentation Office what 
tenements that manor consisted of. Pursuant to this direction 
it was discovered by Mr. Edwards from Mr. Justice Cole, who was 
Sadler's Steward, that Sadler had a manor of Clifton which for- 
merly belonged to the College at Westbury. A copy of the Survey 
Book of the manor was obtained from Mr. Justice Cole, but no 
certain waste is mentioned in it. [Proofs of the existence of the 
manor and of the grant to Sadler, 35 Henry VIII, on payment of 
20s. per annum, and of surrender to him by the Dean and Chapter 
of Westbury were found by Edwards at the Augmentation Office]. 
On counsel's advice thereupon a Bill in Chancery was issued 
against Lambe, Deane and Keley to discover their rights to the 
waste. In answer Deane, and Keley set forth their title to the 
manor, but were silent as to the waste. Lambe pleads the purchase 
to Hodges, and claims under Hodges, and is not bound to discover 
his title further. Counsel next advised the examination of wit- 
nesses and that Lambe's plea should be argued. But before any 
more was done the reference was to Greene and Wickham 

where it hath rested ever since. 

Quere. What is now to be done. 

[The following were the opinions of the Recorder and Town 
Clerk, so far as Mr. Bush was able to decipher them. Apparently 
one or two lines were illegible.] 

As to the Merchants' title to three parts I think there is no 

I think the parties ought to pursue the course they were in at 
the time of the reference made according to the directions above 
recited. And to go on where they left off by the of that 


Jany. 19, 1683. Wm. Powlett. 

I am of the same opinion. 

John Romsey, Jany. 21, 1683. 

Mr. Knapp, in the work already cited, states that the Mer- 
chants' Company purchased the ecclesiastical manor from Deane 
and Kelly, and further litigation with them was thus avoided. The 

The Manor of Clifton. 


fourth part of the lay manor belonging to Lambe appears to have 
been divided amongst numerous descendants, and in some later 
deeds is styled an entire manor. From some legal documents in 
the Jefferies MSS., in Redcliff Street, one moiety of this co-called 
manor was acquired on the 20th June, 1809, by Jeremiah Osborne, 
probably on behalf of the Society of Merchants. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-2. 


By the Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, 
Vicar of S. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol. 

This paper is intended to be a continuation of the one on " Early- 
Christianity in Gloucestershire," which appeared in Vol XV. of 
the Transactions of this Society, and its purpose is to carry on 
the history of the district to about the date of the battle of Elian- 
dune in 825 ; having regard first to the government of the district; 
then to its external relations with Wessex, and the Welsh border ; 
and finally to its ecclesiastical condition. 

Within the first fifteen years of the eighth century all the 
pioneers and founders of Christianity among the Hwiccians had 
died, or left the district. Ethelred, King of the Mercians, retired 
to the monastery of Bardney in 704. and Aldfrid, King of the 
Northumbrians, died in 705 ; S. Aldhelm and S. Wilfred died in 
709, Kyneburh, Abbess of Gloucester, died in 710, and .ZElfleda, 
Abbess of Whitby, in 713. We find ourselves among new men 
and worse men ; S. Boniface, writing to King Ethelbald of 
Mercia about 745, elates the commencement of the evil times from 
the accession of Osred in Northumbria in 705, and that of Ceolred 
in Mercia in 709. 

The last twenty-five years of the reign of Ethelred seem to 
have been a period of peace abroad and prosperity at home, and 
when he retired to Bardney his throne was occupied by Coenred. 
son of Wulphere, who seems to have been like-minded with 
himself. Coenred resigned his kingdom in 709, and went to Rome, 
where he became a monk, and remained till the day of his death. 

Ceolred, son of Ethelred, of whom we hear but little, and that 
not good, reigned till 716; and the remainder of the period is 
almost covered by the long reigns of Ethelbald, son of Alwy, 716- 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 


757 ; Offa, son of Thingferth, 757-796 ; and Kenulf, son of Cuth- 
bert, 796-821. All these Mercians kings were descended from 
Pybba, the father of Penda, but it is remarkable that the throne 
did not descend from father to son, except in the case of Ecgferth, 
son of Offa, who reigned for 141 days in 796, and Kenelm, son of 
Kenulf, who may have reigned for a feAv months in 822. 

Ceolwulf succeeded in September, 822, but was almost im- 
mediately deprived of his kingdom ; and his successor, Beornulf, 
was crushed by Egbert, King of the West Saxons, at the battle 
of Ellandune in 825, and was shortly afterwards slain by the East 

It has been necessary to trace the succession of the Mercian 
kings, but Gloucestershire lay at the very extremity of the Mercian 
realm, the two chief cities of the district, Gloucester and Bath, 
were in the hands of ecclesiastics, and except in the case of war 
the Mercian kings seem to have visited the district very little, 
until Kenulph founded his monastery at Winchcombe. Moreover, 
at the beginning of the period, and also during the early part of 
the reign of Offa, the Hwiccians seem to have been under the 
immediate rule of Viceroys of their own, entitled " Reges," 
" Reguli," or " Sub-reguli," It will be well in the first instance to 
trace the history of these Viceroys. 

It was shewn in the former paper that the first of them after 
Eanfrid and Eanhere mentioned by Bede (H. E, IV. 13) was 
Osric. son of Alchfrid, the son of Oswy, King of Northumbria ; 
and also that there was good reason for believing that Osric may 
have been appointed 'Rex " of the Hwiccians, on the accession 
of his uncle Ethrelred to the Mercian throne in 675, and that he 
may have been recalled to Northumbria on the death of Ecgfrid 
in 685. 

The successor of Osric was named Oshere, and they are the 
only two of the Viceroys to whom the title " Rex " is given ; 
their successors are all " Reguli " or " Sub-reguli." 

It is not easy to fix the precise period of the rule of Oshere. 
Florence of Worcester (M.H.B., 622) states that it was at his 
request that King Ethelred founded the See of Worcester in 679, 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

and in 706 j^Ethelweard, who styles himself " Subregulus, Osheri 
quondam Regis Wicciorum filius," gave twelve cassates of land at 
Ambreslege to Evesham. The charter is accepted as genuine by 
Haddan and Stubbs (iii. 278), and shews that Oshere had died or 
resigned his rule before 706. With regard to the earlier date it 
must be remembered that Osric in the foundation Charter of Bath 
states that in accordance with the direction of the decrees of the 
Synod (of Hertford) he had determined to found a Bishop's See, 
But there was evidently a good deal of delay in founding the See 
of Worcester, and it may well be that the arrangements were 
begun under Osric, and completed under Oshere. 

The question of the relationship between Osric and Oshere is 
a more important one, and can be settled, perhaps, with some 
degree of certainty. A letter is extant, written between 716 and 
722, from an Abbess Egburga to S. Boniface, in which she calls 
herself the last of his Scholars, and tells him that since the death 
of her brother Oshere, she has transferred all her sisterly affection 
to him 1 If we may identify this Egburga with the Eadburga 
who was Abbess of Gloucester, 710-735, and who is described as 
a sister of Kyneburh, who was a sister of Osric, then Oshere 
would have been a brother of Osric. 

In this case the family of Alchfrid and Kyneburh the daughter 
of Penda, would have been as follows : — Osric, " Rex Wicciorum," 
afterwards King of the Northumbrians ; Oshere, who succeeded 
him in the government of the Hwiccian realm ; Osw ald, Abbot of 
Pershore ; Kyneburh and Eadburga, in succession Abbesses of 

As Alchfrid and Kyneburh were married about 653, and 
JEthilweard, son of Oshere, granted land as " Subregulus " in 706, 
it is not likely that Oshere was a son either of Osric or of Oswald, 
though he might well have been their brother. 

Oshere had four sons : .ZEthilheard, -^Ethelric, ^Ethelweard, 
and iEthelbert, of whom .ZEthelweard and .ZEthelric at least are 
entitled " Subregulus " ; but I cannot find any instance in which 
they exercised any authority after the accession of Ceolred in 709. 
1 Diet. Christ. Biog. "Egburga," "Oshere." 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 211 

.iEthelric, however, survived till 736, for he witnessed a genuine 
charter of that year as — " iEthelric subregulus atque comes 
gloriosissimi principis .ZEthelbaldi." And a copy of a charter of 
the same year is extant in which Ethelbald grants land at Wootton- 
on-the-Alne — " reverentissimo comiti meo mihique satis caro filio 
quondam Huicciorum regis Oosherces .ZEthelricse." It is a Worces- 
ter charter, and there seems to be no reason for doubting its 
genuineness. -ZEthelric would appear to be in favour with King 
Ethelbald, though there is no proof that he or any one of his 
brothers exercised any authority as " Subregulus " during the 
reign of that King, or of his predecessor, Ceolred. 

But immediately on the accession of Offa the Viceroys re- 
appear. " Eanberhtus Deo prsedestinante regulus propria? gentis 
Huicciorum simulque germani mei mecum Uhtredus videlicet et 
Aldredus eadem vocabuli dignitate et imperio fungentes " grant 
land at Tredington to Milred, Bishop of Worcester, for S. Peter's 
Church, where the bodies of their parents rest. The three brothers 
sign the Charter first, then follows Milred, and then — " Ego Offa 
nondum regno Mercionum a domino accepto puer indolis in pro- 
vincia Huicciorum constitutus." It would seem that the grant 
had been made by the three brothers as "reguli," even before Offa 
was recognised as King of the Mercians. 

The three brothers granted land at Onnanford, near Withing- 
ton, to Abbot Headda in 759, but after that date the name of 
Eanberht disappears. Uhtred and Aldred, however, continue to 
grant land, with mention of the consent of Offa, till about 780. 
After them, there were no more Viceroys of the Hwiccians, but 
Ethelmund, Earldorman of the Hwiccians, is mentioned in the 
Chronicle as meeting his death in an expedition into Wessex at 
Kempsford on the day of Egbert's accession in 800. 

Ethelmund was the son of Ingeld, and had received grants of 
land at Easton from Uhtred in 767 and 770, but I do not know 
that any relationship can be traced between him and Uhtred. 
After Ethelmund, no special ruler of the Hwiccians is mentioned 
at all. 

Vol. XVI. r 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

It is possible, however, that the earlier and later groups of 
Viceroys were related. A grant of King Ethel red to Bishop 
Oftfor is extant, made after the murder of his Queen, Osthryth, in 
697, of land at Fladbury ; and on this grant is noted an exchange 
made by S. Ecgwin of the land at Fladbury with ^thilheard, 
son of Oshere, for a much smaller estate at Stratford, on condition 
that the land reverted to Worcester on the death of JEthilheard. 
It should be noted, however, that the genuineness of this grant is 
doubted, chiefly because it is thought that Oftfor ceased to be 
Bishop before the death of Osthryth. The date, however, of the 
close of Oftfor's episcopate is quite uncertain, and it is quite 
possible that he retained his See after 697. 

During the episcopate of Tilhere, 775-781, and, apparently, by 
his license, and at his request, Aldred granted to his kinswoman 
(propinqua), -^thelburga, the monastery at Fladbury to lapse to 
Worcester on her death. " Et ei prsecipio in almo nomine superi 
polorum rectoris ut ipsa nec Dei nec meam habeat licentiam hoc 
in aliud mutare nisi ita implere sicut prseceptum erat ^Elfredi 
et .ZEthelheardi Egcwinique Episcopi qui hanc terrain prius obtin- 
nuerunt nobisque tradiderunt " 

It would seem that the land had not lapsed to the cathedral 
on the death of ^Ethelheard, but had passed from him to Alfred 
and from iElfred to Aldred. If, as seems likely, JElfred was the 
son of iEthelheard, and the father of Aldred and his brothers, then 
Offa's Viceroys would have been great-grandchildren of Oshere ; 
and Aldred's grant to .iEthelburga would have been a method of 
recognising the family claim, and at the same time securing the 
estate ultimately to Worcester, to which church it was at length 
confirmed by a grant from Kenulf to Bishop Deneberht. 

It is interesting to note that if Oshere was a brother of Osric, 
Aldred and his brothers were the last male descendants of Penda. 

It is impossible to say how much real authority these " reguli " 
and " subreguli " possessed. The titles were somewhat loosely 
used, the same person being sometimes " regulus," sometimes 
" subregulus " ; even Oshere, who was certainly " Rex," is styled 
"subregulus" in Archbishop Nothelm's decision concerning 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 


Withington. Their grants, however, are almost always made 
with the leave and consent of the King. 

It is difficult to account for the revival of the office of Vice- 
roys under Offa, except on the supposition that Eanberht and his 
brothers assisted Offa in securing the crown, and were rewarded 
in this way. 

To pass now to the consideration of the relation between the 
Hwiccians in what is now Gloucestershire, and their West Saxon 

It seems clear that from the Sea to the Foss Road East of Bath 
the Avon divided the kingdoms ; except that the borough of Bath 
probably crossed the river. But whether the boundary between 
Mercia and Wessex was exactly that which now parts Gloucester- 
shire and Wilts is not so clear. Cirencester was certainly Mercian, 
Ashdown and Wanborough were certainly West Saxon. The 
Chronicle seems to imply that when Ethelmund crossed the 
Thames at Kempsford, he passed from Mercia into Wessex, and 
Malmesbury always appears as a West Saxon monastery. On the 
other hand the greater part of Minety was in Gloucestershire till 
quite recently, and Ecgfrid granted Purton to Malmesbury during 
his short reign in 796, probably as an act of reparation for an in- 
vasion by Offa on the property of the Church. 

Perhaps the line of division was well marked in the open 
country, but the forest district of Braden was a debateable land. 

If the u Berghford," at which land at Somerford was granted 
to Malmesbury by Berhtwald, " subregulus," in 685, were Burford, 
in Oxfordshire, then the boundary between the Hwiccians and 
the West-Saxons of the Valley of the Cherwell, lay to the East 
of the present boundary between Gloucestershire and Oxford- 
shire, probably through Wychwood forest. For the signatures of 
the land-charter include Ethelred, King of the Mercians ; Bosel, 
Bishop of Worcester ; and Sexwulf, Bishop of Lichfield. More- 
over, Berhtwald was the Mercian under-King who had sheltered 
S. Wilfrid in 681. 

To the East of Wychwood there was a West Saxon See at 
Dorchester, near Oxford, from the consecration of Birinus in 650 
p 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

till Bishop Wina went to London in 666 ; and the district pro- 
bably remained West-Saxon till Ethel bald captured Somerton in 

With regard to the relations between Mercia and Wessex, 
Ethelred and Ine were men of like minds, and there was no 
breach of peace between them, the same conditions also no doubt 
obtained between Ine and Coenred ; but in 715 we hear of a fierce 
struggle between Ine and Ceolred at Wanborough. From the 
position of the battlefield Ceolred was probably the aggressor. 
Henry of Huntingdon says of the battle — "adeo autem horribiliter 
pugnatum est utrinque, ut nesciatur cui clades detestabilior con- 
tigerit." Ceolred does not seem to have penetrated any further 
into Wessex, and he died in the following year, according to 
S. Boniface, a raving madman at a feast. 

Peace was maintained between the two kingdoms till 733, when 
we are told that Ethelbald conquered Somerton. This Somerton 
was, I believe, the village on the Cherwell, south of Banbury ; 
and not the place of that name near Langport. It is incredible 
that Ethelbald would have been permitted to penetrate thirty 
miles into Wessex without a contest, whereas the Oxfordshire 
Somerton must have lain near the Midland boundary between 
Mercia and Wessex. In 571 the West-Saxons, after the battle 
of Bedford, took Lenbury, Aylesbury, Benson and Eynsham, and 
there is no reason to suppose that they had lost this territory prior 
to 733. The district represented by this conquest lay to the East and 
South-East of Somerton ; the country to the West and North- West 
round Evesham and Stratford was certainly Mercian. The neigh- 
bourhood of Somerton, therefore, would be a very likely point at 
which the West-Saxons of the valley of the Cherwell would strive 
to check an invasion from the North. The capture of Somerton 
by Ethelbald probably involved the loss of the whole of the 
Cherwell valley, and the driving back of the West-Saxon frontier 
to the course of the Thames ; so that the Eastern boundary of the 
Hwiccians from the Thames to near Moreton-in- Marsh was no 
longer open to hostile attacks, and their district was now safe 
unless it was attacked by the West Saxons on the South, or the 
North Welsh beyond the Severn. 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 215 

There is a doubtful charter, which from the subscriptions 
would date 726-737, in which Ethelbald grants land at Wacenesfel 
to Abingdon Abbey, and confirms its possessions on both sides of 
the Thames ; it purports to be confirmed also by Ethelharcl, King 
of the West-Saxons — " in expeditione ultra fluvium Sabrina ad- 
versus Britonum gentem.' Whether the charter in its present 
form is genuine or not, it is very probable that Ethelbald would 
have given a confirmation to the abbey of its lands in the territory 
which had recently come into his possession. 

The Mercians, however, did not hold undisputed possession of 
the district, for we are told that in 752 Cuthred, King of the 
West Saxons, fought with Ethelbald at Burford and put him to 
flight. Probably Cuthred advanced along the Ermine Street as 
far as Stratton St. Margaret, and then turned aside through High- 
worth, towards the district which had been captured in 733, when 
Ethelbald met him. Cuthred's victory would have availed the 
West-Saxons little, for he died in 754, and after his death the 
succession was disputed. In any case, Offa's great victory over 
Cynewulf and the West-Saxons at Benson in 777 would have 
assured to the Mercians all the country North of the Thames, so 
that the Southern boundary of Mercia was now a natural one 
formed by the valleys of the Thames and Avon. 

It is said that after the death of Eva, Abbess of Gloucester, in 
767, there were no more Abbesses, and the house fell into decay 
until the days of Beornulf ; though it certainly did not cease to exist 
till that time, for Ethel ric declared his intention of leaving the 
land of 30 "manentes" under Ofre to Gloucester in 804. Possibly 
monks took the place of nuns, as there were " fratres " at Bath 
in 758. Probably Offa took the estates of the house into his own 
hands, and kept possession of the City of Gloucester, which would 
be a point of great importance to him in the wars with the Welsh. 
Doing with regard to Gloucester then what he certainly did with 
regard to Bath fourteen years later, and for the same reason. For 
it was evidently a source of weakness that Bath lying on the 
Fosse road at the point where it entered Mercia shou]d be in eccle- 
siastical hands, and Offa determined to obtain possession of it. 



Tilhere, Bishop of Worcester, died in 781, and shortly after the 
appointment of his successor Heath ored, Offa demanded the sur- 
render not only of the monastery of Bath, but also of estates at 
Stratford, Sture, Sture in Usmere, Bredon, and Homtune, on 
the ground that they belonged to him as of the inheritance of 
King Ethelbald. It is certain, however, that all these estates 
were by right ecclesiastical property, though it is likely enough 
that Ethelbald had taken possession of some or all of them. The 
matter was evidently regarded as one of very great importance, 
and was decided at a council held at Brentford in 781 before the 
change of Indiction in September. Heathored surrendered Bath 
and retained all the other estates in dispute ; the decree is signed 
by King Offa, six " principes," Archbishop Jaenberht and the 
whole episcopate of his Province 

The transaction is a most interesting one, because it is possible 
to trace the exact limits of the territory thus transferred from the 
Bishop to the King. The land at Bath is described as being that 
of " 90 manentium," and Heathored says that he or one of his 
predecessors had purchased 30 cassates on the south of the Avon 
for a fitting price from Cynewulf, who became King of the West 
Saxons in 755. 

The Hundred of Bath is thus entered in Domesday Survey 1 : — 

North of Avon . . h. v. 

Bathwick . . . 7 - 

Woolley . . . 2 - 

Weston . 20 - 

Bathford . . 10 - 

Tadwick in Swainswick 2 - 

Langridge . 2 2 

Kelston .. 5 - 

Batheaston . 6 2 
Burgum quod vocatur 

Bade . 20 - 

South of Avon 
Monkton Combe 
Whiteoxmead in Wellovv 

• n. 



Lyncombe . 

75 - Less Lyncombe 
10 - 

85 - 

1 Eyton, Domesday Studies, Somerset, h\, 14. 


30 - 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 217 

Very probably Lyncombe was an appendage of the Borough 
of Bath ; its subtraction from the 40 hides south of the river 
leaves exactly 30 hides corresponding to the 30 cassates purchased 
from Cynewulf, and its addition to the 75 hides north of the river 
gives a total of 85 hides to correspond with the land of the " 90 
manentium " which Heathored surrendered. It will be noticed 
that the places contained in the Hundred of Bath correspond 
exactly to the portion of Somerset north of the Avon ; but Bath 
did not become West-Saxon for more than a century after the 
Synod of Brentford, for Burhred, King of the Mercians, held a 
Witanagemot there on July 25th, 864 ; possibly its transference 
followed on the death of Alfred, reeve of Bath, which is noted in 
the Chronicle under the year 906 ; just as King Edward took 
possession of the territory that pertained to London and Oxford 
on the death of Alderman Ethelred in 912. 

On the day of Egbert's accession to the throne of the West 
Saxons, Earldorman Ethelmund, as we have seen, invaded Wilt- 
shire at Kempsford, he was met by the Wiltshiremen under their 
Earldorman Weoxtan ; in the battle which ensued both leaders 
were slain, but the invaders were defeated, and Kenulf remained 
at peace with Egbert during the remainder of his reign. 

In 823, however, Beornulf invaded Wessex, the armies met 
at Ellandune, and after a frightful slaughter in which Hun, leader 
of the men of Somerset, perished, and which is noted by all the 
Chroniclers, Egbert was victorious. The men ot Kent, Surrey, 
Sussex, Essex, and East Anglia threw off the Mercian yoke ; and 
shortly afterwards Egbert appointed Wiglaf to rule the Mercians 
as an under-King. 

The scene of this crushing defeat was no doubt Wroughton, 
near Swindon, a large part of which parish appears in Domesday 
as a possession of the monks of the cathedral at Winchester 
under the name of " Elendune." Probably " Mons Eallse," as 
Florence paraphrases the name, was Barbury, the scene of Cynric's 
victory in 556. 

To pass from the West Saxon territory on the East and South 
of the Hwiccian realm to the Welsh territory on the west. It 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

seems clear that the district between the Severn and the Wye did 
not come into the possession of the West Saxons after the battle 
of Dyrham in 577 ; had it done so it would have belonged to the 
Hwiccians, and would have been subject to the Bishop of Worces- 
ter. But Bede, writing in 731, distinguishes between the Hwiccians 
under their Bishop Wilfrid (of Worcester), " et eis populis qui 
ultra amnem Sabrinam ad occidentem habitant " under their 
Bishop Walchstod (of Hereford) ; the Forest Deanery was in the 
Diocese of Hereford till the See of Gloucester was founded, and 
was in fact visited by the Archdeacon of Hereford, who received 
the procurations, in the spring of each year until 1836. 

Originally, the English Bishops were Bishops of nationalities 
not of districts. The Bishop whose See was at Worcester was 
Bishop of the Hwiccians, he who sat at Hereford was Bishop of 
the Magessetas ; but in later days when Mercia was mapped out 
into shires the separate nationalities had disappeared, and the 
shire boundaries did not run on the old lines. Warwickshire 
was taken partly from the Diocese of Lichfield, partly from Wor- 
cester ; Shropshire partly from Lichfield, partly from Hereford ; 
Gloucestershire East of the Severn from the Diocese of Worcester, 
the old territory of the Hwiccians, while the Forest district had 
pertained to the land of the Magessetas, whose Bishop's seat was 
at Hereford. Thus it is uncertain when the Forest of Dean 
passed finally from the possession of the Welsh ; from the reign 
of Offa onward it was without doubt English, but equally without 
doubt it was subject to Hereford, and not to Gloucester, until the 
shire of Gloucester was formed, probably in the tenth, possibly 
not till the beginning of the eleventh, century. 

When we are told that in 743 Ethelbald and Cuthred fought 
against the Welsh, the foreigners referred to are no doubt the 
West Welsh of Devon and Cornwall ; and the expedition against 
the Welsh beyond the Severn, mentioned in the doubtful Abing- 
don Charter already referred to, is not noticed either in the 
English or Welsh Chronicles. But the Welsh Chronicle notes 
that in 721 the action of Pencoed and the fii>ht of GarthmaeW 
took place, and that in both these battles the Britons were 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 


victorious. The editor of the " Monumenta Historica Britaniiica " 
places the scene of these battles between Llantrissant and Bridgend 
in Glamorganshire ^ if this is correct, and they were fought against 
English invaders, then the invasion must have been under the 
direction of Ethelbald, and possibly the fact that it was unsuc- 
cessful may account for the omission of any mention of it from 
the English Chronicle. 

Three years after the accession of Offa in 760, the Welsh 
Chronicles mention a battle between the Britons and Saxons at 
Hereford. Probably this signifies an invasion by the Welsh. But 
before many years were passed the tables were turned. The 
Welsh Chronicles mention two great invasions by Offa, one in 
776 or 778, the other in 784. It is in connection with the latter 
invasion that we hear of the construction of Offa's dyke, which we 
are told was made "as a boundary between him and the Welsh, 
to enable him the more easily to withstand the attack of his 

And so far as the Forest district is concerned Offa's dyke is 
evidently a defensive and not an offensive work ; for it lies on the 
east side of the Wye, which remained a Welsh river. Had the 
English King been strong enough to do so, he would no doubt have 
crossed the river and placed the boundary on the further shore, 
where it would have been much more useful as a base for invasion 
of the Welsh territory. Evidently Offa had gone as far as he or any 
Englishman could ; the boundary remained where he had placed 
it for nearly three centuries, till in 1070 it was carried westward to 
the Usk by the first Norman Earl of Hereford, William Eitzosbern. 
Kenulf ravaged South Wales in 818, but it seems to have been 
a mere plundering expedition, which brought no extension of 

Passing to the Ecclesiastical History of the district, there is 
no evidence to shew that at the death of Ethelred there were any 
other Religious Establishments, in what is now Gloucestershire, 
except those at Gloucester, Tetbury and Withington, the history 
of which has already been traced. But by the end of our period 
there were also churches, great or small, at Beckford, Berkeley, 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Cheltenham, Cleeve, Deerhurst, Twining, Winchcombe, Westbury- 
on-Trym, and Yate. It will be helpful to trace shortly the origin 
of these establishments as far as possible. 

" Monasteria " at Beckford and Cheltenham are mentioned 
in the record of the settlement of a dispute between Deneberht, 
Bishop of Worcester, and Wulfheard, Bishop of Hereford which 
was effected at the Council at Cloveshoe in 803, when the Archi- 
piscopate of Lichfield was abolished. Deneberht claimed the 
" pastus " or profit of the estates ; Wulfheard denied that it had 
belonged to him or any of his predecessors for at least thirty 
years ; but Deneberht proved that Weremund, Bishop of Worces- 
ter in 775 had received " pastus " at Beckford, and that Heathored, 
Bishop, 781-798, had done the same at Cheltenham, and that 
Wulfheard himself had paid him money for this " pastus." It 
was decided that on the death of Deneberht the estates should 
pass entirely to the See of Worcester, but that during his life half 
the profits should go to the Archbishop of Canterbury, namely, in 
one year those from Beckford, and in alternate years those from 
Cheltenham. These " Monasteria " evidently existed in 775, but by 
whom they were founded there is no evidence to shew. Probably 
the 30 hides at Prestbury and Sevenhampton, noted in Domesday 
as belonging to the Church of Hereford, were in some way con- 
nected with the property claimed by Wulfheard ; but the Survey 
notes nothing at Beckford or Cheltenham as belonging to Worces- 

Tilhere, Bishop of Worcester, 777-781, is said to have been 
Abbot of Berkeley, and on the authority of Florence of Worcester, 
Ethelhun, who became Bishop in 915, certainly was so. The 
Chronicle and Florence also note the death of Ceolburga, Abbess 
of Berkeley, in 805 ; she was the widow of Earldorman Ethel- 
mund, and to her Ethel ric, her son, left his estates at Westbury 
and Stoke Bishop for her life with reversion to Worcester. The 
monastery at Berkeley, however, retained them till Earldorman 
Ethelred restored them to Worcester in 883. Tilhere signs as 
Abbot as early as 759, but there is no evidence to shew when, or 
by whom, the monastery at Berkeley was founded. It is probable 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 


that its endowment consisted of the whole of the ancient Hundred 
of Berkeley. It is said to have survived till the reign of the Con- 
fessor, when it perished through the treachery of Earl Godwin. 

With regard to the ancient house of Canons at Cirencester, 
Collinson 1 states on the authority of " Chronicon Abbat. Cirencest. 
M.S. penes Edit." that it was founded by Alwyn, a Saxon, in the 
time of King Egbert. The Manuscript Chronicle cannot now be 
traced, and I am indebted to the Rev. E. A. Fuller for this 
information, as well as for the following note made after a visit 
to Sir Thomas Phillips' library at Cheltenham : " When the 
Charter of Henry I. was enrolled in Chartulary A in the reign of 
Henry III. the following memorandum was entered — not: quod 
monasterium Cirencestrie stabilitum fuit circa ccc annos. The 
note may possibly be a little later, the ink is not the same, but 
the hand-writing is early." E. A.F. 

No doubt Cirencester was waste till after the close of the 
eighth century ; but it seemed better for the sake of completeness 
to insert a notice of the date of the foundation of the monastery 

The earliest mention of the monastery at Cleeve is in a charter 
which must have been granted 767-785, by which Offa and Aldred, 
" subregulus," bestow land at Timbingctun on the monastery at 
Cleeve and on the Church of S. Michael there. The founder and 
date of foundation are unknown. It appears in Domesday as a 
part of the possessions of the See of Worcester. 

We first meet with Deerhurst in Ethelric's settlement of his 
property at Aclea in 804, when he settled Todenham and other 
estates upon it ; but it was evidently a well-known church at that 
time, for his father, Ethelmund, who was slain at Kempsford in 
800, had been buried there. Leland's statement that Deerhurst 
is mentioned by Bede probably arose from a mistaken reference 
to Bede's History, v. 2, where a " Monasterium quod vocatur 
Inderauuda, id est, in silva Derorum," is spoken of; but this was 

A great part of the existing church at Deerhurst is very likely 
the work of Ethelric. It became a Benedictine house in the 
1 History of Somerset, ii., 191. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

tenth century, when St. Alphege was certainly an inmate, and 
was probably Abbot. Finally, in the reign of the Confessor, its 
estates were divided and given to endow the Abbeys of Westmin- 
ster and St. Denys, the burial places of the Sovereigns of England 
and France. 

The " Monasterium at Twining, containing the land of three 
" manentes," under the name " Bituinseum," i.e. "between the 
eas " or rivers Avon and Severn, was surrendered by Deneberht, 
Bishop of Worcester, to King Kenulf in exchange for a remission 
of taxation in Worcester on St. Stephen's Day, 814. It appears 
in Domesday under the name of " Tueninge " as a manor of three 
hides in the possession of the Abbey of Winchcombe, to which 
church no doubt it had been given by Kenulf. 

Westbury-on-Trym and Yate had been founded by Eanulf, 
grandfather of Offa. in the reign of Ethelbald ; and very probably 
early in his reign, for Eanulf founded his monastery at Bredon 
with the advice of Ethelbald, who became King in 716, and of 
St. Ecgwine who died in 717, and it is likely enough that West- 
bury and Yate were founded about the same time. At any rate, 
the land for all three churches was granted by Ethelbald. Later 
on in the century, however, both Westbury and Yate had passed 
into lay hands. In 778-779 Offa and Aldred, " subregulus," gave 
the land of 10 " Mansiones " at " Gete ' which it is stated had been 
granted to Eanulf by Ethelbald, to the Church of S. Mary at 
Worcester, and it appears as a member of the great manor of 
Westbury-on-Trym among the possessions of the See in Domesday. 

Westbury-on-Trym does not appear till quite the end of Offa's 
reign, then it is closely connected with the thirty cassates at 
Henbury and Aust which Ethelred had granted to Oftfor in 692, 
and the combined property is the subject of a group of grants. 

At a Synod held at Cloveshoe in 794 Offa restored to the 
cathedral the land of five " manentes " at Aust, which the Comes 
Bynna had unlawfully taken. In Domesday the land at " Austre- 
clive ' is rated at five hides. And, judging from the signatures 
apparently at the same time and place, Offa granted to Ethel mund 
55 cassates at Westbury. 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 


By another charter, of which two forms exist, the date of 
which must be 791-796. Offa granted the land of sixty manentes 
at Westbury, and xx manentes at Henbury to Worcester Cathe- 
dral after the death of himself and his son Ecgfrid. 

In another Synod of Cloveshoe, after the accession of Kenulf, 
probably in 798, Ethelric, the son of Ethelmund, obtained an 
acknowledgement that he was able to leave the land at Westmin- 
ster (i.e. Westbury-on-Trym) as he pleased ; and at a Synod of 
Aclea in 804 he declared his intention of leaving his land at 
Westminster and Stoke to his mother, Ciolburga, for her life if she 
survived him ; on the death of the survivor it was to revert to 
the cathedral at Worcester. The Chronicle places the death of 
Ceolburga, Abbess of Berkeley, in 805. The family at Berkeley 
however, claimed the property, and the dispute was settled at a 
Synod of Cloveshoe in 824, when the right of Worcester to it was 
affirmed ; the monastery at Berkeley retained the land in spite of 
this decision till 883, as we have already seen, and I believe the 
whole estate was not restored even then. 

The history of these charters of Offa and Ethelric I believe to 
be this. Probably the charter granting Westbury and Henbury 
to Worcester after the death of Offa and Ecgfrid was first in 
date ; then in 794 Offa granted his interest to Ethelmund, and 
Ecgfrid consented by his signature. But when Offa died on July 
29th, 796, and Ecgfrid about December 17th following with Ethel- 
mund in possession, it was necessary that some definite settlement 
should be made. Therefore at the Synod of Cloveshoe in 798, 
Ethelric, son of Ethelmund, though he obtained a declaration of 
his right to leave his property as he willed, effected the restoration 
of the property to Worcester which Offa had purposed, by leaving 
it to the cathedral after the death of his mother and himself. 

The property dealt with would seem to be as follows : 

At Aust the land of 5 manentes. 
Henbury — 20 — 
Westbury — 60 
Yate —10 — 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

In Domesday this land, or parfc of it, is found among the 

possessions of the See of Worcester, thus : H. v. 

Westbury, Henbury, Redwick, Stoke, Yate 50 

Six Radchenists - 8 

Aust-Cliff - 5 

Compton Greenfield - 3 2 

Itchington - 5 

Osbern Giffard - 5 

76 2 

Shewing about 18 J hides less than the number of " manentes." 
I believe the deficiency is due to abstractions by the monastery at 
Berkeley, and is now represented by land lying in the Hundred 
of Berkeley, in the neighbourhood of Westbury and Henbury, 

entered in Domesday thus : h. v. 

Almondsbury - 2 

Horfield (including Filton) - - 8 

Kingsweston - 7 1 

Elberton - 5 

22 1 

Westbury, Henbury, and their members 76 2 

98 3 

A total strikingly coincident with the number of ii manentes " 
mentioned in Offa's grants. It will be seen, however, that the 
gifts of Offa and Ethelric were merely of the nature of a restitution 
to ecclesiastical purposes of land which Eanulf had given to the 
church long before. 

The foundation of Winchcombe falls within our period, but it 
would require separate treatment. 

But besides these grants to the smaller houses, both Ethelbald 
and Offa, and likewise Offa's viceroys, were generous benefactors 
to S. Peter's and S. Mary's at Worcester, though with regard to 
Offa and his viceroys it is probable that many of the grants were 
like those of Westbury and Yate, rather restitutions than free 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 


It is possible, perhaps, to make a fair approximation to the 
amount of land which had come into ecclesiastical hands by the 

end of our period, thus : h. v. 

Worcester, and its dependencies 176 

Gloucester - - - - 100 

Winchcombe - 39 

Evesham - - - - 28 

Pershore - - - 11 

Deerhurst 61 1 

Berkeley - 75 

Beckford and Cheltenham - - 24 
Batsford - 8 
Woodchester - 3 

525 1 

Bath - - - - - 100 

625 1 

The amount of property which afterwards belonged to Wor- 
cester is calculated from Domesday, and is correct ; the whole 
property belonging to that church at the date of the Survey in 
Gloucestershire was rated at 231 hides and 1 virgate, so that two- 
thirds of the land had already passed into ecclesiastical hands by 
the end of our period. 

For Gloucester I have taken one- third of the number of tri- 
butarii/' with whose land Osric is said to have endowed it, and 
for Winchcombe, Evesham, Pershore Deerhurst and Berkeley, I 
have taken half the number of hides mentioned in Domesday ; 
these are all, I believe, under-estimates. 

At the date of Domesday there were in Gloucestershire, ex- 
cluding the Forest Deaneries, 2384 hides; if the 100 hides of Bath 
are added as they ought fairly to be, there is a total of 2484 hides. 
And of these 525 or 625 at least, or about one quarter of the 
whole, had passed into the possession of the Church within about 
a century and a half after the death of Penda. 

The amount was excessive, and illustrates the complaints of 
Bede in his letter to Egbert, Bishop of York, in 734. 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

Bede complains that there are a number of small houses where 
the discipline is very loose ; these, he says, might well be used as 
endowments for a Bishop's See, just as Cleeve, Westbury, and 
Withington were absorbed in Worcester. 

Laymen, he says, obtained grants of land freed from the 
burden of secular taxation ostensibly for the purpose of founding 
monasteries ; but either the monastery was not founded, or the 
discipline was so loose that the life was practically secular. An 
instance might very well be the land at Cold Aston and Not- 
grove, which Ethelbald granted 737-743 to Osred of the Royal 
stock of the Hwiccians, free from all secular burdens, on condition 
that he paid his church dues. 

Again, Bede complains that the churches had obtained so 
much of the public land that there is none left from which the 
sons of nobles or of veteran soldiers may obtain estates, so that 
they either emigrate, or if they remain at home they live immoral 
lives, not sparing even virgins consecrated to God. Of the darker 
side of monastic life concerning which S. Boniface spoke so plainly 
to Ethelbald about 745, there is no evidence in the charters, but 
we can hardly hope that the Hwiccian houses were better than 
those in other parts of Mercia. We have already seen that Offa 
rewarded Ethelmund with a life interest in a portion of the 
estates of Westbury. 

These houses were often at their first institution family livings. 
Thus Osric provided for his sister, Kyneburh, at Gloucester, and 
his brother, Oswald, at Pershore ; and Oshere provided for Dunna 
and Bucga at Withington. And there was a strong tendency to 
keep alive the family claim against the church. Thus Bucga 
claimed Withington, although she was married to the thane 
Bidda ; Offa claimed Bath and the other church estates in 781 
on the ground that they were of the patrimony of Ethelbald ; the 
sons of Oshere compelled S. Ecgwin to surrender Eladbury. It 
may seem clear to us that when land was given to found a monas- 
tery over which a relative of the founder would preside, that it 
would become church land. In those days there was evidently 
room for the contention that it remained a family estate. 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 


Sometimes indeed land was given to the church on the distinct 
condition that the monastery was always to be ru]ed by one of the 
family of the founder if a fit person could be found. It was an en- 
dowment of the same kind with the fellowships for founder's kin at 
the universities. A similar arrangement was not unknown in the 
cathedrals in later days ; thus early in the twelfth century Strlo 
founded the Prebend of Teynton at Sarum on condition that it 
should first be given to Richard "Serlonis nutrito," and ever 
afterwards to the nearest of kin who should be found "aptus et 
idoneus " for such service in the Church of Sarum. So in 759 
Eanberht, Uhctred, and Aldred gave 10 cassates at Onnanford 
(near Withington) to Abbot Headda. Afterwards Headda gave 
this estate with land at Dowdeswell and " Tyreltune," which 
were of his own patrimony, to the monastery at Worcester on 
condition that so long as there was any one of his family fit 
for the monastic life he should receive it ; if no such fit person 
could be found, then the land should pass to the See of Worcester. 
Headda was a relative of Heathored, who was Bishop at the time. 

A curious instance of this practice is afforded by the history 
of the Cathedral estate at Sodbury. Milred, Bishop, 743-775, 
had granted it to Eanbald, and he to Eastmund on condition that 
the holder must always be in holy orders, if not it would revert 
to Worcester. But after Eastmund's death this condition was 
ignored. Probably this happened in the time of Bishop Eadberht, 
822-848, for Eastmund Presbyter signed the settlement of the 
dispute between Worcester and Berkeley relating to the monastery 
of Westbury in November, 824 ; but Eadberht could not obtain 
justice, neither could Aelhun, Bishop, 848 872> neither could 
Werefrith till Earldorrnan ^Ethelred gathered his witan at Salt- 
wich — probably the witenagemot at Droitwich — in 888. Thither 
Werefrith brought his documents and proved his case. Then 
Eadnoth, and iElfred, and .ZElfstan, who were in possession, 
promised either to find one of their kin who would take orders, or 
to give up the land. No one, however, would be ordained, and the 
matter was compromised by Eadnoth retaining possession of the 
land, and paying to Werefrith forty mancusses, and undertaking 

Vol. XVI. 



Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

to render a yearly rent of fifteen shillings to the Bishop at Tet- 
bury. The agreement is signed by the Bishop, by five priests no 
doubt members of the Worcester chapter, and seven others. 

I have not been able to find any trace of a ministry settled in 
the villages during this period ; the clergy seem to have been still 
attached to the Religious Houses. 

Of course, however, in such a case as that in which a priest 
obtained a grant of an estate from the Bishop, as Eastmund held 
Sodbury, he might very likely live upon it. The whole number 
of clergy was, however, very considerable. At the final settle- 
ment of the dispute relating to Westbury-on-Trym, between Wor- 
cester and Berkeley, which took place at Westbury in November 
824, there were present as many as fifty mass-priests and ten 
deacons, and of all other priests one hundred and sixty. The 
agreement is signed by the fifty priests and some of the deacons ; 
but altogether there must have been present as many as two 
hundred and ten priests. In Gloucestershire there are now 317 
benefices excluding the Deaneries of Bristol and of the Forest. 
The decision was a triumph for the cathedral at Worcester, and 
no doubt the clergy from the cathedral monasteries would have 
mustered in force from what is now Worcestershire, as well as from 
Gloucestershire ; on the other hand the priests of Berkeley and 
its adherents would probably stay away. In any case the number 
of priests is so large as to indicate that the supply of clergy was 
quite adequate to the population ; though if they were still col- 
lected in the monasteries, their services would not have been 
readily available in districts where a monastery did not exist. 

And so we conclude our survey of the condition of Gloucester- 
shire in the eighth century with the thought that the Gloucester- 
shire which we now know had already begun to be. Setting 
aside Bristol, which as yet was not, and Cirencester which 
was probably still waste, the places which were most important 
then are most important now. Bath and Gloucester, the old 
Roman cities, the seats of Osric's two great monasteries, are now 
Bishops' Sees and the most important centres of population in 
the district. The estates of the monastery at Berkeley probably 

Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century. 


consisted of the present Hundred of Berkeley ; if so, with the 
exception of the cathedral at Worcester, and the monastery at 
Gloucester, it would have been the wealthiest house in the district 
a thousand years ago, as the Berkeley estate is the most valuable 
in the shire now. Cheltenham already existed, and Tetbury and 
Winchcombe were well known. While village names scattered 
all over the shire on the East of the Severn, shew that the names 
of the district were then much what they are now ; Withington, 
Dowdeswell, Aston, Notgrove, Guiting, and Turkdean, Beckford, 
and Batsford (Baecceshora, Domesday Beceshore), Sodbury and 
Yate, Westbury, Henbury, Stoke and Aust, Bibury and Wood- 
chester, Deerhurst and Todenham, were as familiar to the Hwic- 
cians a thousand years ago as they are to the men of the Cotswolds 
or of the vale to-day. Onnanford is, so far I know, the only name 
which cannot now be traced, but it occurs in the boundaries of 
Withington, and the estate implied by it must have lain there. 
And no doubt these names are but types of the rest, they have 
been preserved because they belong to estates in possession of 
the Church, while the names of the estates in lay hands have not 
been so preserved. But there can be very little doubt that the 
village names of the district were very much the same under 
King Offa as they are under Queen Victoria. 

And not only were the names the same, but I believe the 
things implied by the names were the same likewise. In many 
cases this is demonstrably so. It is not by chance that the 
district round Bath, described as the land of 90 " manentes " in 
781, and rated at 85 hides in 1086, is found to correspond pre- 
cisely with the portion of Somerset north of the Avon now ; nor 
is it a mere casual coincidence that Aust described as the land 
of 5 " manentes " in 794, and whose boundaries are set forth in 
929, should be rated at 5 hides in 1086 ; or that Twining, which 
contained the land of 3 " manentes" in 814, should be rated at 3 
hides in 1086 ; or that the boundaries of " Stoo " which was taken 
from Berkeley and restored to Worcester in 883 should be found 
to correspond with the boundaries of Stoke Bishop and Shirehamp- 
ton in Westbury-on-Trym. These things are not mere coincidences, 

Q 2 


Transactions for the Year 1891-92. 

they shew plainly that the area surrendered by Bishop Heabhored 
1111 years ago was precisely the area known as the Hundred of 
Bath both to the Domesday Commissioners, and to us of to-day ; 
that the Aust and Twining with which Offa and Kenulf dealt 
were what we know by those names, though some eleven centuries 
have rolled away since then ; that the " Stoc" with which Earl- 
dorman Ethelred and the Lady of the Mercians dealt more than 
a thousand years ago in the time of King Alfred, was just what we 
know as Stoke Bishop and Shirehampton now. 

And the similarity holds not simply with regard to the areas 
as a whole, but also with regard to their constituent parts. It is 
impossible to avoid the conviction that in the cases at any rate of 
Bath, Offa's grants at Westbury Henbury and Aust, and Twining 
(and instances might easily be multiplied), the area implied by 
the land of one " cassate," or of one " manens," was set down in 
Domesday as one hide. And this is a most important conclusion ; 
the proof and consequences of which shall be, if possible, developed 
on some future occasion. 

But it is a most striking proof of the continuity of English 
History that more than one thousand years ago, not only were 
the place-names of the shire the same with those which are 
familiar to us ; but also that the areas and boundaries were the 
same which we find to-day. The outward framework of the life 
of the district was already that in which we are working now. 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 231 

$,Qtxu* oi Recent QxchmloQhzl attb ggistoiral pjMtratiott*. 

in the possession of the Right Hon ble Lord Fitzhardinge at BERKELEY 
CASTLE, compiled, with Introduction, Notes & Indices, by Isaac Herbert 
Jeayes, of the Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum. Bristol : 
C. T. Jefferies & Sons, Limited, 1892. 

We had the gratification in the last volume of the Transactions of our 
Society to bring under the notice of the members the intention of Mr. I. H. 
Jeayes to print Abstracts of a thousand Ancient Charters and other Docu- 
ments, selected.with the sanction of Lord Fitzhardinge, fro.m the Muniments 
at Berkeley Castle. We are glad to say that the volume is now issued. Mr. 
Jeayes has more than fulfilled his promise. The volume before us contains 

abstracts of 1367 documents : viz. — 

Select Charters, &c. - - - 892 

Wills, &c. 62 

Inquisitiones post mortem ... 80 

Select Rolls 184 

Select Books - - - - 85 

Select Letters, Warrants, &c. - - 64 


In respect to the Charters, the names of all the witnesses, as well as of 
the parties, are given. The names of the former are often omitted, but Mr. 
Jeayes has wisely retained them, thereby adding greatly to the value of 
the work. Among the documents are many relating to the Heraldry and 
Genealogy of Gloucestershire families. 

Preceding the Charters Mr. Jeayes gives, in an Introductory Chapter, a 
brief sketch of the history of the Berkeley family, together with tabular 
pedigrees extending from .ZEdnoth the Staller, who died in 1068, to Thomas 
Lord Berkeley, the fifth of his name, who died in 1532. 

The volume is well printed, and is furnished with a triple Index — of 
Subjects, Names of Places, and Names of Persons. 

The volume will be found very valuable, generally, to all topographical 
students, especially to those interested in the history of Gloucestershire and 
the West of England, to whom the work is indispensable. 

BUCKFAST ABBEY. By Dom Adam Hamilton, O.S.B. Third Edition. 
London : Burns & Oates, 1892. 

A very scholarly and valuable Paper on the Cistercian Houses of Devonshire 
was communicated some years ago to the Devonshire Association for the 


232 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

Advancement of Science, Literature and Art, by Mr. J. Brooking Rowe, 
F.S.A., then President of that Society, in which work he treats very fully 
of the history of the great Abbey of Buckfast from pre-Norman times. Most 
of the other Cistercian Houses in Devon, for satisfactory reasons which he 
has given, he dealt with more lightly. Much, however, has happened to 
Buckfast during the fifteen years which have elapsed since Mr. Rowe wrote, 
which is briefly related in the little monograph before us. 

On the dissolution, in 1539, of the Religious Houses, the abbey was granted 
to Sir Thomas Dennis, but it remained not long in that name. According 
to the usual fate of abbey lands it passed through a succession of female 
coheirs into divers families. In 1806 the site of the abbey and some portion 
of the lands had become the property of a Mr. Berry, but in a very ruinous 
condition. Mr. Berry levelled the walls which were still standing and used 
the materials in building a modern house, in which is incorporated some 
portion of the remains of the ancient abbey. From Mr. Berry it passed 
to a Mr. Searle Benthall, who sold it to Dr. Gale, of Plymouth, of whom it 
was purchased in 1882 by a community of Primitive Observance which had 
been expelled from Prance in 1880. This community was not Cistercian 
though members of the same great Benedictine family of which the Cister- 
cians were members. 

After the ruins of the abbey came into the possession of the Brotherhood 
excavations were soon commenced, and the ground plan disclosed, of which 
a plan is given. It is of the usual type of Cistercian Houses, and the 
foundations were found to be complete. The first object of the monks was 
to erect a temporary church until such time as the former one could be 
rebuilt on its ancient site. This was opened on Lady Day, 1884, by Dr. J. 
L. Patterson, Bishop of Emmaus, and the restoration of the abbey was 
proceeded with on the South side, which was so far advanced as to admit of 
Pontifical High Mass being celebrated on 29th April, 1886. 

We have to thank Dom Adam Hamilton for his interesting little brochure. 

CLUB, Vol. X. Gloucester : Printed by John Bellows, 1892. 
The Cotteswold Field Club which for many years has done most valuable 
work in the County of Gloucester and its neighbourhood, has recently 
issued the third and final Tart of the tenth volume of its Proceedings. Mr. 
W. C. Lucy, F.G.S. (the President of the Society) gives, as is usual, a most 
interesting record of the Field Work done by the Society during the last two 
years ; and the special Papers contributed by the members are all very 
valuable, though this Part does not contain so much geological matter as 
usual. Perhaps it is not the less interesting on that account. 

The first Paper introduced is one by the late Mr. John Jones, formerly of 
Gloucester, and for many years an active and valuable member of the Club. 
He read this Paper before the Club at a Meeting at Tewkesbury as long ago 
as May, 1854. It is 

On Certain Superstitions Prevalent in the Vale of Gloucester. — At that time 
the study of Folk-Lore had not been taken up as a science, and the Editor 
of these Proceedings has done well to preserve Mr. Jones' Paper. Many 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 233 

old Legends, Customs and Superstitions, and much Local Speech has, doubt- 
less, through the agency of the Schoolmaster and the Policeman, been lost 
since Mr. Jones' little Paper was written which would now have been very 
useful to the members of the Folk-Lore Society, nevertheless, we doubt not 
that much remains to be gleaned, not only in the Vale of Gloucester but 
also on the Cotteswold Hills and in the Forest District. 

Bird Song and its Scientific Value. — This Paper shews in its preparation 
much thought and patient observation. Mr. Witchell, the author, justly 
says : "The habits of animals are equally with their construction worthy 
of investigation, for movement, especially aberrant movement, is the 
forerunner of new habits, and may therefore be termed the parent of 
physical development. Habit," he says, "is valuable as indicating the 
extent to which the multiplication of certain species may effect human 
interests ; and in this it excels physical structure. It is better for us to 
learn what are the seeds devoured by finches rather than the number of 
feathers of which their tails are composed." And he complains that this 
side of the subject has not been treated of in the works of Ornithologists. 
But he does not notice in the List of Ornithological works which he has 
consulted, the Parliamentary Report of the Select Committee of the House 
of Commons on the Wild Birds Protection Bill of 1873, perhaps the most 
valuable and useful work on the habits of wild birds and their food which we 
possess. He mentions that during comparatively recent years a change of 
habitat, partial or general, has occurred in certain animals, e.g., the beaver 
in North America has become solitary ; the house-sparrow has become 
parasitical on the abode of man and in that of the martin ; the house-mouse 
is generally dependent upon man for food ; and the meadow-vole and long- 
tailed field-mouse have adopted walls for residences. 

But Mr. Witchell says, " there is another feature in the change of habit 
which is much more important than its effect upon the distribution of the 
species, and this is its suggestion of a mental process akin to, or identical 
with, what we call reason." He adds : "It can only be by observing and 
recording the habits of animals that we shall acquire accurate knowledge of 
animal psychology ; and let us hope that before the approaching extinction 
of some of our rarer animals has been accomplished, observers will have 
recorded, not only the bare incidents of their local distribution and nidi- 
fication, but also something of their domestic life and manners." 

All this is very interesting, but it is only preliminary to the subject of 
his Paper, and we heartily sympathise with him in his desire that the habits 
and instincts of wild animals and birds should be more closely and carefully 
studied, and we agree with his suggestion that the members of the club 
should give some special attention to this interesting subject. 

A scientific study of the Songs of Birds is doubtless very interesting, and 
it is a study to which naturalists have not given the attention it deserves. 
We gather from Mr. Witchell that the whole of what has been written upon 
it is, in his opinion, " absolutely worthless." This is not very encouraging, 
and we would fain hope that his judgment is somewhat too severe. 

One remarkable feature in Mr. Witchell's observations is the imitative 
power possessed by birds, and the extent and accuracy with which they 


Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

imitate each other, and, perhaps, few persons are capable of distinguishing 
the one from the other, though we all know that many persons can whistle 
a bird's song with great success. 

Mr. Witchell cites Mr. O.V. Aplin, the author of " The Birds of Oxon"; 
as saying: In May, 1889, I listened to the most accomplished sedgewarbler 
I ever came across. It began several times with the tut-tut-tut of the black- 
bird, and produced the following : — green woodpecker, call, starling — 
blackbird, alarm and call-notes — corn bunting (E. Miliaria) song, exact 
(N.B. — This bird is fairly common there) — lark, song, — chaffinch, song and 
'pink' — greenfinch, double and single, — sparrow, call — swallow, song, — red- 
start, alarm-note, — partridge, call, — nightingale, full bubbling notes." 

Some Laws of Inheritance and their Application to Man. — Mr. Buckland, 
in a very brief preface to his Paper, gives a short history of its production. 
He says that a considerable portion of the first part of it was written 
early in the year 1891, and that the Paper, itself, was read before the 
Cotteswold Field Club in February, 1892. In the subsequent discussion 
objection was taken by Professor Harker that the writer had not considered 
the views of Weismann ; and he had consequently added at the end a 
short argument concerning Weismann's theories. Some other additions, 
he says, he had made, the result of fresh observations, or to make the 
argument clearer, which had been incorporated in the Paper since it had 
been read before the Field Club. All such additions, he says, have been 
enclosed within square brackets ; and the brackets will shew that in works 
studied since the Paper was read he had found confirmation of several of his 

It would appear from this statement that great care has been taken in 
the preparation of Mr. Buckland's Paper. His arguments are very full, but 
it would be impossible to follow them out in a necessarily brief notice in a 
Magazine. After much research and weighing of evidence he has come to 
the conclusion that Man is descended from a quadramanous, arboreal, 
tailed, ancestor — in other words a monkey — of the group called the Platyr- 
hine. We have never given any study to the growing science, if science it 
be, of the " Evolution of Man." Our feelings revolt against it ; nevertheless, 
the comparisons and evidence produced are very remarkable. 

Egypt, Syria and Palestine. — The last article in this volume, contributed 
by Mr. J. H. Taunton, M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., is one of great interest. He 
gives some account of his journeying in Eyypt, but more especially, after- 
wards, in Syria and Palestine. The details which he furnishes of the 
geology, and physical geography, levels, and general character of this 
remarkable region are of high interest, but it is impossible we can follow 
him through the details. He shews the impracticability of the once talked 
of Jordan Valley Canal Scheme. 

It is curious to note the small extent of the Jewish kingdom. The area 
of Palestine proper (exclusive of the possessions in Moab, Syria and Arabia, 
held in the days of Kings David and Solomon) was no greater than that 
of England and Wales, or about 6000 square miles, extending from the 
Jordan to the sea coasts westwards. The distance from Dan to Beersheba is 
but about 120 miles. 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 235 

THE WESTERN ANTIQUARY. —Note Book for Devon and Cornwall, 
Vol. XI. Edited by W. H. K. Knight, F. R. Historical Society, Borough 
Librarian, Plymouth. 

This volume sustains the reputation of its predecessors. Mr. Arthur J. 
Jewers, F.S.A., communicates A Memoir on the Parish of Ermington, which 
is continued throughout the volume. He briefly relates the devolution of 
the manor, and gives the heraldry of the church, in which it is rather rich, 
and also numerous extracts from the Parish Registers (which, however, are 
very late) in connection with Ermington families. Mr. William Crossing 
F.L.S., continues from the last volume his interesting Paper on Crocken 
Tor and the Ancient Stannary Parliament, which is concluded in this portion 
of his Paper. The Rev. S. Baring-Gould and Mr. R. Twigge continue their's 
on a Armoury of the Western Counties. The Rev. J. Binney continues from 
Vol. X. his Extracts from the Accounts of the Churchwardens of the Parish of 
Morebath, co. Devon. These accounts are of great interest and value in 
illustration of the agricultural economy of that period. They extend from 
from 1520 to 1620, and appear to have been transcribed literally. The 
extracts in the present volume reach down to the year 1531. Mr. Binney 
remarks : " It is astonishing to learn the amount of the offerings to the 
church during this period, in so small a moreland parish. It witnesses 
clearly to the great devotion of the people, and their general good feeling 
for the vicar, though, by the account, they did not care for the clerk." An 
interesting Paper is given by Mr. F. Cecil Lane on The Old Cornish Fencibles. 
And the Rev. Preb. Hingeston-Randolph concludes his selection of Muni- 
ments foom the Parish Church of Kingsbridge, numbering 101 in all. Mr. 
W. H. H. Rogers, F.S.A., gives an interesting Memoir of Sir Isaac Heard, 
Garter Principal King of Arms. Mr. Alfred Wallis contributes a chapter on 
West Country Apparitions, and Mr. Edward Windeatt resumes his Notices 
of Totnes : its Mayors and Mayoralties, which contain much of interest and 
value. An excellent and instructive Paper is contributed under the nom de 
plume ' Rouge Rose ' on The Prebendal Church of St. Mary, within the 
Castle, and the Prebends of Exeter Cathedral, which cannot fail to be read 
with great interest. A verbatim report is given, from a local newspaper of 
the time, of a terifhc storm which occurred on 24th November, 1824. It is 
said to have been as " disastrous in its effects, and severe in its force, as the 
great blizzard of 1891." As a historical event it is well that its memory 
should be preserved in the Western Antiquary, Mr. P. 0. Hutchinson 
contributes a very interesting Paper on The Old House of Whipton at Heavi- 
tree, near Exeter, which at the end of the 17th century and the beginning 
of the 18th was the residence of one John Banckes, Esq., as shewn by the 
abstract of certain deeds, &c, communicated to N. and G., XL, 151, by 
Mr. J. S. Attwood. Mr. Hutchinson's Paper may be regarded as a supple- 
ment to that of Mr. Attwood. The former gentleman visited the curious 
old mansion and describes the three rooms on the first floor, as formerly a 
single room of considerable length, with a coved, or wagon-roof, divided into 
square compartments, each compartment containing a shield of arms. Mr. 
Hutchinson, unfortunately, does not give the blazon of these arms. It is 
very desirable that this should be ascertained and recorded in N. and G. 
or the W. A. These arms would probably throw some light, perhaps much, 
upon the history of the mansion, 

236 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

NOTES AND GLEANINGS. —A Monthly Magazine devoted chiefly to 
subjects connected with the Counties of Devon and Cornwall. Vol. IV. 
Edited by W. Cotton, F.S.A., and James Dallas, F.L.S. 

This is a very interesting volume. Mr. Alfred F. Robins communicates a 
series of Papers on the Closing Days of Launceslon Priory. And there is 
another series of Papers, from the pen of that zealous, laborious and eminent 
Antiquary, the late Dr. George Oliver, the mention of whose name will be 
sufficient to secure much interest. The first of these articles is on the Heraldry 
of the Holne Pulpit, and is signed with his nom de plume, 'Curiosus'. The 
second contains a List of the Rectors of Widioorthy, Devon, by Mr. Winslow - 
Jones. Mr. J. A. Sparvel-Bayley contributes Notes on some Ruined Abbeys in 
Devonshire; and Mr. Winslow- Jones gives a List of the Sheriffs, Under-Sherifs 
and acting Under-Sherifs of Devon during the present century. And the same 
gentleman contributes a M emoir of John Bury, Canon Residentiary of Exeter 
Cathedral, and his sons-in-law and descendants. Mr. Winslow- Jones furnishes 
also a very interesting Charter whereby J ohn Crok conveys all his right in 
Blythemesham, now Blimson, in Beaford parish, to Maurice de Berkeley and 
Joan his wife. Mr. Jones, in reliance in Burke's Extinct Peerage, states that 
this Maurice de Berkeley, Knight, was the eldest son of Thomas, third Baron 
Berkeley, on whose death, in 1361, he became the fourth Baron. This is 
an error, Maurice de Berkeley, the grantee named in the charter, was the 
fourth son of Maurice the ninth Baron in succession and the fourth of his 
name. He married Joan daughter and heir of William Hereward, by which 
marriage he acquired, inter alia, the manors of More, Dodescote, and Blithe- 
misham, in Devon, and Pencarrow, in Cornwall. He died about 1358 leaving 
a son of his own name, a minor. A further communication is made by Mr. 
Jones on A Monument in Newton St. Cyres Church, of John Northcote, of 
Hayne. As does " R " on Mrs. Anne Carew, wife of George Carew, D.D., 
Dean of Bristol and afterwards of Exeter. Her monument is at Romford, in 
Essex. She was the daughter of Sir Nicholas Harvey, of Ickworth. A List 
of Rectors of Littleham, compiled by the Rev. Preben. Hingeston-Randolph, 
with short biographical notes appended to each of the post-Reformation 
Rectors is given. Following this is an interesting article on Canonteigh and 
the great Civil War," signed R.W,C, initials not difficult to assign. Mr. 
Alfred Wallis supplies A few Notes on Rougemont Castle," in illustration of 
a Paper by Mr. Winslow Jones on the Castle of Exeter in Vol. I., p. 119, of 
this work. An Inventory of Church Goods at Allhallows, Goldsmith Street, 
Exeter, in the 6th year of Edward VI., at the spoliation of the churches. 
The interrogatories are given. We find there is a similar Inventory of the 
Parish of St. SidweWs, and the Editors announce their intention of continuing 
the series. That of the Parish of St. Gwinear appears later in the volume. 
A long and interesting Memoir of Captain Francis Champernowne, who emi- 
grated to New England in the reign of Charles I., which it must suffice 
to mention. Mr. James Dallas prints evidences in support of the Early 
Northcote Pedigree, with tabular pedigrees, and the same author writes on 
The Heraldry in Devonshire Churches. Kelly, an article on this parish, with 
many others, which were left in MS. by the late Dr. Oliver, the Rev. Preb. 
Hingeston-Randolph, for which the Editors of Notes and Gleanings express 
their obligations. Dr. Oliver's remains are very valuable, and doubtless 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 237 

their value will be greatly increased by passing through the hands of that 
learned and accomplished antiquary. 

In addition to these there are many other very interesting communications, 
and the Extracts from the City Muniments are continued throughout. 

NOTES & QUERIES : SOMERSET & DORSET. Edited by Frederick 
Willan Weaver, M.A., and Charles Herbert Mayo, M.A., from Vol. II., 
Part XVI., (December, 1891, to Part XIX., Vol. III., 1892). 
We have noticed the preceding Parts of this interesting work in the earlier 
volumes of our Transactions down to Part XV. of Vol. III., and we now 
offer some remarks on the succeeding numbers . 

The first thing which attracts our attention is the very remarkable object 
known as the Dorset Ooser, an illustration of which is given as a frontispiece 
to Part XVI. It is of great antiquity and is probably unique. It belongs 
to Mr. Thomas Cave, of Holt Farm, Melbury Osmond, Dorset, in whose 
family it has been time out of mind. It has been defined by the late Rev. 
W. Barnes in his Glossary of Dorset Dialect, 1886, p. 85, as " Ooser, oose, or 
wu'se. A Mask, as with grim jaws, put on with a cow's skin to frighten 
folk. ' Wurse,' in Layamon's Brut, is the name of the arch-fiend." 

The Rev. C. H. Mayo, the Dorset Secretary, thus describes it: "The 
object itself is a wooden mask, of large size, with features grotesquely 
human, long flowing locks of hair on either side of the head, a beard, a pair 
of bullock's horns projecting right and left of the forehead. The mask, or 
ooser, is cut from a solid block, excepting the lower jaw, which is moveable, 
and connected with the upper by a pair of leathern hinges. A string at- 
tached to this moveable jaw passes through a hole in the upper jaw and is 
then allowed to fall within the cavity. The Ooser is so ormed that a man s 
head may be placed within it, and thus carry, or support, it, while he is 
in motion. No provision, however, is made for his seeing through the eyes 
of the mask, which are not pierced. By pulling the string, the lower jaw 
is drawn up and closed against the upper, and when the string is slackened 
is descends." 

No recollection or tradition exists of its ever having been in any manner 
used. It is stated that Mr. Cave is willing to dispose of it (we presume by 
sale), but we think it would be much to be regretted, if Mr. Cave is willing 
to preserve it, if this curious object were removed from its present habitat. 

We are glad to see that the printing of the Dorset Administrations is 
commenced in Vol. II., and is being continued through Vol. III., and that 
it is to be still carried on. 

It is gratifying also to find that an early Register of the Parish of Mere, 
co. Somerset, long lost, has been recovered and restored to the parish. It is a 
mixed Register, and contains the entries of baptisms, marriages and burials 
from 1574 to 1676-7. The earliest Register of this parish included in the 
Parliamentary Return of 1831, commences only in 1745. Judging from the 
condition of the recovered fragment, as so clearly described by Mr. Mayo, 
it is not unlikely that there are portions lost both at the beginning and at 
the end, though we are inclined to think there is not much wanting at the 
beginning. Perhaps the original Register commenced about the accession of 


Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

Queen Elizabeth, when many Registers begin, but, possibly, at the end 
the record is missing for the whole 67 years. It should be borne in mind 
that no person, in any circumstances, can acquire a proprietary right in 
Registers, or other books, belonging to a Parish, however long the possession 
may have been. This, very recently, was affirmed in a court of law, and it 
cannot be made too widely known. The principal entries in the recovered 
Register are printed in Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset. 

The Rev. C. H. Mayo supplies some interesting notes from the Church- 
warden's Accounts of Langton Long Blandford, though late 17th century, 
to be continued. Mr. Hugh Norris, of South Petherton, continues from 
Vol. II. his Notes on the Family of Asshe, their monuments in South 
Petherton Church, arms, &c. The Rev. J. Coleman, Vicar of Cheddar, 
makes known that he is in search of one of the Registers of that Parish, 
which, not very long ago, was acknowledged to be in the possession of Mr. 
Nichols, attorney, at Axbridge, and is now said to be missing. X.Y.Z. 
inserts a query respecting the cross known as Stalbridge Cross, of which 
X.Y.Z. gives an interesting description. He particularly desires assistance 
in reading this inscription : 


GAL : D. MER : SAN : IOH : VUL : MED : COL : RHOD : 

p : l : m : 

In Part XVIII. is a most interesting description by Mr. W. H. St. John 
Hope, of a Sculpture, with illustration, at Durweston Church, near Bland- 
ford, of St. Eligius, and in Part XIX. is an illustration of another sculpture 
of this Saint at Wincanton ; and a short description by the Curator at Glas- 
tonbury of a British Village recently found near that place. Mr. Edmund 
Buckle communicates a Paper on the Dedications of Somerset Churches. The 
Rev. Charles J. Robinson supplies some Notes on Gillingham, Dorset, with a 
pedigree of the Perne family. And throughout the volume there are many 
other minor Papers of equal interest. 

THE SCOTTISH ANTIQUARY, or Northern Notes & Queries {illustrated). 
Published quarterly. Edited by the Rev. A. W. Cornelius Hallen, M.A., 
F.S.A. (Scot.) Cone. Scot. His. Soc. F. Hugt. S. No. 23 to 26. Dec. 1891, to 
Sep. 1892. 

In our last volume we noticed this work to Part 22 inclusive, and we now 
resume our remarks with Part 23. This number opens with what is called 
a "Diary of the Rev. John Hunter, Episcopal Minister at Shetland, 1734- 
1745." It is not, however, exactly a Diary, but rather a sort of Memorandum, 
or Note Book, and contains entries made at various times and not in sequence, 
though they have been arranged consecutively for printing. Many of the 
memoranda concern his clerical duties, but they are entered promiscuously 
with his private accounts and other secular matters. Nevertheless they throw 
considerable light on the condition of the Scottish Church during this period 
of its recent bare toleration. 

Mr. W. Traile Dennison gives us a very interesting and pleasing legend 
from Orkney Folk-Lore, of the marriage of a young man and a mermaid, and 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 239 

its results ; and later on in this volume is a similar legend somewhat different 
and more picturesque and romantic. And an account is given of the practice 
of Betrothal and Marriage in Scotland before the Reformation, circa 1475- 
1478 ; and a very interesting Paper is supplied by the Editor on the 
relations which existed between the people of the North of Ireland and those 
of the West of Scotland, and the influence it had upon England. In article 
404 an example of the use of arabic numerals on a tombstone in Ulm 
Cathedral as early as 1388 (query) is recorded. In article 408 we have also 
an interesting letter of David Hume, the historian. Number 24, Vol. V. 
opens with a communication on Medical Folk-lore in the Highlands of Scot- 
land. It contains a portion of the Parochial Registers of Stirling containing 
entries from 1585 to 1591, and later on in this vol. to 1594, from which date 
it is stated it will be continued. 

Wright, F.R. Hist. Soc, Hon. Sec. and Editor, Ex. Libris Society, assisted 
by Arthur J. Jewers, F.S.A. London : A. & C. Black, Soho Square. 
Plymouth : W. F. Westcott, 1892. 

The Ex Libris Society originated with Mr. W. H. K. Wright, F.R.H.S., 
the able and energetic Librarian of the Plymouth Public Library, who 
instituted, about a dozen years ago, " The Western Antiquary." Being fond 
of Heraldry, and especially of the study of Ex Libris or Book-Plates, he, in 
1889, added a Supplement to that publication devoted to the subject of his 
special study. This tvas called " The Book-Plate Collector's Miscellany," 
and so popular was it as supplying a long-felt want as a medium of com- 
munication between collectors, that in a very short time a special Society 
was formed, under the title of the " Ex Libris Society," having a Journal 
of its own to promote its objects. The Society was definitely formed in 
February, 1891, and the first Part of its Journal was issued in the following 
July. This is a beautiful production as well in its topography as in its 
paper and illustrations. 

Book-Plates are of considerable antiquity, perhaps as early as books were 
made in their present form. They are intended as marks of ownership 
without disfiguring the work to which they are attached, and some of them 
are of the highest class of art, having been designed by the most accom- 
plished artists of the period in which they were drawn. Some of them are 
very curious, beautiful, and instructive, illustrative of history, genealogy, 
and art in blazon, shewing, however, degeneration in treatment as time 
advanced. The Plates differed very widely in form and character according 
to the taste or skill of the possessor. These details are fully treated of in 
the Journal, and it is not necessaay to repeat them here. Personally we prefer 
the Armorial Book- Plate to any other, as being the most distinctive. 

Apart, however, from the illustrations there is much of great interest 
and value historical, biographical and genealogical in the letter-press, and 
much not lacking in humour. 

The Editor draws attention to anything which may appear remarkable in 
the drawings of the arms. For example, he publishes three separate Book- 
plates of Dr. Richard Glynn, afterwards Clobery, all differing, more or less, 
from each other, They exhibit the three well-known styles of Ex Libris, 

240 Notices oe Recent Archaeological Publications. 

termed the Queen Anne, Chippendale, and Wreath and Ribbon. The first two 
plates are charged with : Gu. three salmon spears ar. We hope to be pardoned 
if we venture to criticise these plates beyond what the Editor has thought 
proper to do. The arms in the Ribbon and Wreath plate are intended for 
those of Clobery of Clobery and of "Bradstone, Devon, which are : Argent a 
chev between three bats displayed sa. The first question is — are these charges 
Bats? We know they should be, but the 18th century artist appears to 
have drawn them with feathered wings and tails. Bats should have wings 
similar to those of dragons, but the little creatures are tailless and have not 
a feather upon their bodies. The wings blazoned displayed should have 
been represented membranous, and should be much wider extended. 

The Editor, referring to the plate last mentioned, noticed the inferiority 
of its character, and observes that Dr Glynn, "seems, for some reason, to 
have dropped his paternal arms of Glynn altogether, and to have used only 
those of the family of Clobery : ar. a chevron between three bats displayed sa. 

This can be easily explained. Robert Glynn, of Broades, in Helland, the 
Doctor's father, was the grandson of Walter, the second son of Nicholas 
Glynn, of Glynn, Sheriff of Cornwall, 1620, ob. 1625. Robert Glynn, the 
father, above mentioned, married Lucy, daughter and coheir of John Clobery, 
of Clobery and Bradstone, Devon. In compliance with the testamentary in- 
junction of his maternal uncle, Mr. Clobery, of Bradston, who died s.p., 
having bequeathed to Dr. Glynn his lands in Clobery and Lymsbury, on the 
condition that he assumed the name of Clobery after that of Glynn, and 
doubtless the arms of Clobery also, but we cannot find any Royal License 
or Act of Parliament authorising the change. His will was dated 7th April* 
1790, and proved 5th March, 1608. 

The arms of Glynn, of Glynn, as allowed at the Heralds' College, and as 
used by the family are : ar. three salmon spears sa. but those displayed on 
the first two book-plates are changed in the tinctures as blazoned above. 
This may have been done by Dr. Glynn, or by one of his immediate ancestors 
as a difference, but the further changes appearing in the Chippendale plate : 
viz., the assumption of a new motto and the alteration in the form of the 
salmon spears doubtless took place after the death of Mr. Clobery but before 
Dr. Glynn's final assumption of the arms of Clobery. This book-plate was 
probably much later than that in the Queen Anne style. The assumption 
of the Clobery arms alone was probably that referred to by the Editor as 
being the subject of Dr. Glynn's letter as printed in the Journal, and dated 
at Cambridge, 6th May, 1790. 


There is another Paper of local interest in this district arising out of the 
grand Book-plates of Sir Francis Fust whose ancestor, Edward Fust, for his 
fidelity to the Royal cause during the great rebellion was created by Chas. II. 
in 1662, Sir Edward Fust of Hill, or Hull, in the County of Gloucester, 
which manor he had bought of Sir John Poyntz in the reign of James I. It 
is stated that this family of Fust is of great antiquity, being descended from 
John Fust of Mentz, the famous printer. This statement has been challenged, 
and however this may have been Sir Edward Fust was created a Baronet as 
stated above, and he and his descendants matched with the best blood in 
Gloucestershire and neighbouring counties. For genealogy it will suffice to 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 241 

refer to the Extinct Baronetage of Courthorpe, Burke, &c. We shall only 
refer to the descent so far as to explain, as well as we can, the arms as mar- 
shalled on the Book-plates. 

Five Fust Ex Libris have been brought to light, all pertaining to Sir 
Francis Fust, the last Baronet but one, who married in 1724 Fanny, daugh- 
ter of Nicholas Tooker, of Bristol, merchant, and died in 1 769. The first is 
a large plate (figured in the Journal, Vol. II., p. 66). It can hardly be 
called a quarterly coat in the strict sense of the term. The shield contains 
forty coats of arms, and is divided palewise, the dexter side containing the 
arms pertaining to the marriages in the male line, and the sinister those in 
the female line, whether heiresses or not. This is a method of marshalling 
which we do not remember to have before seen. There is, we are told, a 
similar plate, but it is only a variant of this. 

The third plate which is figured on the following page of the Journal is 
dexter : quarterly of six :— 1. Fust ; 2. Sincleton ; 3. Hide ; 4. Denton ; 5. 
Cocks ; 6. quarterly : — 1. Mohun ; 2. Hide ; 3. Churchill ; 4 as 1 ; for 
Mohun ; impaling Tooker. The fourth Book-plate has subsequently been 
communicated to the Society by Mr. J. Carlton Stiff. It is a single coat 
of Fust, and is beautifully engraved. The Plate, we are told, has been 
submitted for inspection to Lord de Tabley, Mr. W. A. Franks, and the 
late Rev. Daniel Parsons, who have in various places commented upon it, 
but we have not had the advantage of seeing their remarks. 

Heraldry has by some persons been considered dull, but the Papers by 
Mr. Walter Hamilton on Humour in Heraldry will scarcely be considered 
otherwise than amusing ; and the short Papers, generally, will be found 
interesting and helpful. The tabular lists throughout the volume will be 
found indispensible to the Ex Libris collector. But it is not only the lover 
and the collector of Fx Libris who will be benefitted by the Journal. It will, 
we believe, tend to a systematic study of Heraldry as a science, and put a 
check upon that charlatanism which now so unblushingly prevails. 

THE ARCHIVIST. —A Quarterly Journal. Devoted to the Study of His- 
torical Documents, Manuscripts and Autographs. Edited by S. Davey, 
F.R.L.S. London : The Archivist Office, 47, Great Russell Street. 

We have received Vol. V. of this little Journal, with which we are very 
much pleased. Each number commences with two or three pages of 
" Editorial Notes." In these notes, in the volume before us, the editor, 
in a pleasant manner, treats of various literary matters and literary gossip.' 

Under the head of the Literature of Letter Writing, the Editor inserts in 
this volume brief Essays on Gray, Cowper and Burns. These essays are very 
pleasingly and well written. This is followed by Scraps from a Collector's 
Autobiography in which a very interesting Extract of William Upcott's 
career is given, and his success in securing some very valuable documents, 
especially the manuscript of Evelyn's Diary, which he was the means of 
saving from destruction as " Waste Paper," and which was afterwards 
published by Lord Braybrook. He was also the means of the preservation 
of the document found on the person of Felton when seized after his assasin- 
ation of the Duke of Buckingham, a facsimile of which is reproduced. 

242 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

Another very curious and valuable document has been discovered and pre- 
served by the Editor — the original MS. of Victor Hugo's Journal while an 
exile in Guernsey, consisting of about 2000 closely written pages and a corres- 
pondence of nearly a 1000 letters, which had been sold by a relative of Hugo 
after his death to a dealer in waste paper, and were by Mr. Davey recovered 
and preserved, the particulars of which are stated. How the collection got 
into the possession of the French authorities does not clearly appear. The 
Parts of the Journal before us are not complete, but what we have is of the 
highest interest. He prints, in facsimile, the Original in the Record Office of 
the Examination of Guy Fawkes on the 9th January, 1605, with the signa- 
ture of Guy himself and of the persons by and before whom the examination 
was conducted : viz., Sir John Popham, Chief Justice, Sir Edward Coke, 
Attorney-General, and William Waade. And there is also a facsimile of 
the letter addressed to Lord Monteagle warning him to keep away from the 
Parliament House on the occasion in question. There are many Excerpts 
from the Calendars of the Historical Manuscripts at Hatfield very curious 
and valuable. The Rev. Dr. Scott continues from Vol. IV., and through 
most this volume, his description and criticism of Milton's autographs, an 
interesting series of Papers. 

Mr. Davey ought to be supported in his useful labours. 

inclusive, illustrated. Edited by W. P. W. Phillimore, M.A., B.C.L. 
London : Simpkin, Marshall & Co. Bristol : Wm. George's Sons, J. Fawn 
and Son. 

These Parts had not been received until after our volume had been made 
up, and our notice must necessarily be more brief than we could wish. 

Part IV. opens with some remarks by F.L.M.R. on the decrease of the 
Rural Population in the district about Dursley, which shew that, whereas 
the population of the same area in 1801 was 7984, instead of increasing as 
usual, it is now no greater than 5973, presenting a general decline in the 
district of just 50 per cent. This is followed by an extract from a very 
interesting Paper in the "Antiquary" (Vol. xxiv. p. 61) by the Rev. J. 
Charles Cox, LL.D., on the Official Seal of the Hundred of Langley, co. 
Glouc. Dr. Cox first obligingly communicated an article on the subject to 
the Transactions of this Society early in 1891, printed in Vol. xv., p. 190- 
194, for the illustration of which we had the seal engraved. "Further Notes 
on the Stiff and Trotman families, brought on from Part III., are continued 
throughout the Parts now under notice, and will probably be further con- 
tinued in future. In beginning the New Series the Editor introduced the 
printing of a series of Gloucestershire Wills, and in Part IV. he announces 
his intention to give from time to time Abstracts of Deeds relating to 
the County. The printing of abstracts of original documents will greatly 
enhance the value of the publication. 


Abbenhale, 191, 194 " 

Abenhale, de, 191, 191n, 193, 195 

Abington, 198 

Abingdon, 106, 215 

Abingdon, Abbots of, 107, 108, 110 

Abenesse, de, 184 

Abergavenny, 114, 115 

Abergavenny Priory Church, costume of 

Eva de Braose, 112 
Account, Annual Statement of, 22 
Acemen Street, 37 
Aclea, 221, 223 
Acliff Green, 203 
Adams, 1 
Adean, 93 

Adlestrop, visited, 37 
Aelhun, 227 

^Efleda, Abbess, ob. 713, 208 
iEldred, 212 
Alfred, 212, 227 
^Elfstan, 227 
^Ethelric, 210, 211 
^Ethelburga, 212 
^Ethelred, 227 
^Ethilweard, 210 
^Ethilheard, 212 
^Ethelweard, 210 
Akl.,de, 188 

Agg-Gardner, J,T., elected Vice-Pres., 25 
Albans, St., Abbey, 108, 110 
Alchfrid, 209, 210 

Aldfrid, King of Northumbria, ob. 705, 


Aldhelm, 16, 18, 24, 27 
Aldred, 211, 212, 221,222 
Aldred, Bp., 164, 197, 211, 227 
Alfred, 217 
Alfred, K., 230 
Aldhelm, 197 ; ob. 709 
Alienation of Church lands, 226 
Allen, 82 

Allen, Rev. W. T., 1 ; seconds resolution, 


Allen, Romilly, his remarks on the 
Doorway of the Church of Ampney 
St. Mary, 128 

Alphage, St., 222 

Alwy, 208 

Alye, 94 

Ambreslege, 210 
Amiens, 173 

Ampney St. Mary, Door Frame at, 127- 

Ampney, St. Peter, 127 
Andree, Counts of, 170n. 
Annesley, 202 
Antony, 96 

Antrobus, J. F., "The History of the 

Popes," edited by him, Volume II. 

noticed, 133-142 
Antiquary, The, Vols. XXIV. and XXV., 

July to December, 1891, and 1st Jan. 

to June, 1892 157, 161 
Arehard, 184 
Archer, 69n, 70 

Archivist, The, a Quarterly Journal de- 
voted to the Study of Historical 
Documents, Manuscripts and Auto- 
graphs. Edited by Si Davey.F.R.L.S- 

Arding, 66 


Abell 81 
Beltoft, 81n 
Carrick, 81 
Childe, 30 
Devereux, 85 
Fitzwygram, 8 In. 
Hales, 80n. 
Harward, 81n. 
Jefferies, 21 
Jenkinson, 31 
Kemp, 81 
Otterbourne, 81n. 
Palmer, 72n. 
Rutter, 80 
Walthamstow, 81 

Arundel, Richard, E. of, 165 

Arundill, 203 

Ashdown, 213 

Ashfield, 66 

Ashinge, furlong, 

Asperton, 69n. 

Astley, Sir Jacob, 61, 62. 64, 65, 67 
Aston, 53, 66, 229 
Aston, Sub-Edge, 72 
Athelstan, King, 2, 15, 16 
Augustine, St., Abbot of, 188 
Augustine's, St., Bristol, Abbots of, 177, 

Aula, de, 69n. 
Aure, 184, 189, 192, 194 
Aure, de, 134, 194n. 
Austreclive, 222 
Aust, 222, 223, 229, 230 
Austen, 90n. 
Avis, 66 

Avon, River, 1, 213, 215, 217, 222, 229 
Aylesbury, 214 
Aylmundstone (Elmston), 68 

Bagnall-Oakeley, M.K.,read his mother's 
Paper on the " Ancient Sculptures at 
Malmesbury, 5 

Bagnall-Oakeley, her Paper on the " An- 
cient Sculptures in the South Porch 
of Malmesbury" read, 5; the same 
printed, 16-19 ; her Paper on "Ladies' 
Costume in the Middle Ages as repre- 
sented on the Monumental Effigies 
and Brasses in Gloucestershire, etc., 
illustrated, 111-126 

Bagnall-Oakeley, Rev. W., re-elected on 
the Council, 25 

Baker, 66 

Balistarius, 170 

Bambury, 214 

Barbury, 217 

Bardney, Mon., 208 

Barker, 66 



Barker, W.R., his Memoir of "St. Mark's, 
or the Mayor's Chapel," noticed, 142- 

Berkeley, de Arnulph, his Memoir, hy Sir 
Henry Barkly, 167, 182, 190 

Barkly, Sir Henry, resigns his delegatecy 
to the Council of the Associated 
Archaeological Societies, 24 ; his me- 
moir on "Arnaldde Berkeley," 167- 
182 ; 190n 

Bailey, M., 191n. 

Bartleet, Rev. S. E. , 1 ; re-elected Mem- 
ber of Council, 25 
Bavton-in-Henmarsh, 83 
Barton-on-the-Heath, 44, 73, 74, 88h, 93n, 


Basire, 99 

Basset, 79 

Bastard, le, 190 

Bateson's Upperground, 91 

Bath, 209, 210, 215, 216, 217, 228, 229 

Bath, Hund., Extent of, 216, 217, 230 

Bathill, 201 

Bathon, de, 186, 189 

Bathurst, Lord, 42 

Batsford, 55, 57,81, 86, 229 

Batsford Park visited by the Society, 32 

Batson, or Bateson, 55, 75, 75n, 76, 77, 82, 

85, 90, 91 
Batten, 202 
Bawer, 204 
Bayley, 34 
Bayly, 87 
Baylyes, 91 

Baynham, Alice, her Brass Effigy, 122 
Baynham, 121, 122 

Bazeley, Rev. W. (Hon. Sec.) at Malmes- 
bury, 1 ; acted at guide to the Abbey 
Church, ib. ; perambulation of the 
town, 1-2 ; his Paper on the Abbey 
Church read, 5 ; the same printed, 
6-15 ; read Report of Council at 
Moreton, 21; at Gloucester, 163; his 
description of Window in Gloucester 
Cathedral, 164-165 ; thanked, 166 ; 
his " Notes on the Early English 
Lady Chapel in Gloucester Cathedral, 
built by Ralph and Olympias Wyling- 
ton," 196-200 

Beauchamp, 119 

Beaufoy, 36 

Beaumont Palace, 106 

Bee, 88 ; Abbey, 109 

Beckford, 219 ; Mon., 220; 229 

Beddoe, Dr., F.R.S., President, 21 ; pre- 
sided at Moreton, 21 ; acknowledges 
vote of thanks, and introduces Mr. 
A. B. Freeman-Mitford, C.B., as 
President of the Society for the en- 
suing year, 27 ; proposes vote of 
thanks to the President for his Inau- 
gural Address, 27 

Bedel, 79 

Bedford, 63, 214 

Begesoure, 69n. 

Belcher, C, at Moreton, 21 ; thanked for 
his Memoir on Moreton-in-Marsh, 43 ; 
the same printed, 52-60 

Belknap, 70 

Benedict. Biscop, 16 

Benedictine Order, 106 

Benson, 214,215 

Beornulf, 209, 215, 217 

Berdesley, 86 

Bere Regis, 82 

Berghford, 213 

Berhtwald, 213 
Berington, 53 
Berkeley, 170, 186, 219, 223 
Berkeley, Abbot of, 220 
Berkeley, Abbess of, 223 
Berkeley, de, 184 
Berkeley Castle, 67 

Berkeley Castle, Descriptive Catalogue of 
the Charters and Muniments at, in 
the possession of Lord Fitzhardinge, 
by I. H. Jeayes, noticed, 231 

Berkeley Church, 118, 123 

Berkeley, de, an alternative name with 
Coberly, 167n. 

Berkeley, de, John, 188 

Berkeley, John de, 169n. 

Berkeley, Elizabeth, 125 

Berkeley, Giles, 187 

Berkeley, Hospital of, 178, 179, 179n. 

Berkeley, Hund. of, 221, 228 

Berkeley, Katherine Lady, 118 

Berkeley, Lady Katherine, 120 

Berkeley, Katherine, wife of Henry Lord 
Berkeley, her funeral, 123, 124 

Berkeley, lands in, abstracted from the 
Monastery of, lying in the Hundred 
of, 224 

Berkeley, Margaret, Lady, 116 
Berkeley, Margaret, wife of 10th Lord 

her dress, 119 
Berkeley, Maurice, Lord, 116, 165, 177, 

179, 172n. 
Berkeley, Monastery, 227, 228 
Berkeley, Richard de, 179 
Berkeley, Roger, 188 
Berkeley, Thomas, 185,185n. 
Berkeley, Thomas. 8th Lord, 118, 165 
Berkeley, Vicars of, 
Berkeley, Vicarage, 177, 178 
Berkeley, William, 187, 176, 179 
Berkshire, 81 
Berry, 80 

Besils, Sir Peter, 110 
Beye, 86 
Bibury, 229 
Bickmarsh, 54 
Bigod, de, 175 
Billingsley, 66 
Birch, 61, 62, 63, 67 
Birinus, Bp., 213 
Bishopdene, 36 
Blechington, 75 
Blackburn, 66 

Blacker, Rev. B. H. , his death, 24 
Blacken, Hill, 91 
Blakensia, 184 
Bladon, river, 1 
Blakeney, de, 195 

Blakewav, G. S., re-elected on Council 

25 ; 163 
Bland, 90n. 
Blathwayt, 163 

Blechedon, Church, Advow., 195 

Blindwell furlong, 91 

Blockley, visit of the Society to, 27 ; Rev. 
Canon E. G. Houghton's description 
of the Church, 27-28 ; description of 
the Monumental Brass by Sir John 
Maclean, 29-31 ; 30n, 62, 55, 72, 77, 

Blockley, Rectors, 55, 86, 87, 88n. 

Blund, 184 

Blund, le, 192 

Bloxam, 41, 90 

Bocholt, 104 

Bohun, de, 187 



Bolingechope, 69n. 
Bonecumbe, de, 190 
Boniface, St., 208, 210, 214 
Bonner, 66 
Bosel, Bp., 213 
Bosco, de, 194, 195 
Bottelawe, 189 
Boughton, 91 
Boun, de, 192 

Bourne, Rev. Canon, at Moreton, 21 ; 
Chairman of Local Committee at 
Moreton, ib. ; seconds resolution for 
altering- the Rules of the Society, 26 

Bourton, de, 79, 80 

Bourton-on-the-Heath, 44, 83 

Bourton-on-the-Hill, visit of the Society 
to, 27 ; 44, 55 ; Manor of, 56 ; Memoir 
on, by the Rev. D. Royce, 68-95 ; the 
Church, 83 ; Monuments, 85 ; Insti- 
stitutions to the Rectory, 86 

Bourton-on-the-Water, 74 

Bowley, C, 21 

Boyton, 104, 105 

Braburn, Dr., 34 

Bradeston, Lord, 165 

Bradfield, 171, 176, 180 

Bradford-upon-Avon, 9, 18 

Bradshawe, 88 

Braine, 92, 94 

Brakenridge, 163 

Braton furlong, 91 

Braose, 113, 115 

Bredon, 216 

Brentford, 216, 217 

Brereton, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66 

Briavels, St., Castle, 105, 191n. 

Brice, 205n 

Bridgend, 219 

Bridgnorth, 62 

Bright, Rev. Canon, received the Society 
at Magdalen College, 41 ; and is 
thanked, 43 

Brimsfield, 104 ; Castle, 105 

Bristol, Corporation of, 205n. 

Bristol, Deanery of, 228 

Bristol, "St. Mark's, or the Mayor's 
Chapel," formerly called The Gaunts, 
by W.R. Barker, noticed, 142 ; Henry 
de Gaunt, master of, 192 

Bristol, St. Mary Redcliffe Church, 14 
St. Mark's Chapel, 14, 120 
St. Augustine's Church, 116 
Castle, 173 

Bristol, Recorders of, 201, 203 

Brittany, 38 

Broad Merston, 81 

Broadway hill, 64 

Brock, Wm., the first monk who took a 

D.D. degree, 107 
Brockhampton, 171, 176, 180 
Brod eye furlong, 91 
Broy, de, 69n, 
Broke, 201 , 202 
Brooke, 66 
Broughton, 66 
Brown, 131 

Brown willy, M., Cornwall, 197n. 
Bruges, 35 
Brunei, 59 

Bruton, H. W.,1, 21, 163 
Buckinghamshire, 171, 181 
Burford, 75, 213, 215 
Burges, 205n. 
Burges, William, 44 
Burgeys, de, 190 

Burgh, de, 169, 181, 189, 189n, 198 

Burhred, 217 

Burton, M., 71, 72 

Burye, 87, 93, 93n, 95, 95n' 

Bushby 56, 59 

Bush, 201, 206 

Bush, John, 21 

Busshell, 81 

Buttetort, John, 120 

Button, 185, 186, 187, 187n. 

Byll, 8Sn. 

Bynna, 222 

Cadel, 186 

Caermarthen, 73 

Calbrook, 66 

Caldicot, Rev. Dr., 21 

Caldwell, de, 177 

Callowden, 124 

Cambrai, 171 

Cambridge, 75, 89n. 

Camden Society, 62 ' 

Campden, 62, 74, 82n, 89n, 90, 91 

Cannynge, 94 

Cantilupe, 114, 115 

Cantelupe, de, 199n. 

Canterbury, Archb. 107, 220 

Canterbury, Archdeacon of, 168, 169 

Canterbury, Cathedral, 7 

Canterbury, Province of, 1C6 

Caperan, 69n. 

Cardigan, 73 

Carey, Lady, 125 

Carique, 81 

Carllis, 35 

Carnabii, 53 

Carr, 77 

Carre, 73, 74 

Castell, 77, 94 

Catesby, 36, 38 

Carter, family, 30 

Carter, 8n, 81 

Cartwright, 88 

Cary, 303 

Ceolburga, of Berkeley, 220 
Ceolfrid', 17 
Ceolwulf, 209 
Cesterton Henmershe, 36 
Chadlington, 75 
Chadlington Hund., Oxon, 96 
Chamberlaine, 94 
Chandos, de, 169 

Chastleton, 36 ; Manor House, 37, 38, 39 
Chapman, 1 

Charles I., 61, 72, 75, 89, 100 
Charles II., 37, 58 
Charlton, 75 
Chase, 58 

Chastleton, 33 ; Manor and Church, 36 ; 

Chantries, ib. 
Chaucer, 86 

Cheltenham, 222; Mon., 220. 229 

Cherwell, 214 

Chichester, 33, 34 

Childe, 30, 31 

Chilwelle furlong, 91 

Chillingleigh, 81 

Chipping Campden, 71, 72 

Chipping Norton, Church visited, 40; 
descriptive notes thereon by Rev. W. 
Bazeley, shewing its connection with 
St. Peter's Abbey, at Gloucester, and 
Worcester Hall at Oxford, ib.; the 
vicar thanked for allowing the visit 
43 ; 81, 96 ; 103 



Chishulle, de, 174, 174n. 

Cholle, 69n. 

Christmas, 204 

Chubb, M. H., 2, 3 

Church-close, 37 

Church Stanway, 88n. 

Churchyard, 112, 113 

Ciolburga, 203 

Cirencester, Abbey of, 127 

Cirencester, Canons of, 221 

Cirencester, 5 ; selected for the place of 

Annual Meeting for 1892 ; 43 ; 213, 221 


Civil War, Incidents in, by Mr. F. Hyett, 
read, 3; "The Last Battle of the 
First Civil War," read, 32 ; the same 
printed, 62 

Clare, de, 105, 174 

Clarke, 202 

Cleaver, 66 

Cleeve, 220, 221 

Clegley, C6 

Clement, 69n. 

Clehungre, 69n. 

Clifford, de, 171 

Clifton, The Manor of, Memoir on, by 

John Latimer, 201-207 
Cloveshoe, Council at, 220, 223 
Clytfe, 85 

Clyvedon, Sir John, 118 

Coberley, an alternative name with Ber- 
keley, 167 ; 167n, 171, 173n. 174 

Coelred, 208, 211, 214 

Coenred, 208, 214 

Colchester, 67 

Cole, 81, 206 

Colford, 55n. 

Collier, 58 

Compton, Long-, 40 

Compton, Scorffin, 73 

Compton, Little, Paper on the Church 
and Manor House, r>y the Rev. John 
Killick, read, 32 ; Church and Manor 
House visited by the Society under 
the guidance of the Vicar, 32 ; re- 
marks on the same by Sir John 
Maclean, ib. ; Mr. Killick's Memoir 
printed, 96; Parish Church described, 
98; consecration of, 98, 100, 101; 
bells, ib. 

Condell, Mrs., 37; thanked for allowing 
the Society to visit Chastleton House 

Cook, 81 

Cook, Sir Thomas, 44 
Cools piece, 91 
Corbet, 66 
Corfham, 171 
Cormelies, 55, 69, 70, 85 
Corns furze, 91 
Comshouse, 91 
Cornwall, 218 
Corney, 75 

Costume, Ladies', in the Middle Ages, by 
Mary Ellen Bagnall-Oakeley, 111-126 

Cowley, de, 170 

Cotteswold Hills, 52, 69. 60 

Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club, Pro- 
ceedings of , Vol. X., 232, noticed 

Cotton, William, F.S.A., his " Notes and 
Gleanings," noticed, 25 i 

Coventry, 80 

Covington, 130 

Cowley, 101 

Cox, 33 

Cranham, 104, 105 

Cressy, Battle of, 165 
Creswick, 82 
Creswike, 55, 56, 59 
Croker, 86 
Cromhall, de, 186 
Cromwell, Oliver, 10, 75 
Croydon, 34 
Cuillardeville, de, 89 
Customs, Farmers of, 204 
Cuthbert, 209 
Cuthred, 215, 218 
Cutts, 81 

Cynewulf, 215, 216, 217 
Cynric, 217 

Dallas, James, F.L.S., his "Notes and 

Gleanings," noticed, 237 
Dallesford, 82 
Dallison, 76 
D'amneville, 187 

Daniel, Rev. C. H. O., his Memoir on 

Worcester College, Oxford, 103 
Darenth, Kent, 130 
D' Argent, E. A., at Moreton, 1, 26 
D'Arlingseott. 72n. 

Datchworth Church, Herts, 169, 171n, 181 
Daubeny, 202 
Davenport, 66 

Davey, S., F.R.L.S., his "Archivist," 

David, 86 
Davies, 163 

Davies, Rev. Silvester, proposes accept- 
ance of Report of Council, 25 ; seconds 
a resolution, 25 

Davis, 1, 21 

Dawber, Guy, acted as Guide to Church 

of Bourton-on-the-Hill, 83 
Day, 204 
Daylesford, 59 

Dean, Forest of, 106 ; Deanery of, 218 ; 

district of, 219, 228 
Deane, 205, 206 
Dedluck, 66 

Deerhurst, Hundred, 55, 68, 96, 229 
Deerhurst, Lord, 78 
Deerhurst Priory, 68, 220, 221 
Dene, de, 172, 172n, 173, 178 
Dene, le, 184 

Deneberht, Bp., 212, 220, 222 
Dennis, Mrs., Audeley, 125 
Denmark, King of, 73 
Denwall, 87 

Denys, St., Abbey, 222 
Despenser, le 71 
Devereux, 85, 125 
Devon, 218 
Diddsbury, 171 
Ditchley, 74 
Dobuni, 53 

Documents, Original, 75, 76, 77, 78 
D'Ombrain, Rev. 4 H., re-elected on Coun- 
cil, 25 
Donnington, 64 
Dorchester, (Oxon), 213 
Dorn, 52 
Dorney, 77 
Dover, 168 

Dowdeswell, 227, 228, 229 
Dowsell, 91 
Droitwich, 227 
Dublin, 172, 178, 181 
Due, le, 117n. 
Dudington, 184 
Dumbleton, 91 



Dummulton, 91 
Dunse, de, 184, 190 
Dunster Castle, 176n. 
Dunys, de, 189 
Durham, 90 
Dursley, 184, 185 

Dryden, Sir Henry, his Notes ona" Door 
Frame at Ampney St, Mary, 127-131 
Dyrham, 218 

Eadburga, 210 
Eadnoth, 227 
Eanbald, 227 
Eanberht, 227 
Eanberhtus, 211 
Eanfrid, 209 
Eanhere, 289 
Eanulf, 222, 224 
East, 78 

East Angles, 209, 217 
Easton, 211 
Eastmund, 227, 228 
Ebrington, 53 
Ecgferth, 209 
Ecgfrid, 209, 213, 323 
Ecgwin, 212, 222 
Eddon, 93 
Edgar, 8 

Edward Confessor, K., 68, 197, 221, 222 

Edward I., K., 160 

Edward III., King. 70, 122,125 172, 

Edward, VV. K., 196, 198 

Edward, Prince, 165 

Edward, son of Henry III., 172, 173, 177, 

181, 191n. 
Edwards, 206 

Egbert, 209, 211, 217, 221, 225 

Egburga, Abbess, 210 

Egerton, 66 

Eggeton, 179 

Elcott, 181 

Eleanor, 9, 109 

Elfrid, 55 

Elizabeth, Q., 38, 55 69, 72, 88n, 116 
Elkington, Cutt, 91 
Elkstone, 127 

Ellacombe, Rev. Canon, re-elected on the 

Council, 25 
Ellandune, battle of, 208, 209, 217 
Ellicott, Bp., 99, 100 
Ellis, 'A. S., 201 
Ellis, 66 
Elmore, 181, 184 
Elmoure, de, 184, I89n. 
Ely, Cath., 17 
Ely, de, 174, I74n, 177 
Emeris, Rev. J., 1 
Epps, 59 

Ermine Street, 215 

Essex, 217 

Eston (Heref.; 69n. 

Esturmi, de, 171, 176. 176n. 

Ethelbald, K. of, Mercia ob. , 745 208, 211 

214, 215, 216, 218, 219, 222 ' 
Ethelhard, 215 
Ethelhun, 220 

Ethelmund, 211, 213, 217, 220, 221 
222 223 

Ethelric, 215, 220, 221, 223, 224 

Ethelred, Alderman, 217 

Ethelred, K., of the Mercians, 208, 209, 

212, 213, 219 230 
Etington, 93n. 
Eva, Abbess, 215 

Evans, A. J., F.S.A., his Paper on "The 
Rollright Stones," 38 ; acted as guide 
at the Ashmolean Museum, 45 

Evenlode Valley, 52 

Evereux, de, 188 

Evesham, 59, 63, 105, I74n, 175, 182, 210 
214 » 

Evesham. Abbots of, 107 

Exeter, Diocese, Register of Bishop Sta- 

pledon, 1307-1326, Edited by the Rev. 

Preben. Hingeston-Randolph, M.A., 


Ex Libris Society, the Journal of, Vol.11., 
edited by W. H. K. Wright, assisted 
by Arthur J. Jewers, F.S.A., noticed. 

Eye, de, 109 

Eyken, Rev. Pitt, 1 

Eynsham, 214 

Eynsham, Abbot of, 110 

Eyre, Rev. T., 29n. 30n. 

Fairford Church, effigy of wife of Roger 

Ligon, in, 123 
Fancott, 66 
Fane, 33, 100 
Farenhull, 86 
Farley, W., Abbot, 196 
Farmer, 66 
Faringdon, 67 

Farrar, Rev. F., 21 ; acted as guide to the 
Church of Bourton-on-the-Hill, 27 ; 
thanks for allowing to visit his 
Church, 43 

Farrer, 88n, 90 

Fawkes, Guy, 37 

Fayne, 203 

Fenhill quarter, 91 

Fenton, 181 

Fettiplace, 38 

Finoble, 36 

Fisher, 34, 59, 163 

Fitz Baderon, 191n. 

Fitz Hamon, 69 

Fitz Osborne, 219 

Fladbury, 212 

Flanders, 105 

Fleetwood, 63, 67 

Fletcher, 66, 77 

Foliet, 199 

Fonthill, 104 

Forrester, W., assisted in making arrange- 
ments at Malmesbury, 1, 3 

Fortescue, 71, 87 

Fosseway, The, 52, 213, 215 

Four Shire Stones which mark the 
junction of the four Counties of 
Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Ox- 
fordshire & Gloucestershire, visited, 
32, 33, 96 

France, 61 

France. K. of, 173 

Franchevaler, 197 

Freeman, 55, 78, 94, 95 

Freeman, E. A., 15. 18, 164, 170n. 

Freeman-Mitford, A.B., C.B., 21 ; elected 
President of the Society for the 
ensuing year, and delivers his Inau- 
gural Address, 27, 32; at Rollright 
Stones, 38 ; thanked for his Inaugural 
Address, 44 ; his Inaugural Address, 
47-51, 56 ; 79, 90 

Freeman-Mitford, Lady Clementina, re- 
ceives the Society, 32, 38 

Frocester, Abbot, 199 



Frome, Abbey, 18 
Fry, 60 
Fulbrook, 198 
Fuller, Rev. E. A., 22 

Gaily furlong, 91 
Garden, 92 
Garthinselog, 218 
Gascony, 172 
Gash, 1 
Gaunsel, 189 

Gaunt, Henry, Master of St. Mark's Hos- 
pital, Bristol, 192n. 
Geniger, 66 
Gereard, 66 

Gibbs, 72n, 81, 91, 94, 95 
Gibbert, 66 

Giffard, 103, 104, 105. 106 

Gigliis, Bishop Silvester, of Hereford, 57 

Girard, 68 

Glamorganshire, 219 

Gloucester, 63, 72, 77, 81, 198, 215, 219, 228 

Gloucester, See of, 218 

Gloucester, Cathedral, 7, 11, 14 

„ St. Mary de Lode Church, 67 

St. Peter's Abbey, 103, 105, 

106, 107, 110, 127 197 ; lands 

of endowment, 225 
,, Dean and Chapter of, 127 

Dean of, 163, 164, 166 

Abbots of, 185 

Notes on the Early English 
Lady Chapel, by the Rev. W. 

,, Eadburga, Abbess of, 710-735, 

Coll., Oxford, 103, 104, 110 
,, Hump., Duke of, 110 
„ Honour of, 175, 181n 
,, Proceedings of AutumnalMeet 
ing at, 1891—160-166, 209 
Gloucestershire, 32, 40, 56, 96, 97, 104, 180 
181, 182, 209, 213, 218, 219 

„ " Excerpts from Feet of 

Fines," by Sir John 
Maclean, 183-195 
'•Gloucestershire Notes and Queries," 

Vol. V., Parts IV. to VII. inclusive. 

Edited by W. P. W. Phillimore, M.A., 

B.C.L., noticed, 242 
" Gloucestershire in the 8th Century," 

Memoir on, by Rev. C. Taylor. 
Godfre, Bishop, 104 
Godwyn, 57, 85n. 
Golafre, 86 
Good, 205n. 
Goodwin, 90, 90n. 
Gorges, 81 
Gostell, 91 
Graves, 58 
Green, 163 
Greene, 206 

Grendour, Lady, her effigy, 120 

Grenishe, 91 

Grevil, 96, 179 

Grey, 66 

Guine, 192 

Grimes, 77 

Grimstone, 71 

Guise, de, 181, 189, 189n. 

Guiting, 229 

Gurney, 189 

Hale, H., 3 
Hales, 80, 81 
Hall, 81n. 

Hall, Rev. J. M., 1 ; re-elected on Council, 


Hallen, Rev. A.W. Cornelius, M.A..F.S.A. 

(Scot.) his "Scottish Antiquary," 

noticed, 238 
Hallewell, J. W., his death, 24 
Halston, 66 
Handley Abbots, 198 
Halton Church, Bucks, 169, 171, 176 
Halzwell, 202 

Hamilton, W.D., F.S.A., his "Calendar 
of State Papers," "(Domestic Series) 
Charles I., 1645-1647, noticed, 148-152 

Hamus, de, Abbot, 103 

Handy, 87 

"Hanging in Chains," by Albert Hart- 

horne, F.S.A., noticed, 146-148 
Harbridge, 100 
Harcourt, 81 
Hardwick, 68 
Harleigh, 86 
Harly, 75 
Harnhulle, 86 
Ham, Lady, 91 
Harneage, 66 
Harris, 66 

Harrison, 66, 74, 164 
Harry, 203 
Hart, 66 

Hartland, Edwin Sidney^ his "Folklore 
in Gloucestershire," noticed, 161-162 

Hartsherne, Albert, his Memoir on 
" Hanging in Chains," noticed, 146- 

Hatton, 66, 82 
Harward, 81, 85 
Havering, 173 
Hayward, 82 
Head, 81 
Headda, 211, 227 

Heathored, Bp., 216, 217, 227, 230 

Helm, de, 109 

Helias, 198, 199 

Henbury, 222, 223, 229 

Hennemerse, 69n, 70, 71 

" Hennons," 221 

Henry I., K. 221 

Henry II., K.,187n. 

Henry III., K., 105,173, 198, 221, 222 

Henry VII., K., 196 

Henry VIII., K., 55, 69, 164 

Hereford, 63 

Hereford, Archdeaconry of, 218 

Hereford, Bps. of, 110 

Hereford, Britons and Saxons, battle 

between, at, 219 
Hereford, Cathedral, 8 
Hereford, Church of, 220 
Hereford, Co., 75, 167, 167n, 171, 180, 218 
Herberden, Rev. H. B., 21 
Herbert, Lord, 67 
Hernshall, 70 
Hertford, Synod of, 210 
Heynes, 80 
Heyworth, 109 
Hidcote Bartram, 59 
Hide, de, 69n. 
Hill, 66, 77 
Himilayan tribes, 39 
Himynge, 71 
Hind, 204 



Hingeston-Randolph.The Rev. F.C..M.A., 
Preb. of Exeter, Register of Bishop, 
Stapeldon, edited by him, noticed, 

Hinton, 179 

Hobman, 66 

Hobson, 66 

Hodcut, 81 

Hodges, 203, 205, 206 

Hodgkins, 91, 92 

Holder, 75 

Hollow Streat, furlong, 91 

Homer (Homeward) Standell, 91 

Homtune, 216 

Hormj- furlong, 91 

Honsum, 107 

Hope, W. H. St. John, 3 

Hopper, 23 

Hopton Cangford,] 

Home, 87 

Hornesmeadow, 91 
Horton, 66 

Hospitalers of St. John of Jerusalem, 106 
Houghton, Rev. Canon E J., 2; thanked 

for allowing the Society to visit his 

Church, 143 
Howard, 73, 124 
Howitt, 164 

Hugh, son of Hugh, 186 
Hun, 217 
Huntingdon, 214 
Huntingford, 192n. 
Huntingtonshire, 130 
Hurle, 86 
Hurst, 88 
Husbard, 62 

Hwiccians, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213,214, 217 

Hyett, F.A., his Paper on "Four Inci- 
dents in the Civil War, 3-5 ; 21 ; re- 
elected on Council, 25 ; proposes a 
resolution for altering the Rule? of 
the Society, 25 ; his Paper on " Four 
Incidents in the Civil War" read, 52 
thanked for the same, 43 ; the same 
printed, 163 

Icford, de, 80 
Ilmington, 72, 73 
Inderuuda, alias Deorum, 221 
Ine, K., 214 
Ingeld, 211 

Ireland, 61, 172, 177, 179n, 181 

Jaenberht, Archb., 216 

James I., King, 72, 73 

James II., King, 205 

Jarrett, 90 

Jarrow, Church, 17 

Jefferies, A. G. W., 1 

Jennings, J.C.S., 1 ; entertains the Society 

at Malmesbury, 5, 13 
Jeayes, I. H., his " Descriptive Catalogue 

of the Charters and Muniments in 

Berkeley Castle." noticed, 231 
Jewers, Arthur J., F.S.A., his "Journal 

of the Ex Libris Society," noticed,239 
John, Abbot, 189 
John II., K. of France, 125 
Jombharte, William, his Brass in Blockley 

Church, 30 
Jones family, 37, 38 

Jones, Rev. Spencer, Local Secretary at 
Moreton, 21 ; thanked for his valuable 
services, 32, 43 

Joyce, Lady, her effigy, 116, 117 
Julius II., Pope, 57 

Juxon, Bishop, 32; his death and burial, 
33 ; and pedigree, ib.; his will, 34, 96, 

Kaneford, 105 

Katherine of Arragon, Q., 14, 164 

Kay, Sir Brook, Bart. (President of Coun- 
cil, 21 ; his Address of Welcome to 
the Royal Archaeological Institute to 
Gloucester in August, 1891, 22-24 ; 
Presided at Autumnal Meeting at, 
Gloucester, 163-166 

Kelly, 205, 205n. 

Kely, 66 

Kemble, 88, 90, 90n. 
Kemerton, 68 

Kempsford, 211, 213, 217, 221 
Kenebelle, de, 180, 181n, 184 
Kenelm, 209 

Kenil worth, Dictum of, 175 

Kenulf, 209, 212, 217, 219, 222, 223 230 

Kent, Countess of, 189, 189n, 190 

Kent, Co , 80, 81, 217 

Keyt, 59 

Kilespiece, 91 

Killick, Rev. J. H., 21 ; his Paper on the 
" Church and Manor House of Little 
Compton," read, 32; acts as guide 
to Compton Manor House & Church, 
32 ; thanked for allowing the Society 
to visit his Church, and for his Paper 
on the Church and Manor, 43; his 
Paper printed, 96 

Kits, or Kils, bottom, 91 

Kimberley, 82 

Kineton, 85 

Kineton Hundred, 97 

King's Stone, 97 

Kingston, de, 178, 179 

Kingswood, Abbots of, 184, 188 

Kinsonwell Lay, 91 

Kirkby, 71, 88n. 

Kirke, 66 

Kirkhall, 67 

Knapp, 205n, 200 

Knight, W. H. K.. his Journal of "The 
Western Antiquary," noticed, 235 ; 
and his Journal of the " Ex Libris ' 
Society, noticed, 239 

Knyght, 87 

Kynburgh, Abbess, ob. 710 ; 196, 199 ; 

208, 210 
Kysef Ward, 78 
Llantrissant, 219 
Lambe, 205, 206, 207 
Lambeth, 34, 35 
Lambert, 91 
Lampet, 91, 96 

Landboc sive Registrum Monasterii Beatae 
Marias Virginis et Sancti Cenhelmi 
de Winchelcumba in Comitatu Glou- 
cestrensi Ordinis Sancti Benedicti. 
E. Codicibus MSS. Penes Praenobilem 
Dominum de Sherborne. Edente 
David Boyce, M.A., Vicar of Nether 
Swell, Vol. I. Ab Anno secundo 
Regni Regni Cenulfi ad annum sex- 
tum Regni Begis Tertii, a.d. 798— 
A D. 1332, 152-154 

Landulphus, 17 

Lane, 94, 204 

Langdon, John, Bp. of Rochester, 110 
Langley i 57, 87 n. 



Langport, 214 
Langton, 203 
Lantony, Prior of, 1S7 
Lassington, M., 191n. 
Laurance, Abbot, 69 
Lawton, 60 
Lay burn, de, 186 
Leather ground, 91 
Ledbury, de, 110 
Lee, de la, 192 
Leicester, 81 
Leigh, Lady, 125 
Leigh, Lord, 38 

Leigh, W.,1, presided at the concluding- 
Meeting at Oxford, 43 ; thanked for 
the same, ib. 

Lemington, 53 

Lemington, M., 33, 34 

Lenburv, 214 

Lenthall, 61, 62 

Lewes, battle of, 105, 182 

Leycestre, de, 193 

Leye, de la 175 

Lichfield, See of ; 213, 218, 220 
Ligon, Roger, his wife's effigy >t Fair- 
ford, 123 
Lillington, Church, 168, 169n. 
Lincoln Cathedral, 130 
Lincoln, Bishop, 36, 168 
Lisle, 70 
Little, 1 
Littlecote, 74 

Little Rollright, parish, 97 

Llandaff, Bp. of, 110 

Llewellyn, P. of Wales, 105 

London, 5, 131, 173, 175, 180, 214, 217 

London, Bishop of, 33, 35, 174 

London, Lord Mayor of, his wife, 118 

London, Temple Bar, 131 

London, Tower of, 173 

Longborough, 55 

Longbridge, 177 

Long-champ, de, 186 

Longford, 197 

Longevity, instance of, 72 

Longspe, 105 

Longueville, in Caux, Normandy, 103 

Lorlinges, 185 

Lowe, 1, 86, 87 

Loxam furlong, 91 

Lucas, Sir Charles, 61, 67 

Lucy, W. C, joins in a resolution pro- 
posing an alteration of the Rules of 
Society, 25 

Lung, 194 

Lusignan, de, 172 

Lyncombe. 217 

Lynham, 86 

Maces, &c. exhibition of, 2, 3 

Maclean, Sir John, at Malmesbury, 1 ; at 
Moreton, 21. opposes the resolution 
for altering the Rules of the Society, 
26 ; seconds vote of thanks to the 
President for his Inaugural Address, 
27 ; resigns Delegatecy to Council of 
Associated Archseological Societies. 
2 4 ; his description of the Brasses in 
Blockley Ch., 29, 31, 80 ; his Excerpts 
from Feet of Fines for Gloucester- 
shire, 7th John— 57th Henry III., 183- 

Madan, Mr. F., thanked for services at 

Maddocks, 77 

Magassetas, 218 
Maidulph, St., 2, 16 
Malet, 185 

Malmesbury, W. de, 6 

Malmesbury, 6, 16, 105, 213 

Malmesbury, Abbot of, 107 

Malmesbury, Meeting at, 1-5 ; visit to 
to the Abbey Church, 1 ; perambu- 
lation of the town, 1-2 ; the castle, 
2 ; market cross 2 ; Rev. W. Bazeley's 
Paper on "The Architecture of the 
Abbey Church, 6-15 ; Mrs. Bagnall- 
Oakelev's Paper on the Ancient 
Sculptures in the Church Porch, 

Manning, 35 

Mandeville, 131, 170n. 

Manynge, 87n, 91 

Marah 96, 97, 102 

March, Earl of, 115 

Marches, The, 72 

Mare, de la, 109 

Marling, S., 1 

Marriott, 33 

Martyn family, 80, 81, 90, 90n. 

Mary, Q., 55, 69 

Marshall. 87, 88, 93n, 113 

Mason, 66 

Mathews, 66 

Mathon, 85 

Matilda, Q., 68 

Mattesdon, 198 

Maun sell, 94 

Maximillian, 52 

Mayde, 90 

Mayo, Chas. Herbert, M.A., his " Notes 
and Queries for Somerset & Dorset," 
noticed, 257 

Meadway, 1 

Medland, H., 1 ; re-elected on Council, 

25, 163 
Meeke, 94 
Meeres, 34 

Merchant Adventurers, Society of, 201, 

204, 205, 206, 207 
Mercia, 213, 214, 215, 217, 218, 230 
Mercia, Earl of— Leo, 36. 44 
Merewell, 69n. 
Merlott, 34 
Merrick, 35 

Merton College, Oxon., 105 
Merton, de, 192 
Michelborne, 77 
Micheldean Church, 121, 122 
Mickelton, 53, 53, 59 
Miles. Col., High Steward of Malmes- 
bury, 2 
Millard's Green, 198 
Millway furlong, 91 
Milred, Bishop, 211, 227 
Milton, 75, 131 
Minchin Barrow, 202 
Minehead, 176n. 
Minety, 213 
Mingnoc, 186 
Minsterworth, 173, 180 
Mitford, 57 
Monk's Orchard, 197 
Monkwearmouth, Church, 17, 19 
Monmouth (Monmue), 191, 191n. 
Monmouth, Castle and Honour, 191n. 
Montford, de, Simon, 174, 175, 191n 
Moore, 88, 8»n, 204 
Moore, J. N., 21 
Mora, de, 69n. 

Morgan, 93, 112, 203, 204, 205 



Morgan, Colonel, 61, 63, 64 
Moreton Henmarsh, 72, 79, 82, 29n, 93, 

Moreton, 55n, 60 

Moreton, vicar of, 57 

Moreton Common, 60 

Moreton-in-Marsh, Proceedings of Annual 
Meeting at, 21 ; Paper on, by Mr. C. 
Belcher, read, 32-40; Members of 
Local Committee at, thanked ; Hist, 
of, by Ernest Belcher, 52-60 ; deri- 
vation of name, 54 ; Moreton Ch., 56, 
88n, 163, 214 

Morrice, 94 

Morris, 163 

Mortar-pitts, 91 

Mortimer, 115, 181 

Mouldsworth, 66 

Mountanay, 203, 204 

Mncegros, de, 191n 

Much Marcle, 171, 176, 177n, 180 

Musard, de, 180 

Mylling, Thomas, Abbot of Westminster, 

Nail on, King of the Picts, 17 

Neele, William, description of his Brass 

in Blockley Church, 30 
Nene, 181 

Neots, St., Priory, 109 
Nevill, 71 
Newent, 189 
Newland, Church, 116 
Newnton Water, 1 
Nicholas, 87n. 
Nicholles, 94 
Nicholls, 59 
Nole, de la, 69n j 
Northampton, 17 , 173 
Nothelm, 212 
Northill, 91 
Northleach, 55n. 
Northumbria, 196 

Northwick, Lady, 2 ; receives the Society 
at Northwick Park. 31 ; thanked for 
allowing this visit, and her kind hos- 
pitality, 43. 

Northwick Park, visit of Society to, 27 

Norton, 53 

Norton-sub- Edge, 72 

i( Notes and Gleanings," a Monthly 
Magazine devoted chiefly to subjects 
connected with the Counties of 
Devon and Cornwall, Vol. IV. Edited 
by William Cotton, F.S.A., and Jas. 
Dallas, F.L.S., noticed, 236 

"Notes & Queries : Somerset & Dorset." 
Edited by Fredk. Wm. Weaver, M.A. 
and Chas. Herbert Mayo, M.A Vol.11. 
Part XVI. Dec. 1991, to Part XIX. 
Vol. III. 1892, noticed. 

Notgrove, 88, 229 

Nowers, 93n. 

Offa, King of Mercia, 209, 211, 212, 213, 
215, 216, 219, 221, 222, 223, 224, 229 

Offas dyke, 219 
Ofre, 215 
Oftfor, 212, 222 
Oldisworth, 80, 88, 89 
Oleron, He d' 172 

Oman, Mr. C. M., acted as Local Sec. 
at Oxon, 43 ; received the Society at 
All Souls' College, 42 : and is thanked 

Onnanford, 211, 227 

Orcheston, 104 

Ormond, 70 

Osbaldson, 75, 91 

Osbert, 210 

Osborne, 207 

Oselworth, 188 

Oshere, 209, 210, 211, 212 

Osney, Abbey, 36 

Osred, K. of Northumbria, 208 

Osric, 196, 199, 209, 210, 212 ; his endow 

ment of Gloucester Abbey, 205, 228 
Osthryth, Q., 212 
Oswald, 210 

Oswy, K. of Northumbria, 209 
Overbury, 72, 72n, 73, 74, 78, 80, 81, 82, 

88, 89, 90n. 
Owen, 94 

Oxford, 61, 64, 73, 74, 75, 79, 89n, 93n 

105, 106, 168, 217 
Oxford. 21, 32 ; visited by the Society, 
41 ; 52 ; Concluding Meeting at, 43 ; 
Oxford, Ashmolean Museum. 38 
Oxford, St. John's College, 33, 35, 100 
Oxford, Magdalen College, 41 ; effigies in, 
William of Waynflete, St. John Bap- 
tist, Edward IV., St. Mary Magdalen, 
St. Swithin, Observance of St. John 
Baptist's day ; Portraits :— William 
of Waynflete, Cardinals Pole and 
Wolsey, Prince Henry, Prince Rupert, 
Addison, Dr. Sacheverells, &c. 
Oxford, Merton College visited under the 
guidance of Canon Freeling, 42 ; 
Henry de Mannesfield, Dean of Lin- 
coln, donor of a window, 42, 105 ; 
Bodleian Library visited under the 
guidance of Mr. F. Madan, M.A., 
Radcliff visited under the guidance 
of Mr. J. Parker, M.A., F.S.A., 42; 
Christ Church visited under the 
guidance of Canon Bright, D.D., 
St. Fridewide's Priory, destroyed by 
Cardinal Wolsey— Mr, J. Parker 
guide, 96 

Oxford, All Souls' College visited under 
the guidance of Mr. C. W. C. Oman, 
M.A., 42 ; Mr. Oman entertained the 
company at afternoon tea, 43 ; Mr. 
F. Madan delivered a lecture in 
Brasenose College Hall in the evening 
on the City & University of Oxford, 

Oxford, Gloucester College, 107, 108, 110 

Oxford, Magdalen Parish, 106 

Oxford, Worcester College visited under 
the guidance of Mr. C- H. O. Daniel, 
M.A,, who read a Paper on the 
History of the College, referring to 
its foundation as Gloucester Hall, &c. 
and Mr. Daniel was thanked for the 
same, 44. In the garden a discussion 
took place on the rebus of W. Comp- 
ton, in which Mr. Bazeley took part, 
82 ; memoir on, by Rev. C. H. O. 
Daniel, 103. 

Oxford, Universitv Hall, 106 ; Durham 
College, 106, 107 

Oxfordshire, 63, 80, 96, 97, 213 

Oxenhall, 188 

Oxham, de, 186 

Oxhaye, 185, 187 

Palmer, 34, 71, 72, 78, 81, 82, 88, 91, 93, 

93n, 94, 95, 96 
Parker, J. H.,9 
Parry, T. Gambier, 164, 164n. 



Pastor, Dr. Ludwig, his "History of the 
Popes," Vol. II., noticed, 133-142 

Paul, A. H. {Local Secretary, Tetbury) at 
Malmesbury, 1 

Paul, P., 115n. 

Pauntley, 189 

Paxford, 91 

Paynel, 185 

Peacock, 66 

Pebblestone Grove, 91 

Pedartha, de, 176n. 

Pedwardin, de, 

Pembroke, Laurence, Earl of, 165 

Pembrokeshire, 73 

Pencoed, 218 

Penda, K., 209, 210, 225 

Perkins, V. R., 21 

Perry, 74 

Pershore, 210 

Peterborough Cath., 2 

Phellippes, 94, 221 

Phippes, 94 

Pikesleg', 69n. 

Pilsham, 91 

Pitcairne, 1 

Planche, 103, 104, 117 

Plantagenet, 165 

Plash, Plasheway, 91 

Piatt, 1 

Plessetes, de, 36 

Pole, de la, 71, 86 

Ponte, Pontius de, 168, 168n. 

Poole, 1, 66 

Pope, 163 

Popes— Leo XIII., 133 
Calixtus III. 
Nicholas V. 

Popes (anti) Felix V., 136 

Popes—" The History of the Popes" from 
the close of the middle ages, drawn 
from the Secret Archives of the Vati- 
can and other original sources. From 
the German of Dr. Ludwig Pastor, 
Professor of History in the University 
of Inasbrnck. Edited by Frederick 
Ignatius Antrobus, of the Oratory, 
Vol. II., noticed, 133-142 

Popham, 74, 75 

Porter, 86 

Pothron 204 

Pory, 34 

Power, 204 

Powlett, 201, 206 

Potts, 66 

Presses, 66 

Prestbury, 220 

Price, Mr. W. P., his death, 24 

Prodomme, 57 

Purton, 213 

Puryfoy, 77 

Pybba, 209 

Pytts, 78, 85 

Quedgeley, 187 

Radegund, de St., 175 
Kadley, 186 

Ramsey, Abbey, 108, 103 

Radcliffe, 73 

Ravenna, Ch., 18 

Reading, Abbots of, 107 

Redesdale, Lord, 56 

Redesdale Memorial Hall, trustees 

thanked for the courteous use of 

it, 44 

Redland, 202 

Remains — Roman, 37, 52 

Resketh, 66 

Royce, Rev. David, M.A., his edition of 
"The Lanboc, or Register of the 
Monastery of Winchcombe, in co. 
Gloucester, Vol. I., from the 2nd year 
of King Cennulf, a.d. 798 to 6th 
Edw. III., 1332, 152-154 

Richard I., King, 71 

Richer, Abbot of Eynsham, 110 

Ridlington, 130 

Ripon, Cath., 7 

Rissam, 91 

Robins, 82 

Robin's Wood Hill, 198 
Rochester, Bps. of, 110 
Rochester Cathedral, Costume of Queen 

of Henry I., 112 
Roberts, 1, 6 
Rochull, Salop, 170, 176 
Rochull, le Wall, 181 
Roe, 62 

Roger. Bp. of Salisbury, 2, 67 
Rokeston, 86 

Rollright Stones, visited, 38 ; Address on 
by Mr. A. J. Evans, 07 

Rome, Ch., 18 

Romsey, John, 201, 206 

Roowude, 184 

Round, J. R., 120n. 

Rownham Wood, 203 

Royce, Rev. David, 21 ; read a Paper on 
the Church of Bourton-on-the Hill, 
27 ; his Paper missing, 32 ; 38 ; 
thanked for his " History of Bourton- 
on-the-Hill," 43 ; the same printed, 

Ruddon, 101 
Rushdale, 91, 101 
Rushout, 31 

Rushout, A. {Local «Sec.),21, 7 

Russ, 78 

Russell, 66 

Russia, 73 

Rutland, 130 

Rutter, 80, 81, 82, 89n, 91 

Sadlier, 201, 205, 206 
Salisbury, 6, 7, 109, 227 
Salisbury, Roger, Bp. of, 2, 6 
Salley, Bp., 121 
Salstone, 66 
Saltredge furlonge, 91 
Saltwich, 227 
Sandhurst, de, 199 
Sandhurst, M., 197 

Saresden, co. Oxon, 33 
Saunders, 204 
Savage, 72, 85 
Say and Sele, Lord, 56 
Schalkeley, 193 
Scotus, John, 12 

Scottish Antiquary, The, or Northern 
Notes & Queries (Illustrated). Edited 
by the Rev. A. W. Cornelius Hallen, 
M.A. 238 

Seizencote, Rectory, 96 

Serlo, 79, 227 

Severn, river, 214, 215, 218, 222, 22 
Sevenhampton, 220 
Sexmede, South, 91 
Sexwulf, Bishop, 213 
Sharpness, furlong, 91 
Shaw, 95 



Sheppard, 77 
Sheldon, Bishop, 35 
Shipton Solers, 70 
Shropshire, 61, 170n, 181, 218 
Shirehampton, 229, 230 
Sing, 66 

" Sir " designation, why applied to certain 
of the clergy, 172n. 

Slaughter, Lower, 79, 81 

Slimbridge, 42, 178, 179, 180, 190 

Smith, 66, 71, 91 

Smythe, 87n, 94, 96, 119, 124 

Sneyd, Rev. G., 36, 38 ; thanked for allow- 
ing the Society to visit his church, 43 

Sodbury, 227, 223, 229 
Solers, de, 69n, 70 
Somersetshire, 115, 217, 229 
Somerton, 34, 214 
Somery, de, 189 
Southleye, 86 
Spence, Dean, 163 
Spencer, 94 
Stafford, Co., 61 
Stanhope, Reetory of, 99 
Stanley, 72, 69, 185 
Stanley Priory, 185 

State Papers, Calendar of (Domestic 
Series) of the reign of Charles I., 
1645-1647. Preserved in H.M. Record 
Office. Edited by William Douglas 
Hamilton, F.S.A., of the Public 
Record Office and of the University 
of London, under the direction of the 
Master of the Rolls, and with the 
sanction of H.M. Secretary of State 
for the Home Department, noticed, 

Stapelton. de, 69n. 

Stevens, 91 

Stoke, 229 

Stoke Bishop, 220, 230 
Stokes, de, 69n, 70 
Stokes, Priory, 109 
Stone, 66 

Stonehenge, 38, 40 

Stonor, de, 70, 80, 85, 86, 87 

Stow-on-the-Wold, 53, 61, 64. 67, 72 

Stowte, 88n. 

Strange, Lady, 124 

Stratford, 212, 216 

Stratton-on-Foss, 81 

Stratton St. Margaret, 215 

Stretton, 30n. 

Sture, 216 

Suffolk, Earl of, 2 

Sumptuary Laws, ladies' dresses, 118 
Surrey County, 217 
Sussex, 217 

Sutton [under Brailes], 68, 79 

Swayne, S. H., 21; seconds the resol. 
opposing the alteration of the Rules 
of the Society, 26; seconds vote of 
thanks to Dr. Beddoe, 27 

Swayne, 34 

Swindon, 217 

symonds, 1 

Tackly, 93n. 
Talbot, Lord, 165 
Tatinton, 69 
Taylor, 90 
Taylor, Jeremy, 58 

Taylor, Rev. C, his Paper on " Glouces- 
tershire in the 8th Century," 208-230 

Taylor, R., 1, 21 ; resigns seat on Council, 


Temple, Middle, 73 

Tetbury, 5, 219, 228 

Tewkesbury, 81, 90n. 

Tewkesbury Hundred, 68 

Tewkeskury, 6 ; manor, 78 

Teynton, Prebend., 227 

Thames, river, 213, 214, 215 

Thick leather cover, 91 

Thomas, Christopher, V.P., 21 ; proposes 

vote of thanks to Dr. Beddoe, 27 
Thornbury, 66 
Thornbury Castle, 14 
Thorp, Co. York, 168, 186n. 
Throughton, 202 
Timbingetun, 221 
Tickenham Court, 115 
Tilhere, Bishop, 212, 216, 220 
Todenham, Co. Glouc, 34, 68, 79, 221 


Tower of London, 73, 74, 124 

Townesend, 94 

Townsley, 88n. 

Tracy, 88n. 

Tredington, 211 

Treeves, Ch., 19 

Trillowe, 36 

Trusted, C. J., 21 

Tucker, Rev. G. W., 1 ; his remarks on 

Malmesbury Abbey Church, 
Turkdean, 229 
Turner, 35 

Twining, 220, 222, 229, 230 

Twyford, 104 

Tyllyver, 94 

" Tyreltune," 227 

Uhctred, 227 

Uhtredus, ill 

Ullington, 72 

Underhill, 93,93n. 

University Hall, Oxford, 106 

Usk, river, 219 

Usmere, 216 

Valence, de, 172 


Veel, le, 192 

Vele, Sir Peter, 118 

Vernon, 74 

Victoria, 229 

Wadelond, 192 
Wadley, 56, 86n. 
Walbanke, 62 
Walchsted, Bishop, 218 
Walcot, Mackensie, 14 
Wales 172 

Waller, 63, 77, 163, 166, 198 
Walhope, 198 
Walsingham, Thomas, 110 
Walter, 33 

Wanborough, 213, 214 
Warburton, 66 
Warne, 95 
Warnford, 90 
Warren, 89n, 119 

Warren, F. H., acts as Guide to Mag- 
dalen College, 41 ; thanked for cour- 
teous reception, 

Warthim, Philip, description of his Brass 
in Blockley Church, 29 



Warwick, 34, 35, 72, 80, 97 

Warwick, Earl and Countess of, 179, 179n. 

Warwick, Mayor of, his wife, 118 

Warwickshire, 32, 63, 73, 85, 93n, 218 

Waterford, Bishop of, 178n. 

Watergap furlong-, 91 

Watermore, 171, 176n. 

Watkins, 88, 90 

Watson, 77 

Watts, 66 

Weale, 66 

Weaver, Frederick William, M.A., his 
"Notes and .Queries for Somerset 
and Dorset," noticed, 237 

Webb, 77 

Welch Border, 208, 214, 215, 217, 219 
Wellingford, 193 
Welleford. de, 80 
Welneford, de, 80 
Wentworth, 71, 88, 88n. 
Weoxtan, 217 
Werefrith, 227 
Westbury Church, 220, 227 
Westbury, Dean and Canons of, 201, 206 
Westbury M., 186, 193, 202 
Westbury-on-Trym, 220, 222, 223, 228, 

Westington, 72 
Westminster, 89n. 

Westminster Abbey, 68, 74, 108, 222 
Westminter Abbots of, 55, 69, 107 
Westminster, de, 174, 174n. 
Westminster, Dean and Chapter of. 55, 

56, 69 ' 
Westminster, Manor and Hundred Rolls, 

69, 70, 71 
Westminster, Hundred, 68, 68n. 
Westminster Portion, 78 
Weston, 53 

Weston-sub-Edge, 56, 104 

Wessex, 208, 213, 214 

Western Antiquary, The, Note Book for 
Devon & Cornwall, Vol. XI. Edited 
by W. H. K. Wright, F. R. Historical 
Society, Borough Librarian, Plym'th 

West Saxons, 215, 216, 217 
Whethampsted, John, 110 
Whichwood Forest, 168n. 
Whitcroft furlong, 91 
Whitland Green, 91 

Whitmore-Jones, Miss, 36, 38 ; thanked 
for exhibiting & explaining objects 
of interest at Chastleton, 43, 100 

Whittington, 202, 203 

Wickham, 206 

Widdopp, 35 

Wike, de, 170 

Wigmore, 115 

Wilcotes, 36 

Wilfrid, Bp. 218 

Wilfrid, S , ob. 708,208,313 

William, Conqueror, 68, 70 

William, Rufus, K. 69, 104. 

William (the Lion), K. of Scotland, 189n. 

Williams, 66, 82 

William's ground, 91 

Williams, Rev. A., 21 

Willington, de, 166 

Wiilmington, 89 

Wilhngswyke, 105 

Willoughby, 14, 14n. 

Wilson, 82n. 

Wiltshire 53, 74, 213, 217 

Wina Bishop, 214 

Winchester, 217 

Winchester, Bps. of, 104 

Winchcombe, 88n, 209, 220, 222, 224, 228 

Winchcombe Abbey, 108 

Windsor, 33 

Winter, 303 

Winterbourne, 104 

Wintershulle, de, 180 

Winston, 164, 164n, 165 

Withington, 211, 213, 219, 227, 22?, 229 

Witney, Co. Oxon, 55 

Witts, F. V., 21 

Witts, Rev. F. E. Broome, 21 ; moves a 

resolution, 25 
Witts, G. B., joins in resolution proposing 

alteration of the Rules of the Society, 


Wright, 66 

Wright, W.H.K , F.R.H.S.,his "Journal 
of the " Ex-Libris " Society, 239 ; his 
" Western Antiquary — Note Book for 
Devon & Cornwall," Vol. XL, noticed 

Woburn, 171 
Wodelond, 193 

Wood, A., 73, 74, 75, 89, 105, 108 ; his List 
of the Abbeys which sent their Monks 
to Gloucester College, Oxon, 108 ; 
Glastonbury -St. Albans, Tavistock, 
Burton, Chertsey,Coventry, Evesham, 
Eynsham, St. Edmondsbury, Winch- 
combe, Abbotsbury, Michelney, 
Malmesbury, Rocher, Norwich, 109 

Woodchester, 229 

Woodstock, 91 

Wootton-on-the-Alne, 211 

Worcester, 52, 57, 75, 82, 86, 104, 209, 
212, 216, 221, 222, 227, 228 

Worcester, Bishops of, 177, 178, 179, 179n 
211, 212, 213, 216, 218, 220, 222 

Worcester, Cathedral, 223 

Worcester, Possessions of the See of the 
8th Century, 224 

Worcester, See of, 227, 228 

Worcestershire, 32, 56, 61, 78, 96, 218 

Wotton Church, 119 
Wroughton, 21 
Wulfheard, 220 
Wulphere, 208 
Wychwood, Forest, 213 
Wye, river, 218, 219 
Wygmore, Abbot, 164 
Wylington, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200 
Wylington Chapel, 199 
Wyman, 93 
Wymare, 197 
Wynchester, 70 

Yate, 90n, 192 ; church, 220, 222, 223, 

Yeamans, 303 
Yngleburn, river, 1 
York, Archbishop of, 168 
York House, badges of, 120 
Young, 201, 202 



Ipist of ffitmbtXB for 1891-2 

NOVEMBER 29th, 1892 

Names of Life Members are given in heavier type 

An asterisk is affixed to the names of Members of Council, 1892-3 

The Treasurer trill feel obliged if Members will inform him of any 
change in their address. 

Ackers, B. St. John, Huntley Manor, Gloucester 
Adams, J. W., 82, London Road, Gloucester 

Adlam, William, F.S.A., D.L., Manor House. Chew Magna, Bristol 
*Agg-Gardner, James Tynte, M.P., Evesham House, Cheltenham 
*Allard, W., Tewkesbury 

Allen, Rev. William Taprell, M.A., St. B navel's Vicarage, Coleford 
Annesley, Rev. F. H.. M.A.. Clifford Chambers Manor House, Stratford-on- 

Archer, Lieut.-Col., Cleeve House. 11, All Saints Road. Clifton 
Armitage, W. H.. Wotton-under-Edge 
Arrowsmith, J. W., 24, Westfield Park, Redland, Bristol 
Asher & Co., 13 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
Atherton, Rev. W. B., Churcham, near Gloucester 

Bagnall-Oakeley, Rev. W., M. A., Newland, Coleford 
Bagnall-Oakeley, Mrs. W., Newland, Coleford 
Bagnall-Oakeley, Rev. K. , Cricklade, Wilts 

Baillie, Capt. W. Hunter, Duntsborne Abbot's House, Cirencester 

Baker, Arthur, Henbury Hill House, Bristol 

Baker, Granville E. Lloyd, Hardwicke Court, Gloucester 

Baker, James, F.G.S., Sewelle Villa, Goldney Road, Clifton 

Baker, W. Proctor, Broomwell House, Brislington, Bristol 

Ball, A. J. Morton, The Green, Stroud 

Banks, C, Longford, Gloucester 

Barclay, Rev. Chas. W.,M.A, Little Amwell Vicarage, Hertford Heath, Herts 
Barkly, Sir Henry. K.C.B., G.C.M.G., 1, Bina Gardens, South Kensington, 
London, S.W. 

*Bartleet, Rev. S. E., M.A., F.S.A., St. Mark's Vicarage, Gloucester 

Bartholomew F.M., B.A., 28, College Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Baylis, E. L., Essex Place, Cheltenham 

Baynes, C. R., The Lammas, Minchinhampton 

Bazley, Sir Thomas S., Bart., Hatherop Castle, Fairford 


* Bazeley, Rev. William, 31. A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester (Hon. Member,) 
(Hon. Secretary and Librarian) 

Beach, The Rt. Hon. Sir Michael E. Hicks, Bart., D.L., M.P., 

Williamstrip Park. Fairford 

* Beddoe, John, M.D., F.R.S., The Chantry, Bradford -on- Avon 
Bell. Rev. Canon Charles Dent, D.D.. The Rectory, Cheltenham 
Berkeley. Francis L.. Riverside, San Barnardino, California, U.S.A. 
Bethel. W. Wood, 7, Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, London 
Bevir, E. J., Q.C.. 110, Harley Street. London, W. 

Bibliotheque Nationale. Paris, c/o Luzac & Co.. 46 Great Russell Street 
London, W.C. 

Biddell, Sidney, New University Club, St. James' Street, London, S.W. 
Birchall, J. Dearman, Bowden Hall. Gloucester 
Birchall. Miss. Lanesfield. Lansdown Road, Cheltenham 

* Blakeway, G. S., Tuffley, Gloucester 
Blandy, F., Birchamp House, Newland, Coleford 

* Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter T., M.A.. Dyrham Rectory, Chippenham 
Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter Edward M.A. Dyrham, Chippenham 
Blathwayt, Geo- W. Wynter, 35 Church Street, Manchester 
Blathwayt. Lieut. Colonel, Batheaston, Bath 

Bodleian Library, Oxford 

Bonnor, Benjamin, Barnwood, Gloucester 

Boughton, J. H.. Tewkesbury 

* Bourne, Rev. Canon G.' D., M.A., D.L., F.S.A., Weston-sub-Edge 

Bower. Rev. E. J., M.A. 

* Bowly, Christopher. Siddington House, Cirencester 
Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, 16 Royal Crescent, Bath 

Bramble, Lieut -Col. James Roger, F.S.A., Cleeve House, near Yatton. 

Bravender, T. B., c/o Digby Master, Esq., 47, Dyer Street, Cirencester 
BriggS, William, Exchange. Bristol 

* Bruton, H. W., Bewick House, Wotton. Gloucester 
Bruton, James, Wotton Hill Cottage. Gloucester 
Bryan, John, Chester Hill, Inchbrook. near Stroud 
Buchanan, James. " Standard' 1 Office, Gloucester 

Burder, G. F„ M.D., F. Met. Soeiety, 7, South Parade, Clifton, Bristol 
Burroughs, Jno. Beamies Cooper, 24, Bridge Street, Bristol 
Bush, Edward, Alveston, R.S.O. Gloucestershire 
Bush, John, 9, Pembroke Road. Clifton. Bristol 
Bush, T. S., Dale Cottage, Charlcombe, Bath 

Bute, The Most Honorable the Marquis of, Cardiff Castle, Glamorganshire 
Butterworth. Rev. George, M.A. , Deerhurst Vicarage, Tewkesbury 

Caldicott, Rev. J. W., D.D., Shipston-on-Stour Rectory, Worcestershire 
Campbell, Sir James, Bart.,Whitemead Park. Coleford 
Cardew, C. E., A.M.I.C.E., c/o. King, King & Co., Bombay 
Cardew, G. A., Bayshill Villas, Cheltenham 

Cardew, Rev. John Haydon, M.A., Wingfield Rectory, Trowbridge, Wilts 

Carleton, John Shaw, Newnham 

Cartwright, F. F., 1, St. Stephen Street, Bristol 

Cave, Charles, D., M.A., D.L., Stoneleigh House. Clifton Park, Bristol 

Chance, T. H., " Journal" Office. Gloucester 

Chanter, A. H., Bradley Court, Wotton-under-Edge 

Chamberlin, James, Painswick Lodge, Cheltenham 

Cheeseman, Rev. A. H., Hopewell House, Gloucester 

Cheetham, Joshua Milne, Eyford Park, Bourton-on-the-Water, R.S.O. 

Cheltenham Free Public Library, Librarian Mr. W. Jones 

Chilton, George Horace David. North Point, Durdham Park, Bristol 
Christian, Admiral, Heigthorne. The Park, Cheltenham 
Church A. H., M.A., F.R.S., Shelsley, Kew, Surrey 
Clarke, Alfred Alex., Wells, Somerset 

* Clark, George T., F.S.A., Talygarn, Llantrissant 
Clark, Rev. Thomas E., M. D., Ballargue, Peel, Isle of Man 
Clarke, Bev. Canon, D.D., Bishop's House, Clifton, Bristol 
Clarke, John A. Graham, Frocester, Stonehouse 

Clifton College Library 

* Clifford, The Hon. and Rt. Rev. Bishop, Bishop's House, Clifton, Bristol 
Cockshotfc, Miss, Hazlehurst, Ross 

Collier, Col. James A., Stanley Hall. Stonehouse 

Collins, J. C, M.D., Steanbridge House, Slad, Stroud 

Collins, Thomas, The Cross, Tewkesbury 

Cook, Francis, M.D., 1, Suffolk Lawn, Cheltenham 

Cook, Surgeon General, H.N.D., Prior's Mesne, Lydney 

Cooke, W. IL, Q.C., F.S.A., 42, Wimpole Street, London 

Cornock, Nicholas, 152, Loughborough Park, London, S.W. 

Cornford, Rev. Edward, M.A., Etchowe. Lansdown Road, Cheltenham 

Cornwall, Rev. Alan Kingscote, M.A. Ashcroft, Wotton-under-Edge 

Cottemold Natuml'ists Field Club, Hon. Sec, E. Wetherad, Esq. 4, St. 

Margaret's Terrace, Cheltenham, Hon. Member 
Cowley, Charles, L.L.D., 12 Middle Street, Lowell. Massachusetts, U.S.A. , 
Crawley-Boevey, A., c/o Grindley & Co. 55, Parliament Street, London 


Crawley-Boevey, Sir T. H., Bart., Flaxley Abbey, Newnham 

Crawley-Boevey, Rev. R., M.A., Doynton Rectory, Bath 

Cripps, Wilfred, C.B., F.S.A., Barrister-at-Law, Cirencester 

Croggan, Edmund. 4, Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Croome, T. L., 50 Pall Mall, London, S.W. 

Cruddas, C. J., Oakfield, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

Cullimore, J., Friars, Chester 

Cullis, F. J., F.G.S., Tuffley, Gloucester 

Dale, Henry F. 

Dancey, Charles Henry, (->, Midland Road, Gloucester 
Davenport-Hill, Miss Florence, 25, Belsize Avenue, London, N.W. 
Davies, Rev. John Silvester, M.A., F.S.A., Vicarage, Enfield Highway, 

*Davies, Rev. W. H. Silvester, M.A., St. Paul's Vicarage, Gloucester 

Davis, Major Charles E., F.S.A., 55, Gt. Pulteney Street, Bath 

Davis, William B.A., L.L.D.. St. Germains, Cheltenham 

Davis, Cecil Tudor, The Court House, Painswick 

D'Argent, Edward Augustus, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

De Paravicini, Rev. F., Avening Rectory, Stroud 

De Saumarez, F. B., 5, Queen's Parade, Cheltenham 

De Ferrieres, Baron, Bayshill House, Cheltenham 

Dening, Edwin, Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wolcl. Glos. 

Derham, Henry, Sneyd Park. Bristol 

Derham, Walter, M.A., F.G.S., 7<>, Lancaster Gate. W. 

Dighton, Conway, St. Julian's, Cheltenham 

Dobell, C. Faulkner, Whittington Court, Andoversford, Cheltenham 
Dobell, Clarence Mason, The Grove, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Doggett, Hugh Greenfield. 30, Richmond Terrace, Clifton 
Dolman, G. T. C, St. Mary's Hill, Inchbrook, Stroud 

* D'Ombrain, Rev. H., M.A., Farhill House, Stroud 
Dominican Priory, Rev. Prior of, Woodchester, Stonehouse 

* Dorington, Sir J. E., Bart M.A., M.P., Lypiatt Park. Stroud 
Drew, Joseph, M.D., Montrose, Battledown, Cheltenham 


Ducie, The Right Hon. the Earl of, P.O., P.R.S.,Tortworth, Wotton- 

* Dyer-Edwardes, Thomas, Prinknash Park, Painswick, Stroud 

Eager, Reginald, M.D., Northwoods, Winterbourne, Bristol 
Eberle, J. F., 96. Pembroke Road, Clifton 

Edwards, Sir George W., Sea-wall Villas, Sneyd Park, Bristol 

* Ellacombe, Rev. Canon H. N., M.A. . Vicarage, Bitton, Bristol 
Ellett, Robert, Oakley Cottage. Cirencester 

Ellicott, A. B. The Culls, Stroud 

Ellis, T. S., 6, Clarence Street, Gloucester 

Emeris, Rev. John, M.A., 5, Marlborough Buildings, Bath 

Emeris, Rev. William, 6, Gordon Place, Campden Hill, Kensington, 

London, W. 
Epps, Miss M. E., Moreton-in-Marsh, Glos. 
Evans, J. B., 20, Lansdown Crescent, Cheltenham 
Eykyn, Rev. Pitt, St. Augustine's Vicarage, Berkeley Square, Bristol 

Fawcett, Miss E. G., Painswick, Stroud 

Fawn, James, 18, Royal Promenade. Queen's Road, Bristol 

Fear, W. Lyne, 9, South Parade, Clifton 

Fendick, R. G., 3 Claremont Place, St. Paul's Road, Clifton 

Fen wick, Rev. J. E. A., M.A., Thirlestaine House. Cheltenham 

Firth, Rev. E. H., Mitcheldean Rectory, Glos. 

* Fisher, Major C. Hawkins. The Castle, Stroud 
"Flower, Edgar, The Hill. Stratford-on-Avon 

Foljambe, Cecil G. S., F.S.A., M.P., Cockglode, Ollerton, Newark 
Flux, Edward HitchingS, 144, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

* Forbes, Col. G. H. A., RA., Rockstowes, Dursley 
Foster, R. G., 2, Spa Villas, Gloucester 

* Fox, Alderman Francis Frederick, Yate House, Chipping Sodbury 
Fox, Charles Henry, M.D., The Beeches, Brislington. Bristol 
Foxcroft, E. T. D., D.L.. Hinton Charterhouse, Bath 

Francis, G. Carwardine, St. Tewdric, Chepstow 
Fry, Francis J., Eversley, Leigh Woods, Bristol 
Fry, Lewis, M.P., Goldney House, Clifton. Bristol 
Fryer, A. C, Cornwallis Lodge, Clifton 
Fuller, Rev. E. A.. M.A.. Stoughton Grange. Guildford 

Gael, E. C, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

Gaisford, Rev. Thomas Amyas, M. A., 2, Devonshire Place. Wells Road, Bath 

Gallenga, Antonio. The Fall, Llandogo, Coleford 

George, C. E. A., Henbury Hill. Westbury-on-Trym. Bristol 

George, Rev. P. E., M.A.* St. Winifred's, Bath 

George, W. E., Downside, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

George, William, St. Wulfstens, Durdham Park, Bristol 

Gibbs, H- Martin, Barrow Court, Flax-Bourton, Somerset 

Giller, William Thomas, 1 6, Tisbury Road, Hove. Brighton 

Gloucester, The Very Rev. The Dean of. The Deanery, Gloucester 

Gloucester, The Worshipful the Mayor and Corporation of. c/o G. S 

Blakeway, Esq., Guildhall, Gloucester 
Godman, E. T., Banksfee, Moreton-in-Marsh 
Godwin, J. G., 15, St. George's Row. Pimlico. London. S.W. 
Green- Army tage, A., l(i, Apsley Road. Clifton 
Green, Rev. J. F., M.A., Whiteshill, Stroud 

Greenfield, Benjamin Wyatt, F.S.A., 4, Cranbury Terrace, Southampton 
Gresley, The Rev. Nigel W., M.A., The Rectory, Dursley 
Grist, William Charles. Brookside. Chalford. Stroud 


Haddon John. Clarefield. Cheltenham 
Hallett, W. E. S., Kenwick House, Selsley. Stroud 
Hale, C. B., Claremont House, London Road. Gloucester 
Hale, Major Gen. Robert, Alderley, Wotton-under-Edge 
Hales, J, B. J., The Close, Norwich 

* Hall, Rev. J. M., M.A., The Rectory, Harescombe, Stroud 
Hall, Rev. R., M.A.. Saul Vicarage. Stonehouse 

Hall. Charles E., 17, Wellington Park, Clifton 

Hallen, Rev. A. W. Cornelius. M.A.. The Parsonage, Alloa N.B. 

* Hallett, Palmer, M.A., Claverton Lodge, Bath 
Hallett, Mrs., Claverton Lodge, Bath 
Harding, E. B., 21, Great George Street. Bristol 
Harding, Rev. John Taylor, M.A., Pentwyn, Monmouth 
Harding, Thomas, Wick House. Brislington. Bristol 

Harford, William Henry. Oldown, Almondsbury, Gloucestershire 
Harford, Edmund, 14, Pi-iory Street, Cheltenham 

* Hartland, Ernest, M.A., F.S.A.. Hardwicke Court. Chepstow, (Hon. 

Member,) (Hon. Treasurer.) 
Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A., Barnwoocl Court, Gloucester 
Harvard College, U.S.A.. c/o Triibner & Co.. Ludgate Hill. London 
Harvey, Rev. W. H. Peyton, M.A., The Vicarage, Chipping Sodbury 
Harvey, Edward, 26, Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol 
Harvey, John, Glenside, Leigh Woods. Clifton, Bristol 
Hasluck, Rev. E.. M.A., Little Sodbury, Chipping Sodbury 
Hayman Charles A., 17, Victoria Square, Clifton 
Hayward, Venerable Archdeacon. The Vicarage, Cirencester 

* Heane, William C, The Lawn, Cinderford 

Heberden, H. B., 14, Gloucester Place, Portman Square, London, W. 
Heffernan. Surgeon-General. Eton Villa, The Park, Cheltenham 
Helps, Arthur S., Gloucester 

Hemming, Rev. B. F., M.A., Bishop's Cleeve Rectory. Cheltenham 
Henly, E. H., Wotton-under-Edge. 
Herapath, Howard M., 40 Royal Park, Clifton 
Hill, Charles, Clevedon Hall, Somerset 
Hilliard, Rev. J. A. S., Tidenham Vicarage, Chepstow 
Holbrow, Rev. Thomas. B.A.. Sandhurst Rectory, Gloucester 
Holmes a Court, Hon. Mrs. , Chesterfield Place, Clifton 
Howard, Edward Stafford. The Castle, Thornbury 

Howell, Rev. W. C, M.A., Holy Trinity Vicarage, Tottenham, London, N. 

* Hudd, Alfred E., F.S.A., 94. Pembroke Road. Clifton. Bristol 
Hughes, W. W., Downfield Lodge, Clifton, Bristol 

* Hyett, F. A., Painswick House, Painswick 

Isacke Miss, Stratford Abbey College, near Stroud 

* Jacques. Thomas W., The Firs, Downencl, near Bristol 

* James, Francis, F.S.A., Edgeworth Manor, Cirencester 
James, Rev. H. A., B.TX, Cheltenham College, Cheltenham 
Jefferies, A. G. W., Ash Lodge, Pucklechurch. near Bristol 
Jefferies, James E. , Yeo Bank. Congresbury, Bristol 
Jenkins, R. Palmer, Sedbury Park, Chepstow 

Jennings, Rev. A. C, M.A., King's Stanley Rectory, Stonehouse 
Jones, Brynmor, M.P., L.L.B., Woodchester, Stroud 
Judge, Frederick, 90, Richmond Road, Montpellier, Bristol 

* Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., Stanley Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham, 

(President of Council) 
Keble, Rev. George C, St. Catherine's Vicarage, Gloucester 
Keble, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Bisley Vicarage, Stroud 


Keeling-, George Baker, Severn House, Lydney 

* Keeling, George William, 10 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham 
Kempson, F, R.. Birchyfield, Bromyard, Worcestershire 

Kerr. Russell J.. The Haie, Newnham 
King, Miss, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol 
Kitcat, Rev. D., M.A., Weston Birt Rectory, Tetbury 
Knowles, Mrs,, Hempsted Court, Gloucester 
Kynnersley, T. S., Leighton Hall, Ironbridge, Salop 

Lang. Robert. 18, Marlborough Buildings. Bath 
Langley, A. F., Golding, Peterstow-super-Ely, Cardiff 
Latimer, John, 3, Trelawney Road. Bristol 
Lavicount. S. W., Elm Villa. Cheltenham 

* Le Blanc, Arthur, Prestbury House, near Cheltenham 

* Leigh. William, Woodchester Park, Stonehouse 

Leigh, E. Egerton, Broadwell Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold 
Lewis, Archibald M., Upper Byron Place. Clifton, Bristol 
Lewis, Harold, B.A.. "Mercury " Office, Bristol 

Lindsay. W. A..M.A.. F.S.A., Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms, 17, Cromwell 

Road. South Kensington, London. S.W. 
Little, E. Caruthers, Field Place, Pakenhill. Stroud 
Little, E. P., Lansdown, Stroud 

Little. Brown and Co., Boston, TJ.S A., c/o Sampson, Low and Co., Fetter 

Lane, London, E.C. 
Liverpool Free Library 

Llewellin, John, Elgin Park, Redland, Bristol 

London Library, 12, St. James' Square, London 

Long, Col.. William, Woodlands, Congresbury. R.S.O.. East Somerset 

Low, Charles Hoskins, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol 

Lowe, C. J. . 8 St. Stephen's Street, Bristol 

Lower, Nynian H., Olveston, Almondsbury 

Loveridge, P. B., 12 Victoria Terrace. Cheltenham 

* Lucy, William C, F-G.S-, Brookthorpe, Gloucester 
Lynes. Rev. W., M.D., Cinderford Vicarage, Newnham 
Lysaght. John, Springfort, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

Maclaine, Wm. Osborne, D.L., Kineton, Thornbury 

* Maclean, Sir John, F.S.A.. F.R.S.A., Glasbury House, Richmond Hill 

Clifton, Bristol, (Hon. Editor) 
Macpherson, J., Sorrento, San Diego, California, U.S.A. 
Manchester Library, Manchester 
Margetson. William, Brightside, Stroud 
Marling, Capt. Walter B., Clanna, Lydney 
Marling, Stanley, Stanley Park, Stroud 
Marrs, Kingsmill, c/o Baring Bros., Bankers, London 

* Martin A. T., M.A., 10 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Master, Rev. G. S., M.A., Bourton Grange, Flax Bourton, R.S.O., Somerset 

Master, Mrs. Chester, The Abbey, Cirencester 

May, Arthur C, Avon House, Sneyd Park, near Bristol 

Meadway, G., South Lawn, The Park, Cheltenham 

* Medland, Henry, Kingsholm, Gloucester 
Meredith, W. Lewis, 7, Midland Road, Gloucester 
Merrick, Frank. 7, Hughenden Road, Clifton, Bristol 

* Middleton, J. H., M.A.. F.S.A., King's College, Cambridge 
Middlemore-Whithard, Rev. T. M., M.A.. Upton Helion Rectory, Crediton, 


Mills, H. Hamilton, The Field, Stroud 
Mills, John, 27, Archibald Street, Gloucester 


Mitford, A. B., Freeman, C.B., Batsforcl Park, Moreton-in-Marsh 

Monk, C. J., 5. Bucking-ham G-ate, London. S.W. 

Morgan. Miss, Cherith Lodge, Clifton 

Morris, R. G-roves, 5 Beaufort Buildings, Spa, Gloucester 

Mott, Albert J., F.G.S., Detmore, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

Mugliston, Rev. J., M.A., Newick House, Cheltenham 

MullingS, John, Cirencester 

Nash, Rev. Canon R. S., M. A.. Old Sodbury, Chipping Sodbury 
* New, Herbert. Green Hill. Evesham 
Norman, George, Alpha House. Bavshill, Cheltenham 
Norman George, 12, Brock Street, Bath 

O'Connell. Major Gen., Battledown View, Cheltenham 

O'Fflahertie, Rev. T. R. , M.A. . Capel Vicarage, Dorking, Surrey 

Oman, C. W. C, M.A., F.S.A..A11 SouFs College, Oxford 

Owen, Rev. Richard Trevor, M.A., F.S.A., Llangeclwyn, Oswestry, Salop 

Palmer. Rev. Feilding, M. A., Eastcliffe, Chepstow 

Parker. Rev. Canon Charles J.. M. A.. Upton Cheney, Bristol 

Pass, Alfred. The Holmes. Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

Paul, Alfred H., The Close, Tetbury 

Pellew, F. L., Rodney House, Clifton 

Perceval, Cecil H. Spencer. Henbury, Bristol 

Percival, E. H., Kimsbury House, Gloucester 

* Perkins, Vincent R., Wotton-under-Edge 

Phillimore, W. P.W., M. A., B.C.L., 124, Chancery Lane, London 
Philips, Miss, Hazelhurst, Ross 

Philp, Gapt. J. Lamb, Pendoggett, Timsbury, Bath 

Pitcairn, Rev. D. Lee, MA. Monkton Combe Vicarage, Bath 

Pitt, Theophilus, 113. Minories, London, E.C. 

Playne. Arthur T.. Longfords, Minchinhampton 

Piatt, James, Somerset Villa, Gloucester 

Ponting Albert, Pincott, Upton St. Leonards, Gloucester 

Ponting, C. E., F.S.A., Lockeridge, Marlborough, Wilts 

* Pope, T. S.. 3 Unity Street, College Green, Bristol 

Power, Edward, F.S.A., 16, Southwell Gardens, London, S.W. 
Poynton, Rev. Francis John, M.A., Kelston Rectory, Bath 

* Prankerd, P. D., The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
Pritchard, J. E., Guy's Cliff, Sydenham Road. Bristol 
Pritchard, Augustin, F.R.C.S., 4, Chesterfield Place, Clifton, Bristol 
Protheroe, Frank, 11, Alfred Place West, Thurloe Square, London, S.W. 
Pryce, Bruce, A. C, Abbeyholme, Overton Road, Cheltenham 

* Reynolds, John, Bristol 

Ringer. Surgeon-General, 20 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham 
Robinson, fin. Le Fleming, Hillesley House, Wotton-under-Edge 
Rogers, William Frederick, Tetbury 

Rogers, Lieut.-Col. R., Fern Clyffe, Battledown, Cheltenham 
Rome, T., Charlton House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Rowe J. Brooking, F.S.A., Castle Barbican, Plympton, Devon 

* Royce, Rev. David, M.A., Nether Swell Vicarage, Stow-on-the-Wold 

Sadler, G. W., Keynsham Villa, Cheltenham 

Salmon, Lieut. Col. H. W., Tockington Manor, Almsbury, Gloucestershire 
Saunders, Joshua, Sutton House, Clifton Down, Bristol 


Science and Art Department, South Kensington Museum, London, S.W. 

Scott, Charles, Lennox House, Spa, Gloucester 

Selwyn, Rev. E. J., M.A., Pluekley Rectory, Ashford, Kent 

Sessions, Frederick, F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S.. Russell House, Gloucester 

Sewell, Edward C., Elmlea, Stratton, Cirencester 

Seys, Godfrey, The Old House, Chepstow 

Sibbald, J. G. E., Accountant General's Office, Admiralty, London 

Shaw, J. E., M.B., 23, Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol 

Shaw, Rev, George F. E., M.A., Edgeworth Rectory, Cirencester 

Sherborne, R.t. Hon. Lord, 9, St. James' Square, London, S.W. 

Shum, Frederick, F.S.A., 17 Norfolk Crescent, Bath 

Simpson, J. J., Lynwood, Cotham Gardens. Bristol 

Skrine, Henry Duncan, Claverton Manor, Bath 

Smith, T. Sherwood, F.S.S., The Pjnes, Keynsham, Bristol 

Smith, Thomas Somerville, M.D., Sittingbourne, Kent 

Smith, Alfred Edward, The Hollies. Nailsworth 

Smith, Richard Henry, Grigshot, near Stroud 

Smith, W. H. Seth, 46, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, W.C. 

Smithe, Rev. F., L.L.D., Churchdown Vicarage, Gloucester 

Smyth, Rev. Christopher, Bussage Vicarage, Stroud 

Smyth, Col., Theescombe House, Stroud 

Sneyd, Rev. G. A., Chastleton Rectory, Moreton-in-Marsh 

Society of Merchant Venturers. Bristol 

Sommerville, William, Bitton Hill, near Bristol 

Stackhouse, Rev. J. Lett. The Chantry, Berkeley 

Stanton, Charles Holbrow, M.A., 65, Redcliffe Gardens, London, S. W. 

Stanton, Walter John, Cooper's Hill, Stroud 

Stanton, J. Y., The Leaze, Stonehouse 

Stanton, Rev. Canon, M.A.. Haselton Rectory, Cheltenham 

Stephens, Albert J. , Clovelly, Wotton Hill. Gloucester 

Stone, John, 12, Royal Crescent. Bath 

Strickland, Edward, c/o 13 Victoria Square. Clifton 

Strickland, Algernon, Apperley Court, Tewkesbury 

Swayne, Joseph Griffiths, M.D.. 74. Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Swayne, Miss, 129, Pembroke Road, Clifton. Bristol 

* Swayne, S. H., 129, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Symonds, Rev. W., M.A., Frocester Vicarage, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Tait, C. W. A., M.A., College Gate, Clifton College, Clifton, Bristol 
Tagart, Francis, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Old Sneyd Park, Bristol 

* Taylor, John, Bristol City Librarian, 37, Clyde Road, Bristol 
Taylor, Rev. 0. S., MA-, 1, Guinea Street, Redcliffe, Bristol 

* Taylor, Robert, Edge House, Stroud 
Thomas, Arnold, Severn Bank, jNewnham 

* Thomas, Christopher James, Drayton Lodge, Durdham Park, Bristol 
Thompson, Rev. H. L., M.A., Radley College, Abingdon, Berks. 
Thorpe Thomas, Hilldrop, Gloucester 

Thursby, Piers, Broadwell Hill, Stow-on-the-Wold 
Tomes, R. F., South House, Littleton, Evesham 
Townsend, Charles, St. Mary's, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 
Trenfield, J. D. B., Hill House, Chipping Sodbury 
Trusted, Charles J., Sussex House, Pembroke Road, Clifton 
Tuckett, Francis Fox, F.R.G.S., Frenchay, Bristol 
Tuckett, Frank C. , 2 Osborne Road, Clifton 
Tuckett, Richard C., 4 Exchange Buildings, East, Bristol 
Tudway, Clement, Cecily Hill, Cirencester 
Turner, A. M. Sydney, Barton Street, Gloucester 
Turner, T. 

Twells, The Right Rev. Bishop, D.D., Pembroke Gate, Clifton, Bristol 

*Vassar-Smith, R. Vassar, Charlton Park, Cheltenham 

Viner, Rev. A. W. Ellis, B.A., Badgeworth Vicarage, Cheltenham 

Vizard. Major Gen., Enderby House. Dursley 

Venner, Capt. The Reddings. Stonehouse, Glos. 

Wadley, Rev. T. P., M.A., Naunton Beauchamp Rectory, Pershore, Hon. 

Waldy, Rev. J. E., B.A., Claverton Rectory, Bath 

Walker, General Sir C. P. Beauchamp, K.C.B., 97. Onslow Square. 

London. S.W. 
Walker, C. B., Wotton, Gloucester 

* Waller, Frederick S., F.R.I.B.A., 18, College Green, Gloucester 
Warren, Robert Hall. 9, Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Webb, R. B,, Down House, Ashley Down. Bristol 
Wedmore, E., M.D., 11, Richmond Hill. Clifton 
Wenden, James Gordon. Dursley 
Weston, Sir J. D., M.P., Dorset House, Clifton, Bristol 
Wethered, Charles, West Grange, Stroud 

Wethered, Joseph. Heatherfield, The Avenue. Clifton. Bristol 

Wheeler, A. C, Upton Hill. Gloucester 

Whitwill, Mark. Linthorpe, Tyndalls Park, Bristol 

* Wiggin, Rev. William, M.A.. Hampnett Rectory, Northleach 
Williams, Oliver, Battledown House. Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Williams, Rev. Augustin. Todenham Rectory. Moreton-in-Marsh 
Wilkinson, Rev. L., Westbury-on-Severn, Newnham, Glos. 
Wills, Frederick, Heath Lodge, Hampsteacl Heath. London. N.W 
Wingfield, E. Ehys, Barrington Park. Burford 

Wintle, Charles, Queen Square, Bristol 

Winwood, Rev. H. H., M.A., FGS , 1 1. Cavendish Crescent. Bath 
Wiseman, Rev. H. J.. M.A., Clifton College. Clifton. Bristol 

* Witchell, Charles A., The Acre, Stroud 
Witchell. E. Northam, The Acre, Stroud 

* Witts, G. B., C.E., Hill House. Leckhampton, Cheltenham 

* Witts, Rev. F. E. Broome. M.A., Upper Slaughter. Bourton-on-the-Water 


Wood. Walter B.. Denmark Road. Gloucester 
Woodward. J. H., 2, Windsor Terrace. Clifton. Bristol 
Wright, J., Stonebridge. Bristol 

Yabbicom, Lieut.-Col.. C.E., 23, Oakfield Road, Clifton. Bristol 
Yatman. William Hamilton Highgrove. Tetbury 

Zachary. Henry, Cirencester 

Literary Societies, exchanging Transactions with this Society— 

The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, The Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne 
The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House. Piccadilly, 
London, W. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Royal Institution, Edinburgh 
The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Oxford 

Mansions, Oxford Street, London, W. 
The British Archaeological Association, 32 Sackville Street, London 


The Birmingham & Midland Institute, Archaeological Section 

The Clifton Antiquarian Club, Hon. Sec. A. E. Hudd, Esq., F.S.A., 94, 

Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
The Cambrian Archaeological Society, Hon. Sec, Rev. R. Trevor Owen, 

M.A.. F.S.A., Llangedwyn, Oswestry. Salop 
The Cotteswold Field Club. Hon. Sec, Edward Wethered, Esq., 5, Berkeley 

Place, Cheltenham 
The Royal Institution of Cornwall. Museum, Truro, Cornwall 
The Royal Society of Antiquaries, (Ireland) Dublin 
The Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Derby 
The Essex Archaeological Society, Colchester, Essex 
The Kent Archaeological Society. Museum, Maidstone, Kent 
The Powys Land Club, Museum and Library, Welshpool 
The Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Castle, 


The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Hon. Sec. The 

Rev. F. Haslewood. F.S.A.. S. Matthew's Rectory, Ipswich, Suffolk 
The Surrey Archaeological Society. Hon. Sec. Mill Stephenson. Esq., B.A., 

F. S.A.. 8 Danes Inn, Strand, W.C. 

The Sussex Archaeological Society. Lewes. Sussex 

The William Salt Archaeological Society, Stafford. Hon. Sec. Major Gen. 

The Hon. G. Wrottesley 
The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Devizes, Wilts 
The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association, Hon. Sec. 

G. W. Tomlinson. Esq., F.S.A.. The Elms, Huddersfield 


Those who are desirous of joining- the Society, can be admitted, after 
election by the Council, on the following- conditions : 

I. As Life Members, for a Composition of £5 5s., and an Admission 

Fee of 10s. 6d. which will entitle them to receive gratuitously 
for life, the annual volumes of Transactions of the Society that 
may be issued after the date of payment. 

II. As Annual Members, upon payment of 10s. 6d. Entrance Fee. and 

an annual subscription of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to 
receive gratuitously, the annual volumes of Transactions for 
every year for which their subscriptions are paid. 

The annual subscription becomes due on the 22nd of April, and the 
Treasurer. Mr. Ernest Hartland, will be obliged if mem- 
bers will send their subscriptions to him at Hardwicke Court 

By order of Council, the Transactions of the Society are only issued 
to those Members who have paid their subscriptions for the 
corresponding year. 

Application for admission as Members to be made to the Rev. W. 
Bazeley, M. A., Matson Rectory. Gloucester, Honorary Secretary. 


Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. (Hellier Gosselin, Esrq., 

Oxford Mansion, Oxford Street, W.) 
British Archaeological Association. (W. de Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., British Museum, 

W.C., and E. P. Loftus Brock, Esq., F.S.A., 36, Great Russell Street, W.C.) 
The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. (Robert Cochrane, Esq., F.S.A., 

Ratngar, Dublin.) 

Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. (Dr. Isambard Owen, M.A., 5, Hertford Street, 

W., and Alfred Nutt, Esq., 270, Strand, W.C.) 
Huguenot Society of London. (Reginald S. Faber, Esq., M.A., 10, Oppidans Road, 

Primrose Hill, N.W.) 

Society for Preserving Memorials of the Dead. (W.Vincent, Esq., Belle View Rise, 
Hillesdon Road, Norwich. 

Berkshire Archaeological Society. (Rev. P. H. Ditchfield. M.A., F.S.A., Athenaeum, 

Friar Street, Reading.) 
Birmingham and Midland Institute (Archaeological Section). (Alfred Hayes, Esq., 


Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. (Rev. W. Bazeley, M.A., Matson 
Rectory, Gloucester.) 

Bucks Architectural and Archaeological Societ}'. (John Parker, Esq., F.S.A., 

Desborough House, High Wycombe.) 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society. (N. C. Hardcastle, Esq., LL.D , F.S.A., Downing 

College, Cambridge.) 

Chester Archaeological and Historical Society. (T. J. Powell, Esq., 14, Newgate 
Street, Chester.) 

Cornwall, Royal Institution of. (Major Parkyn, F.G.S., 40, Lemon Street, Truro.) 
Cumberland and Westmoreland Archaeological and Architectural Society. (T. Wilson, 

Esq., Aynam Lodge, Kendal.) 
Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. (Arthur Cox, Esq., M.A., 

Mill Hill, Derby.) 

Essex Archaeological Society. (H. W. King, Esq., Leigh Hill, Leigh, Essex.) 
Hampshire Field Club. (W. Dale, Esq., F.G.S., 5, Sussex Place, Southampton.) 
Kent Archaeological Society. (G. Payne, Esq., F.S.A., Rochester.) 
Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society. (G. C. Yates, Esq., F.S.A., Swinton, 

Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society. (W. J. Freer, Esq., 10, New 
Street, Leicester.) 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. (Charles Welch, Esq., F.S.A., Guild- 
hall, E.C., and M. Pope, Esq., F.S.A., 8, Dane's Inn, W.C.) 

Maidenhead and Taplow Field Club. (James Rutland, Esq., The Gables, Taplow.) 

Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society. (Rev. C. R. Manning, M.A., F.S.A.. 
Diss, Norfolk.) 

Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. (Percy Manning, Esq., North End, 

Oxfordshire Archaeological Society. (Rev. W. D. Macray, M.A., F.S.A., Ducklington 
Rectory, Witney, and G. Loveday, Esq., J. P., Manor House, Wordington.) 

St. Albans Architectural and Archaeological Society. (Rev. H. Fowler, M.A., Lemsford 
Road, St. Albans.) 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. (Fraxc Goyne, Esq., 

Dogpole, Shrewsbury.). 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. (C. J. Turner, Esq., 


Surrey Archaeological Society. (Mill Stephenson, Esq., B.A., F.S.A., 8, Dane's Inn, 
Strand, W.C.) 

Sussex Archaeological Society. (H. Griffith, Esq., F.S.A., 47, Old Steyne, Brighton.) 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. (H. E. Medlicott, Esq., 

Potterne, Devizes, and Rev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Wootton Bassett.) 
Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club (Hereford). (H. Cecil Moore, Esq., 26, Broad 

Street, Hereford.) 

Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association. (G. W. Tomlinson, Esq., 
F.S.A., Wood Field, Huddersfield.) 

The Congress has also issued a 


giving suggestions as to transcriptions, &c., and a list of 
printed registers and transcripts. 

Copies may be had from the Secretary of the 
Congress, W. H. St. John Hope, Esq., Burlington 
House, London, W. Price 6d. each. 


IN 1891. 

Abercromby (Hon. J.). An Amazonian custom in the Caucasus. 

Folklore, ii. 171-181. 

■ Magic songs of the Finns. Folklore, ii. 31-49. 

Samoan Stories. Folklore, ii. 455-467. 

Acland-Troyte (Capt. J. E., M.A.). The harmonies contrived by 

Nicholas Ferrar at Little Gidding. Archceologia, li. 189-204, 


Adamson (Horatio A.). Tynemouth Castle; the Eve of the 

Commonwealth. Arch. JEliana, KS. xv. 218-224. 
Alford (Rev. D. P.). Inscribed Stones in the Vicarage Garden, 

Tavistock. Devon Assoc. xxii. 229-233. 
Allen (F. J.). A Photographic Survey of Somerset. Froc. 

Somerset Arch, and N. H. Soc. xxxvii. pt. 2, 100-105. 
Allen (J. R.) Early Christian sculptured stones of the West 

Riding of Yorkshire. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvii. 156-171, 


A mediaeval thurible found at Penmaen in Gower. 

Arch. Cambrensis, 5th S. viii. 161-165. 
Andr6 (J. L., F.S.A.). Symbolic Animals in English Art and 

Literature. Arch. Jour, xlviii. 210-240. 
« Mural Paintings ia Sussex Churches. Sussex Arch. 

Collns. xxxviii. 1-20. 
! West Grinstead Church and recent discoveries in that 

edifice. Sussex Arch. Collns. xxxviii. 46-59. 
Andrews (S.). Sepulchral slabs at Monk Sherbor ne. Hants Field 

Club, ii. 135-139. 
Arnold (Rev. F. H., M.A., LL.B.). Memoirs of Mrs. Old field, 

&c. Sussex Arch. Collns. xxxviii. 83-98. 
Atkinson (T. D.). House of the Veysy family in Cambridge. 

Froc. Cambridge Antiq. Soc. vii. 93-L03. 


Baber (Rev. H.). The parish of Ramsbury, Wiltshire. Jour. 

Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvii. 139-145. 
Bagnall-Oakeley (Mrs.). Round Towers. Proc. Clifton Antiq. 

Olub, 142-151. 

Monumental Effigies of the Berkeley family. Trans. 

Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc. xv. 89-102. 
Baildon (W. Paley). The EllandFeud. Yorks Arch, and Tojoog. 

Jour. xi. 128-130. 
Baleour (Mrs. M. C). Legends of the Lincolnshire Cars. 

Folklore, ii. 145-170, 257-283, 401-418. 
Banks (R. W.). Lingebrook Priory. Arch. Cambrensis, 5th S. 

viii. 185-189. 

Barker (W. R.). Monuments, Ac, in the Mayor's Chapel, 

Bristol. Trans. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc. xv. 76-88. 
Barnes (Henry, M.D., F.R.S.E.). Quarter Sessions Orders 

relating to the Plague in the county of Durham in 1665. 

Arch. Mliana, KS. xv. 18-22. 
Barrow-in-Furness (Lord Bp. of). On a sculptured wooden 

figure at Carlisle. Trans. Guinb. and Westm. Antiq. and Arch. 

Soc. xii. 234-236. 
Barry (Rev. Edmond). Fifteen Ogham inscriptions recently dis- 
covered at Ballyknock in the barony of Kinnatalloon, county 

Cork. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. i. 514-535. 
Batten (John). Additional notes on Barrington and the Strodes. 

Proc. Somerset Arch, and N. H. Soc. xxxvii. pt. 2. 40-43. 
Bax (A. R.). The Church Registers and parish account books of 

Ockley. Surrey Arch. Soc. x. 20-78. 
Notes and extracts from a memorandum book of 

.Nicholas Carew (afterwards first Baronet of Beddington). 

I70f-1708. Surrey Arch. Soc. x. 255-273. 
Muster roll of troops raised in Surrey to be employed in 

the Low Countries, 1627. Surrey Arch. Soc. x. 280-282. 
Beddoe (John, M.D., F.R.S.). Inaugural Address — An apology 

for Archaeology. Trans. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc. xv. 


Bell (E. F.). Carlisle medals of the '45. Trans. Gumb. and 

Westm. Antiq. and Arch. Soc. xii. 42-50. 
Bellairs (Col. Gr. C). Hallaton Church, Leicestershire, and 

recent discoveries there. Trans. Leic. A. and A. Soc. vii. 


Beloe (E. M., F.S.A.). The Great Fen Road and its rath to the 
Sea. Proc. Cambridge Antiq. Soc. vii. 112-130. 




Beloe (E. M., F.S.A.). The Mortuary or Absolution Cross. 

Norfolk Archaeology, xi, 303-319. 
Bensly (W. T., LL.D., F.S.A.). On some sculptured alabaster 

panels in Norwich. Norfolk Archaeology, xi. 352-358. 
Bent (J. T.). Journey in Cilicia Tracheia. Jour. Hell. Stud. xii. 


Berry (H. "P.). The water supply of ancient Dublin. Boy. Soc. 

Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. i. 557-573. 
Birch (W. De Gray) . Some private grants of armorial bearings. 

Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvii. 323-326. 
Blackmore (H. P., M.D.). On a Barrow near Old Sarum, Wilts. 

Salisbury Field Club, i. 49-51. 
Blakeway (Rev. J. B., M.A.). History of Shrewsbury Hundred 

or Liberties. Trans. Shropshire A. and N. H. S. 2nd S. iii. 


Blanchet (J. A.). Inedited Gold Crown of James Y. with the 
name of John, Duke of Albany. Jour. Numis. Soc. 3rd S. 
xi. 203-204. 

Bolingbroke (L. G.). Pre-Elizabethan Plays and Players in 

Norfolk. Norfolk Archeology, xi. 332-351. 
Boughton (Thomas). Confession and Abjuration of Heresy, 1499. 

Salisbury Field Club, i. 15-18. 
Bourke (Capt. T. G.). The religion of the Apache Indians. 

Folklore, ii. 419-454. 
Bower (Rev. R.). Piscinas in the Diocese of Carlisle. Trans. 

Gumb. and Westm. Antiq. and Arch. Soc. xii. 206-211. 
Boyle (J. R., F.S.A.). Christopher Hunter's copy of Bourne's 

History of Newcastle. Arch. JFliana, N.S. xv. 167-191. 
Bramble (Col. J. R., F.S.A.). Ancient Bristol Documents — VIIL 

Three Civil War Retournes. Proc. Clifton Antiq. Club, ii. 


Brewer (H. B.). Churches in the neighbourhood of Cleves. 

Trans. E.I.B.A., N.S. vii. 301-319. 
Bridgeman (Hon. and Rev. G. T. O.). Supplt. to History of the 

Manor and Parish of Blymhill, Staffs. Collns. for Hist, of 

Staffordshire (Wm. Salt Arch. Soc), xii. pt. ii. 3-16. 
— ■ Some account of the Family of Forester of Watling 

Street, and now of Willey, co. Salop. Trans. Shropshire A. 

and N. H. S. 2nd S. iii. 151-184. 
Briggs (H. B.). History and characteristics of Plainsong. Trans. 

St. Pauls Feci. Soc. iii. 27-33. 

a 2 



Brock (E. P. Loftus, F.S.A.). Churches of Middlesex. Trans. 

St. Pauls Bed Soc. iii. 21-26. 
Brodrick (Hon. G. C). The ancient buildings and statutes of 

Merton College. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvii. 1—11. 
Brooke (Thos., F.S.A.). Advowson of Roth ei ham Church. Ycrks 

Arch, and Topng. Jour. xi. 202-203. 
Brown (William). Pedes Finium Ebor. temp. Ricardi Primi. 

Yorhs Arch, and Topog. Jour. xi. 174-188. 
Browne (Charles, M.A., F.S.A.). The Knights of the Teutonic 

Order. Trans. St. Pauls Bed. Soc. iii. 1-15. 
Browne (Rev. G. F., B.D., F.S.A.). Stone with Runic inscription 

from Cheshire ; Stone with Ogham inscription ; and an altar 

slab in St. Benet's Church, Cambridge. Proc. Cambridge 

Antiq. Soc. vii. 86-92. 
Browning (A. Gr.), and Kirk (R. E. G.). The early history of 

Battersea. Surrey Arch. Soc. x. 205-254. 
Brownlow (Rey. Canon). St. Willibald, a west country pilgrim of 

the 8th century. Devon. Assoc. xxii. 212-228. 
Brushfield (T. N.). A perforated stone implement found in the 

parish of Withycombe Raleigh. Devon. Assoc. xxii. 208-211. 
Notes on the parish of East Budleigh. Devon. Assoc. xxii. 


Bruton (E. G.). The town walls of Oxford. Jour. Brit. Arclt. 

Assoc. xlvii. 109-119. 
Buckle (Edmund, M.A.). The Old Archdeaconry, Wells. Proc. 

Somerset Arch, and N. H. Soc. xxxvii. pt. 2, 119-126. 
Budge (E. A. Wallis, M.A., F.S.A.). On the Hieratic Papyrus 

of JSTesi-Amsu, a scribe in the temple of Amen-Ra at Thebes, 

c. B.C. 305. Archccologia, Iii. 393-608. 
■ Syriac and Coptic legends of St. George. Proc. Cam- 
bridge Antiq. Soc. vii. 133-135. 
Buick (Rev. G. R.). Fresh facts about prehistoric pottery. Boy. 

Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. i. 433-442. 
■ An ancient wooden trap, probably used for catching 

otters. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. i. 536-541, 
Bulkelet-Owen (Hon. Mrs.). History of the parish of Selattyn, 

Shropshire. Trans. Shropshire A. and N. H. S. 2nd S. iii. 


Bulleid (J. G. L.). The Benefice and Parish Church of Saint 
John the Baptist, Glastonbury. Glastonbury Antiq. Soc. 19-50. 

Burke (H. F.). Funeral certificate of Sir Nicholas Heron, 1568. 
Surrey Arch. Soc. x. 140-142. 


Burnard(R.). Dartmoor Kistvaens. Devon. Assoc. xxii. 200-207. 
C. Scottish Heraldry and Genealogy. Arch. Jour, xlviii. 426- 

Calverley (Rev. W. S., F.S.A.). Fragments of pre-Norman 
Crosses at Workington and Bromfield, and the standing cross 
at Rocliffe. Traits. Oumb. and Westm. Antiq. and Arch. Soc. 
xii. 171-176. 

Bewcastle Cross. Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Antiq. and 

Arch. Soc. xii. 243-246. 
Canham (A. S.). The Archaeology of Crowland. Jour. Brit. Arch. 

Assoc. xlvii. 286-300. 
Carlisle (Bishop of). Opening address of Architectural Section 

at Edinburgh Meeting of the Royal Archaeological Institute. 

Arch. Jour, xlviii. 274-282. 
Cartwright (J. J., F.S.A.). Inventory of the goods of Sir Cotton 

Gargrave, of Nostell, Yorks, in 1588. Yorks Arch, and Topog. 

Jour. xi. 279-286. 
C aye-Browne (Rev. J.). Penenden Heath. Jour. Brit. Arch. 

Assoc. xlvii. 260-267. 
The Abbots of Boxley. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvii. 


Chancellor (F.). Shenfield Church, Essex. Trans. St. Pauls 

Eccl. Soc. iii. vi-vii. 
Chanter (J. R.). Second report of the Committee on Devonshire 

Records. Devon. Assoc. xxii. 59-65. 
Church (Rey. C. M., M.A., F.S.A.). Savaric, Bishop of Bath and 

Glastonbury, 1192-1205. Archceologia, li. 73-106. 
Jocelin, Bishop of Bath, 1206-42. Archwologia, li. 281- 


Roger of Salisbury, 1st Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1244- 

47. Archceologia, Hi. 89-112. 

Clark (G. T., F.S.A.). Annals of the House of Percy ; by E. B. 
de Fonblanque. Yorks Arch, and Top. Jour. xi. 1-16. 

Lands of Henry, Duke of Suffolk, in the manor of 

Lutterworth. Arch. Jour, xlviii. 190-192. 

Clark (Joseph). The finding of King Arthur's remains at Glas- 
tonbury. Glastonbury Antiq. Soc. 1-4. 

Clark (J. W., M.A., F.S.A.). Hammond's map of Cambridge. 
1592. Proc. Cambridge Antiq. Soc. vii. 13-14. 

-— A Consuetudinary of an English house of Black Canons. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xiii. 242-244. 



Clarke (J. F. Mostyn). The Geology of the Bridgwater Railway : 

a brief account of Lias cuttings through the Poeden Hills in 

Somerset. Bath Field Club Proc. vii. 
Claeke (Somees, F.S.A.). Fall of one of the central pillars of 

Seville Cathedral. Trans. B.I.B.A. KS. vii. 169-194. 
Collapse of a portion of the Cathedral Church of Seville. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xiii. 72-81. 
Claekson (S. Flint). The connection of Hitchin with Elstow. 

Trans. St. Albans Arcliit. and Arch. Soc. for 1889, 71-76. 
St. Mary's Church, Hitchin. Trans. St. Albans Archit. 

and Arch. Soc. for 1889, 64-70. 
Stones found in the Abbey Orchard Field, St. Albans. 

Trans. St. Albans Archit. and Arch. Soc. for 1889, 59-63. . 
Clode (C. M., F.S.A.). Sir John Yorke, Sheriff of London (temp. 

Henrv VIII.— Mary). Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xiii. 278- 


Clothier (J. W. C). Roman villas in the neighbourhood of 

Glastonbury. Glastonbury Antiq. Soc. 56-64. 
Cocks (A. H., M.A.). Local Words of S. Bucks, especially the 

Thames Valley. Becords of Bucks, vii. 61-70. 
Codeington (Rev. R. H., D.D.). On the traditional connexion of 

the Sussex and Gloucestershire families of Selwyn. Sussex 

Arch. Collns. xxxviii. 163-165. 
Cooper (Rev. T. S.). The Church plate of Surrey. Surrey Arch. 

Soc. x. 316-368. 

Cosson (Baeon de, F.S.A.). Arsenals and Armourers in Southern 
Germany and Austria. Arch. Jour, xlviii. 117-136. 

Cowpee (H. S., F.S.A.). Bone chessmen and draughtsmen. Arch. 
Jour, xlviii. 194-196. 

The domestic candlestick of iron in Cumberland, 

Westmorland, and Furness. Trans. Gumb. and Westm. Antiq. 
and Arch. Soc. xii. 105-127. 

Hudleston Monuments and Heraldry at Millorn, Cumber- 
land. Trans. Gumb. and Westm. Antiq. and Arch. Soc. xii. 

and Maxwell (Sie H. E., Bart., M.P.). Hardknott 

Castle, Cumberland. Trans. Gumb. and Westm. Antiq. and 
Arch. Soc. xii. 228-233. 
Cox (Rev. J. Chaeles, LL.D., F.S.A.). Benefactions of Thomas 
. Heywood, Dean (1457-1492) to the Cathedral Church " 
Lichfield. Archceologia, lii. 617-646. 



Cox (Rev. J. Charles, LL.D., F.SA.). Sheriffs' precepts for the 
county of Derby, temp. Commonwealth. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd 
S. xiii. 69-72. 

An Anglo-Saxon cemetery near Saxby, Leicestershire. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xiii. 331-335. 

Seal of the Hundred of Langley, Glouc. Trans. Bristol 

and Glouc. Arch. Soc. xv. 390-194. 

Cripps (Wilfred, C.B.. F.S.A.). Bronze grave-chalice from Hex- 
ham Priory Church. Arch. Juliana, KS. xv. 192-194. 

Crisp (E. A.). Surrey Wills. Surrey Arch. Soc. x. 143-]49, 

Grossman (Major-General Sir W.). Recent excavations at Holy 

Island Priory. Berwickshire Nat. Club, xiii. 225-240. 
Chapel of St. Cuthbert in the sea. Berwickshire Nat. 

Club, xiii. 241-242. 
Crowther (H.). The Pozo Pictorial inscribed stone. Boy. Inst. 

Corn. x. 403-417. 
Crowther (G-. P.). A pax penny attributed to Witney. Jour. 

Numis. Soc. 3rd S. xi. 161-163. 
Pennies of William I and William II. Jour. Numis. 

Soc. 3rd S. xi. 25-33. 
Cuming (H. S.). Syllabub and Syllabub vessels. Jour. Brit. Arch. 

Assoc. xlvii. 212-215. 
■ Vessels of Samian Ware. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvii. 


Dartnell (G. E.) and Goddard (Rev. E. H.). Contributions 
towards a Wiltshire Glossary. Wilts Arch, and N. H. Mag. 
xxvi. 84-169. 

Dasent (A. I.). Church Plate in Berks. Quart. Jour. Berks A. 

and A. Soc. ii. 76-82. 
Davey (W. E.). (Bronze) antiquities found near Lampeter. Arch. 

Cambrensis, 5th S. viii. 235. 
Davies (A. M.). Some Norman details in Romsey Abbey. Hants 

Field Club, ii. 8-14. 
Davies-Cooke (T. B.). Ewloe Castle, Flintshire. Arch. Cam- 
brensis, 5 th S. viii. 1-7. 
Davis (C. T.). Monumental Brasses of Gloucestershire. Arch. 

Jour, xlviii. 19-28. 
Davys (Rev. Canon, M.A.). On St. Helen's Church, and the 

ecclesiastical history of Wheathampstead. Trans, St. Albans 

Archit. and Arch. Soc. for 1889, 12-22. 



Day (Robert). Bronze implements (from Ireland). Proc. Soc. 

Antiq. 2nd S. xiii. 225-227. 
On some medals cf tie loyal Irish Volunteers. Hoy. 

Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. i. 450-461. 
1 — An engraved medal of the loyal Irish Callan Volunteers. 

Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. i. 501-592. 
Dillon (Hon. H. A.). A letter of Sir Henry lee, 1590, on the 

trial of Iron for Armour. Archwologia. li. 167-172. 
Arms and Armour at Westminster, the Tower, and 

Greenwich, 1547. Archceologia, li. 219-280. 
— Sword of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. Archceologia^ 

li. 512-513. 

MS. list of Officers of the London Trained Bands in 

1643. Archceologia, lii. 129-144. 
Dixon (D. D.). British burials on the Simonside Hills, Korthumb. 

Arch. JEliana, KS. xv. 23-32. 
- - The Old Coquetdale Volunteers. Arch. JElia:ia, £T.S. 

xv. 64-75. 

-i Old Coquetdale Customs. Salmon Poaching. Arch. 

JEliana, N.S. xv. 144-153. 
Dixon (G. H.) and Noethesk (Lord). Cists and "Urns found at 

Brackenhill, Cumberland. Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Antiq. 

and Arch. Soc. xii. 177-178. 
Doheety (J. J.). Bells, their origin, uses, and inscriptions. Arch. 

Jour, xlviii. 45-64. 
Doherty (W. J.). Some ancient crosses and other antiquities of 

Inishowen, co. Donegal. Iioy. Irish Acad. 3rd S. ii. 100- 


Dollman (F. T.). Priory Church of St. Mary Overie, Southward. 

Trans. E.I.B.A., N.S. vii. 389-397. 
Deedge (J. I.). Devon Bibliography. Devon. Assoc. xxii. 324-356. 
Deew (T.). Surroundings of the Cathedral Church of St. Patrick 

de Insula, Dublin. Hoy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. i. 426- 


Deinkwatee (H.). St. Michael's Church, Oxford. Jour. Brit. 

Arch. Assoc. xlvii. 56-57. 
St. Mary's Church, Iffley. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvii. 


Deinkwatee (Rev. C. H., M.A.). Bailiffs' acconntsof Shrewsbury, 
1275-1277. Trans. Shropshire A. and N. IT. S. 2nd S. iii. 



Drinkwater (Rev. C. H., M.A.). Shrewsbury Tax Roll of 1352. 

Trans. Shropshire A. and N. H. S. 2nd S. iii. 265-274 
Grant of a garden in Murivance, Shrewsbury, by 

John Hoord, 1481 . Trans. Shrophire A. and N. TL. 8. 2nd 

S. iii. 275-280. 

Duckett (Sir G.). Evidences of the Barri family of Manorbeer 
and Olethan with other early owners of the former in Pem- 
brokeshire. Arch. Cambrensis, 5th S. viii, 190-208, 277- 

Ordinance for the better observance of obits, &c, 

throughout Chmiac monasteries. Sussex Arch. Collns. xxxviii. 
. 39-42. 

Brief notices on Monastic and Ecclesiastical Costume. 

Sussex Arch. Collns. xxxviii. 60-82. 
Grundreda, Countess of Warenne. Sussex Arch. Collns. 

xxxviii. 166-176. 
Duignan (W. H.). The will of Wulfgate of Donnington. Trans. 

Shropshire A. and N. H. S. 2nd S. iii. 36-40. 
Dunkin (E.). Presidential address. Boy. Inst. Corn. x. 303- 


Dunkin (E. H. W.). Calendar of deeds and documents in the 

possession of the Sussex Archaeological Society. Sussex Arch. 

Collns. xxxviii. 137-140. 
Dymond (C. W., E.S.A.). Barnscar; an ancient settlement in 

Cumberland. Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Antiq. and Arch. Soc. 

xii. 179-187. 

An ancient village near Yanwath, Westmorland; an 

ancient village in Hugill, Westmorland. Trans. Cumb. and 
Westm. Aniiq. and Arch. Soc. xii. 1-5, 6-14. 

Earwaker (J. P.). A small stone vessel from the inside of an 
early British urn fonnd in a barrow on a hill above 
Penmaenmawr, North Wales. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xiii. 

Roman inscriptions at Chester. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd 

S. xiii. 204-207. 

Recent discovery of urns at Penmaenmawr. Arch. 

' Cambrensis, 5th S. viii. 33-37. 

— Roman inscriptions at Chester. Arch. Cambrensis, 

5th S. viii. 77-73. 
Edwards (F. A.). Early Hampshire printers. Hants Field Club, 
J ii. 110-134. 



Elger (T. G.). Recent discoveries (Romano-Britisli) at Kempston 
near Bedford. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xiii. 240. 

Ellis (F.). Pottery and other remains found on Romano- 
British sites near Bristol. Proc. Clifton Antiq. Club, ii. 157- 

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Ballads in Ripon Minster Library. Yorks Arch, and 

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The St. Cuthbert window in York Minster. Yorks 

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Two English embroidered hangings. Proc. Soc. Antiq 

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Frazer (W.). A series of coloured drawings of scribed stones in 

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Irish half-timbered houses. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th 

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A contribution to Irish Anthropology. Boy. Soc. Antiq. 

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Description of a small bronze figure of a bird found in 

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Frazer (W.). Bog butter ; its history, with, observations ; a dish of 
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Old Scottish Crnsie. Ibid. 204. 

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The Union Jack. Arch. Jour, xlviii. 295-314. 

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Hipst (Rev. J.). Tombs in Crete of the age of Mycenas. Arch. 

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Hodgkin (T., D.C.L., F.S.A.). Opening Address of Historical 
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Suggestions for a new County History of Northumber- 
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Discovery of Roman Bronze Vessels at Prestwick Carr. 

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Hodgson (J. C). Presbyterian Meeting House at Branton. Arch, 
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Hodgson (T. Hesketh). Village Community in Cumberland, as 
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Dodsworth Yorkshire Notes. The Wapentake of Os- 

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Holmes (S.). The King's Meadows, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Arch. 
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Hooppell (Rev. R. E.). Discovery of a Roman altar at Binchester. 
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Early Stall Plates of the Knights of the Garter. 

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Ancient brass mace of Bidford, Warwickshire. Proc. 

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— Mediaeval sculptured tablets of alabaster called St. John's 

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Brass of a lady in Gedney Church, Lincolnshire. Proc. 

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Iago (Rev. W.). Recent discoveries in Cornwall, rock markings, 
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Discoveries in Repton Church, Derbyshire. Jour. 

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Jeffery (H. M.). Tudor Mansion at Trefusis in Mylor. Boy. 
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Jenkinson (F. H., M.A.). Fragment of a book printed at Cam- 
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Jourdain (Rev. F., M.A.). Chantries in Ashburne Church, Derby- 
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Kerry (Rev. C). Codnor Castle and its ancient owners. Jour. 
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Two Ancient Bristol Mansions, Romsey's House and 

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b 2 



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Leicester. Registers of St. Nicholas' Church, Leicester. Trans. 

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Arch, and N. H. Soc. xiv. 228-250. 
Ware (Mrs. Henry). Seals of the Bishops, etc., of Carlisle. 

Arch. Jour, xlviii. 341-353. 
On the seals of the Bishops of Carlisle, and other seals 

belonging to that diocese. Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Antiq. 

and Arch. Soc. xii. 212-227. 
Warren (Falkland). Coins found in Cyprus. Jour. Numis. 

Soc. 3rd S. xi. 140-151. 
Watkins (A.). Pigeon houses in Herefordshire and Gower. Arch. 

Jour, xlviii. 29-44. 
Watson (Geo.). A bay window in Penrith churchyard, with notes 

from the parish registers. Trans. Cumb. and Wesirn. Antiq 

and Arch. Soc. xii. 141-146. 


Weaver (Rev. F. W.). Thomas Chard, D.D., the last Abbot of 
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"Webb (B. D.). Conventicles and Peculiars of the Dean of Salis- 
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Weller (Geo.). The account of subscriptions to the present to 
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Westlake (N. H. J., F.S.A.). Ancient paintings in churches of 

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Whitaker (W.). Lockesley Camp. Hants Field Club, ii. 80. 
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Willson (T. J.). Inscribed font in St, Mary's Church, Stafford. 

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Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Antiq. and Arch. Soc. xii. 188-205. 
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vii. 157-168. 

Woodhouse (H. B. S.). Louis the Fourteenth and the Eddystone 

Lighthouse. Devon. Assoc. xxii. 250-254. 
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Worth (R. K). Twelfth Report of the Barrow Committee. 

Devon. Assoc. xxii. 49-52. 



Worth (R. N.). A hut cluster on Dartmoor. Devon. Assoc. xxii. 

Wroth (Warwick, F.S.A.). Greek coins acquired by the British 

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Aberhafesp, Owen. 

Albany, John of, Blanchet. 

Allen (Ralph), King. 

Altarnon (Cornwall), Malan. 

Animals (symbolic), Andre. 

Anthropology, Irish, Frazer ; see Folk- 

Antrim, Gray. 

Apache Indians, Bourke. 

Archaeology, Beddoe, Evans {J.), Willis- 

Architectural Antiquities : 

Domestic, Atkinson, Buckle, Frazer, 
Jackson, Jeffrey, Kershaw, Latimer, 
Manning, Middleton, Robinson, Tay- 

Eastern, Simpson. 

Ecclesiastical, Bag nail- Oakeley,Bellairs, 
Brewer, Brock, Browne (G. F.), Car- 
lisle, Chancellor, Clarke, Clarkson, 
Davys, Dollman, Irvine, Jourdain, 
Kerry, Kirby, Lang don, Lewis, 
Linkinhorne, Malan, Middleton, 
Morris, Nightingale, Nisbett, Norris, 
Porter, Poyntz, Price, Reeves, Sayer- 
Milward, Shimield, Talbot, Tarte, 
Taylor, Thoyts, Walker, Waller, 
Westlake, Willson. 
Military, Bruton; see " Castles." 
Public Buildings, Knowles, Stevens, 

Sassanian, Spiers. 
Sweden, Perry. 
Arden (Warw.), Fretton. 
Ardrass (Kildare), Fitzgerald, 
Arlington (Surrey), Powell. 
Arsenals and Armourers of South Ger- 
many, Cosson. 
Art, see " Bible illustrations," " Em- 
broidery," "Gems," " Portraits," 
" Pottery." 
Arthur (King), Clark (J.). 
Ashburne (Derbysh.), Jourdain. 
Athens, Westlake. 

Athlone, Langrishe. 
Austria, Cosson. 

Aylesford (Kent), Fvans (A. J.). 

Bainbrigge family, Fletcher. 
Ballads and Songs, Fowler (J. T.), Lati- 

Ballyknock (Cork), Barry. 

Barholm (Line.) , Irvine. 

Barnard Castle, Phillips. 

Barnscar (Cumberland), Dymond. 

Barri family, Duckett. 

Barrington (Som.), Batten, Helyar. 

Barsham, East (Norfolk), Martin. 

Barton (I.W.), Kirby. 

Bath (Som.), Church, Green. 

Battersea (Surrey), Browning, 

Battles, Holme, Leadman. 

Beads (Class), Hasse. 

Beanley Moor (Northumb.), Hardy (J.). 

Beckery (Somersetshire), Morland. 

Beddington (Surrey), Bax. 

Bedfordshire, see Elstow, Kempston. 

Bells, Doherty. 

Benefactions of Dean Heywood to Lich- 
field, Cox (J C). 

Berkeley (Lord, 1556), Peacock. 

Berkeley family, B agnail- Oak eley. 

Berkshire, Dasent {A. J.), Greenwell, 
Thoyts; see also Hurley, Shefford, 
Speen, Swallowfield, Wallingford. 

Berlin, Fly. 

Berrick (Oxon), Field. 

Berwickshire churches, Ferguson (J.). 

Bewcastle (Cumberland), Calverley, Fer- 

Bible illustrations, James. 

Bibliography, Aeland-Troyte, Boyle, 
Budge, Clark, Dredge, Ferguson, 
Hyett, Jenkinson, Latimer, Legg, 
Macan, MacMichael, Markham, 
Moens, Murphy, Norcliffe, Reeves, 
Stephenson, Wordsworth, Wylie. 

Bidford (Warw.), Hope. 



Billie Mire, Stuart. 

Binchester (Durham), Haverjield, Hoop- 

Blandford (Dorsetshire), Payne. 
Blymhill (Staffs), Bridgeman. 
Boxley (Kent), Cave-Browne. 
Bramante, School of, Geymuller. 
Bramham Moor (Yorks), Leadman. 
Brampton (Hunts), Middleton. 
Branton (Northumb.), Hodgson. 
Brendan (St.), Olden. 

Bristol (G-louc.), Barker, Bramble, Ellis, 
Hope, Kershaw, Latimer, Maclean, 
Norris, Taylor. 

Bromfield (North umb.), Calverley. 

Broxbourne, Tarte. 

Bruton (Somersets.), Hobhouse. 

Buckinghamshire, Cocks. 

Buckler's Hard (Hants), Godwin. 

Budleigh, East (Devonshire), Brushjield. 

Burghead, Mac Donald. 

Butter (Bog), Frazer. 

Caerwys, Owen. 

Callaly Castle (Northumb.), Hardy (J.). 

Cambridge, Atkinson, Browne, Clark 
(J. W.), Rye. 

Cambridgeshire, Middleton ; see' Cam- 
bridge, Hauxton, Linton. 

Camden (W.), Howard. 

Candlesticks (Domestic), Coivper, Ffrench, 

Canterbury, Morris. 

Capel (Surrey), Maiden. 

Cardiganshire, Willis-Bund; see Lam- 

Carew (N.), Bax. 

Carham Wark (Northumb.), Hardy. 
Carlisle (Cumb.) , Barrow-in-Furness, 

Bell, Ferguson, Ware. 
Carlisle diocese, Botoer. 
Carnarvonshire, see Penmaenmawr. 
Castile, England and, 14th cent., Morgan. 
Castillion (John Baptist), Money. 
Castles, Adamson, Davies- Cooke, Fowler, 

Fuller, Kerry, Murphy. 
Caucasus, Abercromby . 
Celtic and late-Celtic Remains : 

Cornwall, lago. 

Kent, Evans. 

Northants, Bead. 

Northumberland, Dixon. 

Scotland, Pitt- tiivers. 
Chard (Thomas), Weaver. 
Cheshire, Browne ; see also Chester. 
Chess, Cowper. 

Chester, Earwaker, Haverjield, Montagu. 
Chetwynd family, Wrottesley. 

Churchwardens' Accounts, Kemp, Lee, 

Cilicia Tracheia, Bent. 
Cilicia, Western, Hicks. 
Cirencester (Glouc), Fuller. 
Civil war incidents and history, Adamson, 

Bramble, Dillon, Hyett. 
Cleves, Brewer. 
Cobham (Kent), Waller. 
Codnor (Derby sh.), Kerry. 
Coquetdale, Dixon. 
Cork (County), see Ballyknock. 
Cornhill (Durham), Hardy. 
Cornwall, Enys, lago, Langdon, Sincock ; 

see Altarnon, Falmouth, Grlewias, 

Linkinhorne, Padstow, Pozo, St. 

Neots, Tintagel, Trefusis, Truro. 
Crannogs, Wakeman. 
Crafts, Phillips. 
Crete, Hirst. 

Crewkerne (Som.), Holme. 

Cridling Park (Yorks), Holmes. 

Crosses, Beloe, Calverley, Doherty, Fowler, 

Graves, Healy, Langdon, Pitt-Rivers, 

Crowland (Line), Canham. 
Croydon (Surrey), Stephenson. 
Cumberland, Cowper, Ferguson, Wilson; 

see also Barnscar, Bewcastle, Carlisle. 

Cuthbert (St.), Fowler. 
Cyprus, Evans (J.), Tubbs, Warren. 
Cyrene, Head. 

Dartmoor, Burnard, Prowse, Worth. 

Derbyshire, Cox, Hardy and Page, 
Ward ; see Ashburne, Codnor, Long- 
cliffe, Peak, Peverel, Bepton. 

Devonshire, Chanter, Dredge, Pearson, 
Phillips, Robinson, Strong, Worth; 
see Budleigb (East), Dartmoor, 
Raleigh, Staddon Heights, Teign- 
mouth, Withycombe, Winsford. 

Dhimitzana, Richards. 

Dialect, Cocks, Dartnell, Hickson. 

Dollar Ship of Gunwallo, Johns. 

Domestic utensils, Cowper, Ffrench, 
Franks, Vigors. 

Doncaster (Yorks), Fairbank. 

Dorchester (Oxon), Poyntz. 

Dorsetshire, Nightingale ; see Blandford. 

Dublin, Berry, Drew, Frazer, Wakeman. 

Dubnovellaunus, Evans (J.) 

Dudley (Robt.), Earl of Leicester, Dillon. 

Durden (Henry), Payne. 

Durham (City), Fowler, Montagu. 

Durham (co.), Barnes, Waller; see Bin- 
chester, Kelloe, Cornhill, Norton. 



Earthworks, Lines, Nevill, Whitaker, 

Eastbourne (Sussex), Michell- Whitley . 

Ecclesiastical Antiquities, Allen, Bower, 
Browne (G. F.), Cooper, Cripps, 
Dasent, Doherty, Duckett, Freshfield, 
Goddard, Henderson, Hope, Jour- 
dain, Lee, Legg, Maddison, Middle- 
ton, Morris, Nightingale, Robinson, 
Simpson, Tarver, Wordsworth. 

Eddystone Lighthouse, Woodhouse. 

Edinburgh, Hodgkin. 

Edward IV., Fortnum. 

Elizabeth (Queen), Scharf. 

Elland (Yorks), Baildon. 

Elstow (Beds), ClarJcson. 

Elwyndale, Freer. 

Ely, Wood. 

Embroidery, Franks. 

Es*ex, see Shenfield, Tiptofts. 

Evyngar (Andrew), Oliver. 

Ewloe (Flint), Davies-Cooke. 

Failand, Hudd. 

Falmouth, Norway. 

Ferney Castles, Stuart. 

Ferrar (N.), Acland-Troyte. 

Feuds (local), Baildon. 

Finns, Abercromby. 

Flint, Shrubsole. 

Flintshire, see Ewloe, Flint. 

Folklore, Abercromby, Balfour, Bourke, 
Budge, Dixon, Frazer, Qaster, 
Gomme, Gregor, Hartland, Jacobs, 
Jevons, MacDonald, Maxwell, Nutt 
Or dish, Owen, Rhys, St. John, Sibree, 
Tuer, Wood. 

Fonblanque (E. B. de), Clark (G. T). 

Forester family, Bridgeman. 

Forests, Fretton, Hobhouse, Yeatman. 

Franchville (I.W.), Fstcourt. 

GTalicia, Haver field. 
Games, Cowper, Higgins. 
Gargrave (Sir C), Cartwright. 
Gedney (Line), Foster, Hope. 
Gems, Middleton. 

Genealogy and family history, 
Batten, "C," Clark, Kerry, Langdale, 
Letois, Northumberland, Oliver, 
Phillips, Rye, Stephenson, Waller. 

George (St.), Budge. 

Germany, Cosson ; see Saalburg. 

Gidding, Little (Hunts), Acland-Troyte. 

Glasgow, Fyre. 

Glastonbury (Som.), Bulleid, Church, 

Clark (J.), Clothier, Grant, Hope. 
Glewias (Corn.), Enys. 

Gloucestershire, Davis, Taylor; see also 
Bristol, Cirencester, Langley, 
Spoonley Wood, Tewkesbury. 

Goodacre family, Goodacre. 

Goodwin (Harvey), Bishop of Carlisle 

Gower, Watkins. 

Grail, the, Gaster. 

Grammar Schools, Stevens, Tregellas. 
Greensteid, West, (Sussex), Andre. 
Greenwich (Kent), Dillon. 
Greystoke (Cumberland), Lees. 
Guildford (Surrey), Stevens, Waller. 
Guilds or Companies, Fmbleton, Hibbert. 
Gundreda, Countess of Warenne, Duckett. 

Hallaton (Leic), Bellairs. 

Hammond, mnp by, Clark {J. W.). 

Hampshire, Fdwards, Shore ; see also 
Barton (I.W.), Buckler's Hard, 
Lockerby, Monk's Sherborne, New- 
town (I.W.), Romsey, Silchester,j 
Southampton, Westmeon. 

Hanmer, Lee. 

Hardknott (Cumberland), Cowper. 
Harpswell (Line), Howlett. 
Hastings (Sussex), Gattie. 
Hauxton (Cambs), Hughes. 
Hawick (Scotland), Hardy. 
Heathfield (Yorks), Leadman. 
Helen (St.), Peacock. 
Henry VI., Peacock. 

Heraldry, Birch, " C." Cowper, Fly, 

Ferguson, Howard, Maddison, Paul. 
Herefordshire, Watkins; see Lingebrook. 
Heresy, documents relating to, Boughton.\ 
Heron (Sir N.), Burke. 
Heron (William), Stephenson. 
Herts, see Broxbourne, Hitchin, Mackery 

End, St. Albans, Someries, Wheat- 

hampstead, Youngsbury. 
Hexham (Northumb.), Cripps. 
Heywood (Thomas), Cox {J. C). 
Hitchin (Herts), Clarkson, Latchmore. 
Holy Island (Northumb.), Crossman. 
Howard (Lady), Smith. 
Howard (Lady), of Fitzford, Radford. 
Howard (R. L.), Fowler. 
Howden (Yorks), Fairbank. 
Howdenshire (Yorks), Hutchinson. 
Hunsbury, Read. 
Hunter (Christopher), Boyle. 
Huntingdonshire, see Brampton, Gidding, 

Hurley (Berks), Wethered. 

Iffley (Oxon), Drinkioater. 
Ilchester (Som-), Hope. 



Inishowen (Donegal), Doherty. 
Inscriptions, Alford, Crowther, Frazer 
(W.), G-adow. 

Cardiganshire, Willis-Bund. 

Cilicia, Hicks. 

Ogham, Barry, Browne, Graves, Manx. 
Roman, Haverfield, Iago, Rhys, West- 
Runic, Browne. 
Institutions, Gomme, Hibbert, Hodgson, 

Markham, Phear. 
Inventories, Cartwright, Hope, Legg. 
Ireland, Day, Knowles ; see also Antrim, 

Inishowen, Kerry, Lough Crew. 
Ironwork (wrought), Gardner. 
Ivy church (Wilts), Nightingale. 

James V. of Scotland, Blanchet. 
Jerusalem, Birch, Gillman, BTanauer, 

Schick, Simpson, Wray. 
Jocelin, Bishop, Church. 
Johnstone (John), of Catterie, Roberts. 
John the Baptist, Saint, Hope. 
Jutland, Magnusson. 

Kelloe (Durham), Fowler. 

Kempston (Beds), Flger, Smith. 

Kent, Payne ; see Aylesford, Boxley, 
Canterbury, Gobham, Greenwich, 
Penenden Heath, Plumstead. 

Kerry, Hickson. 

Keynsham (Som.), Hardman. 

Kildare, see Ardrass. 

Kill-Fothuir, Reeves. 

Killeger, Stokes. 

Lachish, Conder. 
Lacock (Wilts), Talbot. 
Lampeter (Card.), Davey. 
Langdale family, Langdale. 
Langley (Grlouc), Cox. 
Lebanon, Conder. 
Lee (Sir H.), Dillon. 

Leicester, Robert Dudley, Earl of, 

Leicester, Leicester, Montagu. 

Leicestershire, Goodacre, see also Halla- 
ton, Leicester, Lockington, Lutter- 
worth, Saxby. 

Lewes (Sussex), Sawyer. 

Lewes Island, Palmer. 

Lichfield (Staff.), Cox. 

Limpsfield (Surrey), Leveson-Goiver. 

Lincoln, Maddison, Venables. 

Lincolnshire, Balfour ; see Barholm, 
Crowland, Gedney, Harpswell, 
Revesby, Whaplode. 

Lingebrook (Heref.), Banks. 
Linkinhorne, Linkinhorne. 
Linton (Cambs), Fawcett. 
Llanveigan, Price. 
Lockerby (Hants), Whitaker. 
Lockington (Leic), Fletcher. 
London, Clode, Dillon, Fox, Oliver. 
Longcliffe (Derbyshire), Ward. 
Lothian, Russell. 
Lough Crew (Ireland), Frazer. 
Low Countries, Bax. 
Lubeck, Hill. 

Lutterworth (Leic), Clark (G. T.). 
Ly ng (Norfolk) , Middleton. 

Mackery End (Herts), Fowler. 

Mahanaim, Conder. 

Manorbeer fPemb.), Duckett. 

Man, Isle of, Manx, Rhys. 

Manningford Abbas, Nightingale. 

Manor Rolls, Phear. 

Marriage licenses, Norcliffe. 

Marston Moor (Yorks), Leadman. 

Mary, Queen of Scots, Scharf. 

Mason (John), My res. 

Mayor's Chapel, Bristol, Barker. 

Medieval Antiquities, Cosson, Dillon, 
Ferguson, Hartshorne, Iaao ; see also 
Architecture, Ecclesiastical Antiqui- 

Melrose (Roxb.), Hardy. 

Mertola (Portugal), Gadow. 

Middlesex, Brock ; see also London. 

Millom (Cumberland), Cowper. 

Monuments, effigies and tombs, Andre, 
Andrews, Bagnall-Oaketey, Barker, 
Cowper, Davis, Fairbank, Foster, 
Fowler. Hope, Howlett, Money, 
Oliver, Russell, Smith, Tarver, 

Monks Sherborne (Hants), Andrews. 
Mor, sister of St. David, O'Donoghue. 
Municipal Offices, Grant, Hope, Maclean. 
Museums and Collections, Hasse, Haver - 

field, Munro, Oliver, Payne. 
Music, Church, Acland-Troyte, Briggs, 

Waller ; see Organs. 
Muster rolls of troops, Bax. 
Mutinees, Norway. 
Mycenae, Hirst. 

Newcastle, Boyle, Embleton, Holmes, 
Hope, Knowles. 

Newtown (I.W.), Fstcourt. 

Norfolk, Bolingbroke, Manning ; see Bar- 
sham (East), Lyng, Norwich. 



North Tynedale (Northumb.), Hedley. 

Northamptonshire, see Hunsbury. 

Northumberland, Hedley, Hodgkin, Page, 
Waller; see also Beanley Moor, 
Branton, Bromfield, Callaly Castle, 
Carham Wark, Coquetdale, Hexham, 
Holy Island, Newcastle, North 
Tynedale, Prestwick Carr, Rocliffe. 
St. Cuthbert's Chapel, Simonside 
Hills, Sneep, Tynemouth, Working- 

Norton (Durham) , Longstaffe. 
Norwich (Norfolk), Bens leg, Manning, 

Nostell (Yorks), Cartwright. 
Numismatics, Howe. 

British coins, Evans, Latchmore. 

Cyprus, Warren. 

Cyrene, Head. 

Durham pennies, Montagu. 

Greek, Wroth. 

Grupta coins, Rapson. 

Henry VII., Packe. 

James V. (Scotland), Planchet. 

Medals, Pell, Bag, Frazer, Grueber. 

Roman, 'Evans, Hudd, Soames, Thur- 

Saxon mints, Montagu. 
Trade tokens, Williamson. 
William I., Crowther. 
William II., Crotvther. 
15th century, Lawrence. 

Ockley (Surrey), Pax. 
Oldfield (Mrs.), Arnold. 
Olethan (Pemb.), Duckett. 
Organs, Hill. 

Osgoldcross Wapentake (Yorks), Holmes 

Otter traps, ancient, Puick. 
Oxford, Prodrick, Pruton, Prinkwater, 

Oxfordshire, see Berrick, Dorchester, 
Iffley, Oxford, Witney. 

Padstow (Cornw.), Langdon. 

Paintings (Mural), Andre, Linkin- 

horne, Waller. 
Parish accounts, Pax, Prinkwater, Le- 


Peak forest, Yeatman. 
Pellatt family, Phillips. 
Pembrokeshire, see Manorbeer, Olethan. 
Penenden Heath (Kent), Cave-Prowne. 
Penmaen-in-G-ower (Glamorg.), Allen. 
Penmaenmawr (Carn.), Earwaker. 
Penryn (Cornwall), Enys. 

Percy family, Clark (G. T.). 

Peverel, Kerry. 

Pipes, tobacco, Hall {T. M.). 

Piscinas, Power. 

Pitney (Som.), Hayward. 

Pitt, William, King. 

Photographic survey of Somerset, Allen. 

Plague, records of the, Parnes. 

Plays, preElizabethan, Polingbroke, 

Plumstead, Payne. 
Portraits, Payne, Scharf. 
Portugal, Gadow. see also Mertola. 
Pottery, Ellis, Petrie. 
Pozo (Cornwall), Crowther. 
Prehistoric Remains : 

Berks, Greenwell. 

Cheshire, Prowne (G. F.). 

Cornwall, Iago. 

Cumberland, Pixon, Pymond, Fer- 

Cup-marked stones, Hall. 
Devonshire,' Prushfield, Purnard. 
Herts, Evans. 

Ireland, Pay, Frazer, Knowles, Mil- 

ligan, Mulcahy, Wakeman. 
Jade, Hilton, Rudler. 
Jutland, Magnusson. 
North Downs, Spurrell. 
Northumberland, Dixon, Hedley. 
Pottery, Pnick. 

Scotland, MacPonald, Palmer. 

Surrey, Nevill. 

Wales, Earw&ker, Owen. 

Westmorland, Ferguson {Chancellor) . 

Wilts, Plackmore, Greenwell, Lewis, 
Pitt-Rivers, Short. 

York, Greentoell. 
Prestwick Carr (Northumb.), Hodgkin. 
Printers, Edwards, Jenkinson. 

Quarter Sessions Records, Parnes, Wake- 

Ramsbury (Wilts), Paber. 

Registers, Church, Pax, Hayward, Hoven- 
den, Leicester, Minet. 

Repton (Derbysh.), Lrvine. 

Revesby (Line), Hope, Stanhope. 

Richard I. pedes finium temp., Proton. 

Richmond (Survey), Smith. 

Rings, Fortnum, Waller. 

Ripon (Yorks), Foivler. 
I Roads. Peloe. 

Rocliffe (Northumb.), Calverhy. 
I Roger, Bishop of Sarum, Church. 



Roman Remains : 

Antiquities, JEvans, Murray, Nichols. 
Bath, Green. 

Binchester, Raverfield, Hoopell. 
Chester, Earwaker, Raverfield. 
Cornwall, Iago. 
Cumberland, Ferguson. 
Glastonbury, Clothier. 
Gloucestershire, Ellis. 
Hants, Fox, Jones. 
Kempston, Elger. 
Kent, Payne. 
London, Fox. 
Pottery, Cuming, Ellis. 
Prestwick Carr, Rodgkin. 
Ratisbon, Lewis. 
Road, Beloe. 
Rome, Middleton. 
S. India, Thurston. 

Spoonley Wood (Grloucester), Middle- 

Surrey, Leveson-Gower. 

Sussex, Michell- Whitley. 

Westmorland, Ferguson {Chancellor). 
Romsey (Hants), Davies. 
Roscommon Castle, Murphy. 
Rotherham (Yorks), Brooke. 
Rudbert (Saint), Frazer. 
Ruyton (Shropshire), Kenyon. 

Saalburg, Price. 

St. Albans (Herts), Clarkson, Fowler. 

St. Cuthbert's Chapel (Northumb.), Cross- 

St. JSTeots (Corn.), Lefroy. 

St. Reyne, Norris. 

St. White, Norris. 

Salzburg (Austria) , Frazer. 

Samoan stories, Abercromby, 

Savaric, Bishop, Church. 

Sawston Hall, Middleton. 

Saxby (Leic), Cox. 

Saxon Remains, Montagu, Sawyer. 

Cornwall, Iago. 

East Shefford, Money. 

Saxby, Cox. 
Scarborough (Yorks), Hope. 
Scotland, see Edinburgh, Glasgow, 

Hawick, Melrose. 
Scijlptiike, Holmes, Simonds. 

Alabaster panels, Bensly. 

Christian (early), Allen. 

Sicilian Museum, Munro. 

Wooden figures, Barrow-in-Furness, 
Seals, Cox, Eyre, Nightingale, Porter, 

Selattyn (Shropshire), Bulkeley Owen. 
Selwyn family, Codrington. 
Seville (Spain), Clarke. 
Shefford, East (Berks), Money. 
Shenfield (Essex), Chancellor. 
Shengay, Shimield. 

Shrewsbury, Blakeway, Drinkwater, Phil- 

Shropshire, Phillips ; see Ruyton, Selat- 
tyn, Shrewsbury, Titterstone. Willey. 

Silch ester (Hants), Fox and Rope, Jones. 

Simonside Hills (Northumb.), Dixon. 

Sligo, Milligan. 

Sneep (Northumb.), Redley. 

Someries (Herts), Fowler. 

Somerset, Allen, Clarke (J. F. M.), Rob- 
house ; see also Barrington, Bath, 
Beckery, Bruton, Crewkerne, Eord, 
Glastonbury, Ilchester, Keynsham, 
Pitney, Wells. 

Southampton, Skelton. 

Southwark (Surrey), D oilman. 

Spain, Clarke. 

Speen (Berks), Money. 

Spoonley Wood (Gloucester), Middleton. 

Sporting, Wilson. 

Staddon Heights (Devonshire), Rome. 
Stafford, Willson. 

Staffordshire, Bridgeman, Wrottesley ; 
see also Blymhill, Lichfield. 

Stamford Bridge (Yorks), Leadman. 

Stoke D'Abernon (Surrey), Stephenson. 

Streatham (Surrey), Tarver. 

Strelley family, Kerry. 

Strode family, Batten, Relyar. 

Suffolk, Henry, Duke of, Clark. 

Surrey, Cooler, Crisp, Roward, Lewis, 
Williamson ; see also Battersea, Bed- 
dington, Capel, Croydon, Guildford, 
Limpsfield, Ockley, Richmond, South- 
wark, Stoke D'Abernon, Streatham, 
Wandsworth, Wimbledon. 

Sussex, Andre, Codrington, Fenton, MU 
chell-Whitley ; see also Arlington, 
Eastbourne, Hastings, Lewes, Town- 
creep, West Grinstead. 

Swallowfield, Russell. 

Sweden, Perry. 

Sword belts, Hartshorne. 

Tanagra, Rome. 
Tavistock (Devon), Alford. 
Teignmouth (Devonshire), Lake, Rotoe. 
Tewkesbury, Porter. 
Thebes (Egypt), Budge. 
Thomond, Westropp. 
Thompson (S.) , Roward. 
Tintagel (Cornw.), Iago. 

40 INDEX. 

Tiptofts (Essex), Middleton. 
Titterstone Camp (Shropshire), Lines. 
Tobacco, Hall, Hardy. 
Tower of London, the, Dillon. 
Towers, round, B agnail- Oak eley. 
Towncreep (Sussex), Tatham. 
Transilvania, Haverfield. 
Trefusis, Jeffrey. 

Truro (Cornwall), Tregellas, Whitley. 
Tynemouth Castle (Northumb.), Adam- 

Union Jack, Green. 

Vergil (P.)> Ferguson. 
"Vergil (Saint), Frazer. 
Yeysy family, Atkinson. 
Vincent (Aug.), Hotuard. 

Wakefield (Yorks), Leadman, Walker. 

Wallingford. (Berks), Harrison, Hedges, 

Wandsworth (Surrey), Kershaw, Stephen- 

Warwickshire, Fretton ; see also Arden, 

Water supply, ancient systems, Berry. 
Wells (Somerset), Buckle, Church. 
West Meon, Nisbett. 
Westminster, Dillon. 
Westmorland, Cowper, Taylor. 
Whaplode (Line), Foster, Grueher. 

Wheathampstead (Herts), Davys. 

Wight, Isle of, see Hants. 

Willey (Shropshire), Bridgeman. 

William I., Crowther. . 

William II., Crowther, 

Willibald (Saint), Brownlow. 

Wills, Crisp, Duignan, Manning, Soanies. 

Wilts, Lewis, Greenioell ; see also Ivy- 
church, Lacock, Manningford Abbas, 
Ramsbury, Woodyates. 

Wimbledon (Surrey), Jackson, Nevill. 

Winsford Hill (Devonshire), Rhys. 

Winwood (Yorks), Leadman. 

Withy combe Raleigh (Devonshire),_Br«<sA- 

Witney (Oxon), Crowther, Norris. 
Woodyates (Wilts), Gar son. 
Workington (Cumberland), Calverley. 
Wulfgate of Donnington, Duignan, 

Yanwath (Cumberland), Dymond. 

York, Fowler. 

Yorke (Sir J.), Clode. 

Yorkshire, Brown, Greenwell ; see also 
Bramham Moor, Cridling Park, Don- 
caster Deanery. Elland, Heathfield, 
Howden, Marston Moor, Nostell,- 
Osgoldcross Wapentake, Ripon, 
Rotherham, Scarborough, Stamford 
Bridge, Wakefield, Winwood, York. 

Yorkshire (E. R.), Allen. 

Youngsbury (Herts), Fvans (J.). 

4 r